Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 6
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Pendergast, Laura L. Vandiver, Beverly J. Schaefer, Barbara A. Cole, Pamela M. Murray-Kolb, Laura E. and Christian, Parul 2014. Factor Structure of Scores from the Conners' Rating Scales–Revised Among Nepali Children. International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, Vol. 2, Issue. 4, p. 261.

    So, Jon 2014. ‘Fighting a war alone’: reintegration of ex-offenders from ethnic minority groups. China Journal of Social Work, Vol. 7, Issue. 1, p. 64.

    Chernyak, Nadia Kushnir, Tamar Sullivan, Katherine M. and Wang, Qi 2013. A Comparison of American and Nepalese Children's Concepts of Freedom of Choice and Social Constraint. Cognitive Science, Vol. 37, Issue. 7, p. 1343.

    Friedlmeier, Wolfgang Corapci, Feyza and Cole, Pamela M. 2011. Emotion Socialization in Cross-Cultural Perspective. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, Vol. 5, Issue. 7, p. 410.

    Kohrt, Brandon A. Speckman, Rebecca A. Kunz, Richard D. Baldwin, Jennifer L. Upadhaya, Nawaraj Acharya, Nanda Raj Sharma, Vidya Dev Nepal, Mahendra K. and Worthman, Carol M. 2009. Culture in psychiatric epidemiology: Using ethnography and multiple mediator models to assess the relationship of caste with depression and anxiety in Nepal. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 36, Issue. 3, p. 261.

    Trommsdorff, Gisela 2009. Culture and Development of Self-Regulation. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, Vol. 3, Issue. 5, p. 687.

  • Print publication year: 2006
  • Online publication date: August 2009

7 - Emotional Aspects of Peer Relations Among Children in Rural Nepal

from Part II - Temperamental and Emotional Influences on Peer Relationships


The quality of relationships between any two people in any culture determines and is determined by emotional factors. Attraction, rejection, attachment, conflict, trust, jealousy, and intimacy all reflect emotional dimensions of relationships. Friendships and peer interactions require emotional skill and also contribute to children's general social and emotional adjustment (Parker et al., 1995). Peer relations are thought to be unique because they are formed with persons who are close in age and developmental status and are more egalitarian than other relationships (Hartup & Moore, 1990; Ladd, 1988). Friendships are regarded as voluntary and based on a mutual decision to form a relationship (Ladd, 1988; Rubin, Bukowski, & Parker, 1998). Peers teach unique skills to each other (e.g., negotiation and conflict management), when neither partner is the designated authority. Therefore, peer relationships provide a context for behaving in ways that might not exist within the family (Hartup & Sancilio, 1986; Sullivan, 1953).

The definition of peers as nonfamilial, reciprocal relationships of choice with persons close in age requires some additional consideration due to cultural variations in what constitutes a family and a peer, and in what constitutes choice and reciprocity. In the small Himalayan kingdom of Nepal, all persons, including peers, are regarded in familial terms. Moreover, among persons of the same age, every relationship is hierarchical; even children determine and behave according to their rank relative to each other.

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Peer Relationships in Cultural Context
  • Online ISBN: 9780511499739
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
Asendorpf, J. B. (1991). Development of inhibited children's coping with unfamiliarity. Child Development, 62, 1460–1474.
Barrett, K. C., & Campos, J. J. (1987). Perspectives on emotional development II: A functionalist approach to emotions. In Osofsky, J. (Ed.), Handbook of infant development (2nd ed., pp. 555–578). New York: Guilford Press.
Benjamin, W., Schneider, B., Greenman, P., & Hum, M. (2001). Conflict and childhood friendship in Taiwan and Canada. Candadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 33, 203–211.
Bennett, L. (1983). Dangerous wives, sacred sisters: Social and symbolic roles of high-caste women in Nepal.New York: Columbia University Press.
Berndt, T. J. (1996). Exploring the effects of friendship quality on social development. In Bukowski, W. M. (Eds.), The company they keep: Friendship in childhood and adolescence (pp. 346–365). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1986). Ecology of the family as a context for human development: Research perspectives. Developmental Psychology, 22, 723–742.
Calkins, S., Gill, K., Johnson, M., & Smith, C. (1999). Emotional reactivity and emotion regulation strategies as predictors of social behavior with peers during toddlerhood. Social Development, 8, 310–334.
Cameron, M. M. (1998). On the edge of the ausipicious: Gender and caste in Nepal. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Central Bureau of Statistics. (2003). Population monograph of Nepal, volume 1. Kathmandu, Nepal: His Majesty's Government.
Chen, X., Rubin, K., & Li, Z. (1995). Social functioning and adjustment in Chinese children: A longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 31, 531–539.
Cole, P. M., Bruschi, C., & Tamang, B. L. (2002). Cultural differences in children's emotional reactions to difficult situations. Child Development, 73, 983–996.
Cole, P. M., & Tamang, B. L. (1998). Nepali children's ideas about emotional displays in hypothetical challenges. Developmental Psychology, 34, 640–646.
Cole, P. M., Tamang, B. L., & Shrestha, S. (in press). Cultural socialization of young children's emotions in rural Nepal. Child Development.
Contreras, J. M., Kerns, K. A., Weimer, B. L., Gentzler, A. L., & Tomich, P. L. (2000). Emotion regulation as a mediator of associations between mother-child attachment and peer relationships in middle childhood. Journal of Family Psychology, 14, 111–124.
Cozort, D. (1995). “Cutting the roots of virtue:” Tsongkhapa on the results of anger. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 2, 83–104,
Denham, S. A. (1998). Emotional development in young children. New York: Guilford Press.
Desjarlais, R. R. (1992). Body and emotion: The aesthetics of illness and healing in the Nepal Himalayas. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Eid, M., & Diener, E. (2001). Norms for experiencing emotions in different cultures: Inter- and intranational differences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 869–885.
Fricke, T. E. (1986). Himalayan households: Tamang demography and domestic processes. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Fung, H. (1999). Becoming a moral child: The socialization of shame among young Chinese children. Ethos, 27, 180–209.
Furman, W., & Bierman, K. (1983). Developmental changes in young children's conceptions of friendship. Child Development, 54, 549–556.
Gautam, R., & Thapa-Magar, A. (1994). Tribal ethnography of Nepal (Vols. I and II).Delhi, India: Book Faith India.
Goleman, D. (Ed.). (2003). Destructive emotions: How can we overcome them?New York: Bantam Books.
Gurung, H. (1998). Nepal: Social demography and expressions. Kathmandu, Nepal: New Era.
Gurung, H. (2003). Social demography of Nepal. Kathmandu, Nepal: Himal Books.
Han, G., & Park, B. (1995). Children's choices in conflict: Application of the theory of individualism-collectivism. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 26, 298–313.
Harris, P. L., Olthof, T., Terwogt, M. M., & Hardman, C. E. (1987). Children's knowledge of the situations that provoke emotion. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 10, 319–343.
Hartup, W. W., & Moore, , (1990). Early peer relations: Developmental significance and prognostic implications. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 5, 1–17.
Hartup, W. W., & Sancilio, M. F. (1986). Children's friendships. In Schopler, E. & Mesibov, G. B. (Eds.), Social behavior in autism (pp. 61–80). New York: Plenum.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's consequences (2nd ed.). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Holmberg, D. H. (1989). Order and paradox: Myth, ritual, and exchange among Nepal's Tamang. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Kinsley, D. R. (1993). Hinduism: A cultural perspective, 2nd edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Kitayama, S., & Markus, H. R. (1994). Emotion and culture: Empirical studies of mutual influence. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Ladd, G. (1988). Friendship patterns and peer status during early and middle childhood. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 9, 229–238.
Lama-Tamang, M. S. (2004). Indigenous peoples of Nepal and human rights. In Human rights year book 2004 (pp. 121–146). Kathmandu, Nepal:Informal Sector Service Center.
Lemerise, E., & Arsenio, W. (2000). An integrated model of emotion processes and cognition in social information processing. Child Development, 71, 107–118.
MacDonald, A. W. (1989). Notes on language, literature and cultural identity of Tamang. Kailash, 15, 165–190.
Maguire, M. C., & Dunn, J. (1997). Friendships in early childhood, and social understanding. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 21, 669–686.
March, K. S. (1987). Hospitality, women and efficacy of beer. Food and Foodways, 1, 351–387.
March, K. S. (2002). If each comes halfway: Meeting Tamang women in Nepal. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Markus, H., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, motivation, and emotion. Psychological Review, 98, 224–253.
Mesquita, B. (2001). Emotions in collectivist and individualist contexts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 68–74.
Mesquita, N., & Fridja, N. H. (1992). Cultural variations in emotions: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 179–204.
Miller, P. J. (1996). Instantiating culture through discourse practices: Some personal reflections on socialization and how to study it. In Jessor, R., Colby, A., & Shweder, R. A. (Eds.), Ethnography and human development: Context and meaning in social inquiry (pp. 183–204). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Ministry of Education and Sports. (2003). Education for all 2004–2009: Core document. Kathmandu, Nepal: His Majesty's Government.
Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. A. (1987). Peer relations and later personal adjustment: Are low-accepted children at risk?Psychological Bulletin, 102, 357–389.
Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. A. (1993). Friendship and friendship quality in middle childhood: Links with peer group acceptance and feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction. Developmental Psychology, 29, 611–621.
Parker, J. G., & Gottman, J. M. (1989). Social and emotional development in a relational context: Friendship interaction from early childhood to adolescence. In Berndt, T. J. & Ladd, G. W. (Eds.), Peer relationships in child development (pp. 95–131). New York: Wiley.
Parker, J. G., Rubin, K. H., Price, J. M., & DeRosier, M. E. (1995). Peer relationships, child development, and adjustment: A developmental psychopathology perspective. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 2. Risk, disorder, and adaptation (pp. 96–161). New York: Wiley.
Regmi, M. C. (1978). Thatched huts and stucco palaces: Peasants and landlords in nineteenth century Nepal. New Delhi, India: Vikash.
Rothbaum, F., Pott, M., Azuma, H., Miyake, K., & Weisz, J. (2000). The development of close relationships in Japan and the United States: Paths of symbiotic harmony and generative tension. Child Development, 71, 1121–1142.
Rubin, K., Bukowski, W., & Parker, J. (1998). Peer interactions, relationships, and groups. In Damon, W. (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (vol. 4, pp. 619–700). New York: Wiley.
Skinner, D., Pach, A., & Holland, D. C. (1998). Selves in time and place: Identities, experiences, and history in Nepal. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Sullivan, H. S. (1953). The interpersonal theory of psychiatry. New York: W. W. Norton.
Super, C. M., & Harkness, S. (1993). The developmental niche: A conceptualization at the interface of child and culture. In Pierce, R. A. & Black, M. A. (Eds.), Life-span development: A diversity reader (pp. 61–77). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
Triandis, H. C. (1994). Culture and social behavior. Champaign, IL: McGraw-Hill.
Weisner, T. S. (2002). Ecocultural pathways, family values, and parenting. Parenting: Science and Practice, 2, 325–334.
Zeman, J., & Garber, J. (1996). Display rules for anger, sadness, and pain: It depends on who is watching. Child Development, 67, 953–973.