Skip to main content
The Cambridge History of Later Medieval Philosophy
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 18
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Marenbon, John 2016. Relations and the Historiography of Medieval Philosophy. British Journal for the History of Philosophy, Vol. 24, Issue. 3, p. 387.

    Tiles, Mary and Yuan, Jinmei 2016. Recognizing the existence of Chinese Logic. International Communication of Chinese Culture, Vol. 3, Issue. 2, p. 305.

    Macagno, Fabrizio Mayweg-Paus, Elisabeth and Kuhn, Deanna 2015. Argumentation Theory in Education Studies: Coding and Improving Students’ Argumentative Strategies. Topoi, Vol. 34, Issue. 2, p. 523.

    Nicholas, Lucy R. 2015. Roger Ascham'sDefence of the Lord's Supper. Reformation, Vol. 20, Issue. 1, p. 26.

    Macagno, Fabrizio and Zavatta, Benedetta 2014. Reconstructing Metaphorical Meaning. Argumentation, Vol. 28, Issue. 4, p. 453.

    2013. John Edwards (1637-1716) on Human Free Choice and Divine Necessity.

    Crocker, Holly A 2012. Communal Conscience in William Tyndale’sObedience of a Christian Man. Exemplaria, Vol. 24, Issue. 1-2, p. 143.

    Beukes, Johann 2011. ‘God kan net doen wat God wel doen’: Petrus Abelardus se Megariaanse argument in Theologia ‘Scholarium’, Opera Theologica III. HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies, Vol. 67, Issue. 1,

    Tether, Leah 2010. Perceval’s Puerile Perceptions: The First Scene of the Conte du Graal as an Index of Medieval Concepts of Human Development Theory. Neophilologus, Vol. 94, Issue. 2, p. 225.

    KLIMA, GYULA and SANDU, GABRIEL 2008. Numerical Quantifiers in game-theoretical semantics. Theoria, Vol. 56, Issue. 3, p. 173.

    Bose, Mishtooni 2006. palgrave advances in intellectual history.

    Dascal, Marcelo 1997. Critique Without Critics?. Science in Context, Vol. 10, Issue. 01,

    Inglis, John 1997. Philosophical autonomy and the historiography of medieval philosophy. British Journal for the History of Philosophy, Vol. 5, Issue. 1, p. 21.

    García-Ballester, Luis 1995. The Construction of a New Form of Learning and Practing Medicine in Medieval Latin Europe. Science in Context, Vol. 8, Issue. 01,

    1995. Reviews. European Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 3, Issue. 2, p. 201.

    Allen, V. 1993. Portrait of a lady: Blaunche and the descriptive tradition. English Studies, Vol. 74, Issue. 4, p. 324.

    Panaccio, Claude 1992. La philosophie au xive siècle. Dialogue, Vol. 31, Issue. 03, p. 363.

    Panaccio, Claude 1987. Nominalisme occamiste et nominalisme contemporain. Dialogue, Vol. 26, Issue. 02, p. 281.

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Cambridge History of Later Medieval Philosophy
    • Online ISBN: 9781139055154
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

This 1982 book is a history of the great age of scholastism from Abelard to the rejection of Aristotelianism in the Renaissance, combining the highest standards of medieval scholarship with a respect for the interests and insights of contemporary philosophers, particularly those working in the analytic tradition. The volume follows on chronologically from The Cambridge History of Later Greek and Early Medieval Philosophy, though it does not continue the histories of Greek and Islamic philosophy but concentrates on the Latin Christian West. Unlike other histories of medieval philosophy that divide the subject matter by individual thinkers, it emphasises the parts of more historical and theological interest. This volume is organised by those topics in which recent philosophy has made the greatest progress.


‘The Cambridge History of Later Medieval Philosophy brings together in one volume an impressively large number of short essays [which] … serve as exemplars of the proper way to ‘foster a … mutually beneficial relationship between medieval philosophy and contemporary philosophy’ … The authors combine their own ample creative insight into significant philosophical issues with a deep understanding of and appreciation for what their medieval interlocutors had to say about those issues. The editors … provide a fine general introduction to medieval philosophical literature and to the difficulties it poses for the contemporary reader, specialist and nonspecialist alike.’

Source: The Journal of Philosophy

    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

Page 1 of 3

  • I - Medieval philosophical literature
    pp 9-42
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Medieval philosophical literature is closely associated with medieval schools and universities as well as with the material and psychological conditions prevailing at these institutions. Already in the twelfth century schools tended to specialise in certain studies. Paris and central France, for example, became famous for their teaching in logic and theology, Bologna for civil and canon law. This chapter emphasises the oral aspect of medieval philosophical literature. In another sense, however, medieval teaching was very much dependent on books. From university statutes students can gather that Arts disputations were normal and that attendance at and participation in disputations were required before receiving a degree. Even the most technical reports of medieval disputations can sometimes be relieved by glimpses of the tumult of actual disputation. Manuscripts and their errors are not only a problem for the medieval user and the modern editor of a medieval text, they are also a problem for any user of modern editions.
  • 2 - Aristoteles latinus
    pp 43-79
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    All of Aristotle's works were translated into Latin in the Middle Ages and nearly all were intensely studied. An examination of the medieval Latin Aristotle considers the genuine works of Aristotle, and also deals with works credited to Aristotle in the Middle Ages although now believed to be spurious. Biographical information about most medieval authors is scarce, and this is particularly true of the translators. The references to Boethius' translation, to James of Venice's translation and to the deplorable state of affairs in France are intriguing. The literal method of translating was made possible by the basic similarity of the languages, and it served its purpose well enough. It seems likely that the 'logica nova' and the new Aristotle were being lectured on in Oxford and Paris in the first decade of the thirteenth century. In the increasing elaboration of the glosses one can trace the growing self-confidence and sophistication of subsequent generations of readers.
  • 3 - The medieval interpretation of Aristotle
    pp 80-98
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The question of the interpretation of Aristotle in the Middle Ages must be dealt with within the context of the medieval conception of science. Clerical science was accordingly the corporate transmission of traditional wisdom. Boethius' translations were, so to speak, an historical accident and could have but little influence, not only in the final phase of classical civilisation, but also in the monastic schools of the early Middle Ages. In Barcelona, in the Archives of the Crown of Aragon, there is a thirteenth-century manuscript which contains a manual or guidebook for students in the arts faculty in Paris. What came to be known as the Averroistic controversy in the 1260s and 70s led to some of the most intransigent formulations of the masters' own understanding of their role. This chapter shows that medieval exegesis had been concerned with the Bible. In the Aristotelian logic Thomas found prescriptions for the ordering of theological doctrine as a strict science.
  • 4 - Ancient scholastic logic as the source of medieval scholastic logic
    pp 99-127
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Medieval logic grew out of the school curriculum; consequently, one characteristic vehicle of it was the commentary on a schoolbook. 'Scholastic' properly characterises philosophers who approach their task in the way men did in medieval Western Europe, but scholasticism in this sense was neither a medieval nor a Western invention. The Greeks had written commentaries on classical authors before the second century AD, but scholasticism did not really conquer philosophy till then. With a few exceptions it was the 'Roman course' that determined which Latin books on logic were handed down to the Middle Ages. Priscian's grammatical theory is Apollonian, as he himself admits. Like all ancient grammars, that of Apollonius Dyscolus was not historical. Everyone agrees that Porphyry influenced posterity very much, but little has been done in modern times by way of reconstructing Porphyry the logician. The medievals read Greek grammatical theory in Priscian.
  • 5 - Predicables and categories
    pp 128-142
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Prominent among the antecedents of medieval philosophy, particularly of logic and philosophy of language, are two logical works of Aristotle's, namely De interpretation and Categories. An explanation of a substantial inheritance requires a brief excursion into the history of the terminology central to the Isagoge and the Categories. In his commentary on Porphyry, Boethius discusses the Porphyrian 'tree' which takes the category substance as genus generalissimum and uses the predicables to divide substance into a hierarchically ordered series of genera and species. It has long been customary to allocate words to diverse 'parts of speech' or 'semantic categories', including noun, verb, preposition, and participle. Appellatio is for Anselm that facet of meaning whereby a name in actual use points to its referents; in the case of paronyms these may be constant in kind or varied. The work of Anselm in logical and linguistic theory has, until recently, been completely overshadowed by his acknowledged accomplishments in theology and metaphysics.
  • 6 - Abelard and the culmination of the old logic
    pp 143-158
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Of all the scholastic logicians writing while the old logic was still virtually the whole of the logical curriculum in the schools, Abelard is generally conceded to have been the most profound and original. For Abelard logic also had a close relation to physica, since in explaining the 'uses of words' the logician must investigate in a general way the 'properties of things' which the mind uses words to signify. This relationship leads to a concern with the psychology of signification, and with ontology. Throughout his logical works Abelard frequently deploys terms and analyses borrowed from grammar and generally view his own dialectical enterprise as deepening and to some extent correcting what grammar has already begun. The conception of dialectic and grammar as overlapping in interests would be difficult if not impossible had Abelard not taken words to be the subject matter of logic.
  • 7 - The origins of the theory of the properties of terms
    pp 159-173
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Beginning as early as the eleventh century, the relationship between thought and language was a focal point of medieval thought. Thought was considered to be linguistically constrained by its very nature; thought and language were taken to be related both to each other and to reality in their elements and their structure. The contextual approach plays a most fundamental role in all stages of the development, sometimes to such an extent that it is no longer the appellative noun but the 'terminus' that has become the special linguistic element in the focus of the theory. Accidental supposition, the complement of natural supposition, is the acceptance of the same common term for only those individuals determined by what is adjoined to the term. Most authors do not discuss copulation as extensively as Sherwood does. The notions of appellation, ampliation, and restriction are of major importance.
  • 8 - The Oxford and Paris traditions in logic
    pp 174-187
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Terminist logic grew to maturity in the period 1175-1250, a period that was also crucially important in the development of the universities of Paris and of Oxford. The Fallacie Parvipontane offers a division of univocation that obviously underlies the division of supposition which was subsequently introduced in the early treatises from Oxford. During the Summulist period, the contrast between Oxford and Continental doctrines increased. The Parisian doctrine essentially represented by Peter of Spain's Tractatus definitely sets the notion of natural supposition in the forefront, while that of appellation is relegated to the background. In Oxford, William of Sherwood was developing a doctrine of supposition and appellation founded on a syntactical definition of supposition as 'the ordering of some thought under some other thought. In his Oxford treatise Summule dialectices Roger Bacon mentions two opposed views on the nature of appellation. In the second half of the thirteenth century, logic at Paris was dominated by the 'Modist' approach.
  • 9 - The semantics of terms
    pp 188-196
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Medieval philosophers and logicians used the word 'term' in several senses, two of which are especially pertinent to this discussion. There are two basic properties for the medieval semantics of terms: signification and supposition. Taking their cue from De interpretatione I, 3-8 and from Augustine's De trinitate, XV, 10-11, most logicians held that there are three kinds of terms: written, spoken, and mental. Terms were divided into categorematic words, those that can serve by themselves as terms in the strictest sense, and syncategorematic words, those, such as conjunctions and prepositions, that enter into propositions only along with categorematic words. The theory of categorematic words was complicated by the notion of 'secondary signification' or 'connotation', a notion closely related to Anselm's theory of paronymy. In order to accommodate tense and modality, the theory of supposition proper included a theory of 'ampliation'.
  • 10 - The semantics of propositions
    pp 197-210
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The author of the Ars Meliduna employed a terminological distinction to mark the difference in assertive force between propositions uttered by themselves and propositions in so far as they are part of compound statements. As in the case of incomplexa, or terms, it was held that there are three kinds of propositions: written, spoken, and mental. Written and spoken declarative sentences and their mental images were contrasted with the corresponding thoughts, which were seen as belonging to a sort of universal mental language. Both in the Logica 'Ingredientibus' and in the Dialectica Abelard draws a sharp distinction between mere predication and the act of asserting. The interpretation of a proposition as a sentence-token was supported by the Boethian definition of a proposition as a combination of words which signifies something true or false. As to the question of the bearers of logical relations, an interesting distinction is found in the Tractatus Anagnini.
  • 11 - Syncategoremata, exponibilia, sophismata
    pp 211-245
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The notion of syncategoremata that became important in medieval logic was, however, both narrower and broader than that comparatively orderly classification in terms of the parts of speech. The logicians' interest in syncategoremata began to flourish, naturally enough, in the rise of the logica moderna, stimulated by the recovery of Aristotle's treatise on fallacies around the middle of the twelfth century. Focusing on standard elements through all the texts that contain it is instructive, but the fullest development of the most interesting material is to be found in the sophismata. The simple strategy of resolutions such as Burley's is what leads me to group them as a type, but they are alike also in their use of 'quaelibet pars Socratis' as the analysis of 'totus Socrates' in its syncategorematic use. Designations preceded by asterisks indicate texts that the author have seen only in excerpts.
  • 12 - Insolubilia
    pp 246-253
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Medieval literature on 'insolubles' began to appear by the early thirteenth century at the latest and continued to the end of the Middle Ages. Several approaches may be distinguished during the first period. One was called 'cassation'. A second approach, the most common early one, tried to treat insolubles as fallacies of confusing what is true only in a certain respect with what is true absolutely. A third early theory perhaps arose out of attempts to make insolubles fit what Aristotle says about fallacies secundum quid et simpliciter. With Bradwardine, the insolubilia-literature entered its second and most productive phase. Roger Swineshead, writing probably shortly after Bradwardine, took a different approach. According to William Heytesbury, insolubles should be treated within the context of obligationes, the codified conditions of formal scholastic disputation. It was perhaps by speculating on fact that Gregory of Rimini and Peter of Ailly were led to base their own theories of insolubles on the notion of mental language.
  • 13 - Speculative grammar
    pp 254-270
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Medieval speculative grammar grew out of the schoolmens' work with ancient Latin grammar as it had been transmitted in the canonical works of Donatus and Priscian. The term 'Modistae' is used accordingly to denote the masters of the late thirteenth and early fourteenth century who wrote on grammar, logic, and metaphysics within this tradition. After 1300 no original contribution to modistic theory was made, although modistic terminology continued to govern grammatical description. The critics included both nominalists like Ockham and Buridan and conservative Averroists like John of Jandun and John Aurifaber. The aim of speculative grammar was to describe intra-linguistic relationships, but the Modistae could not accomplish what they wanted without invoking to some degree the structure of reality. The elaborate semantic system inherits from Aristotle and the Arabs at first looked so impressive in itself that the previous form of logical interpretation was thought to be dispensable. A similar evaluation of the modi significandi is hinted by Walter Burley.
  • 14 - Topics: their development and absorption into consequences
    pp 271-299
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    'Topic' is the infelicitous but by now standard translation for the Latin technical term 'locus', designating a logical concept variously understood throughout ancient and medieval philosophy. According to Boethius, who is dependent on both the Greek and Latin traditions, two different sorts of things are Topics: a Topic is both a maximal proposition and the Differentia of a maximal proposition. The earliest known scholastic discussion of Topics which is still extant occurs in Garlandus Compotista's Dialectica, one chapter of which is devoted to Topics. The sort of metaphysical theory suggested in the terminists can be found more fully developed in thirteenth-century logicians, particularly in the modists but also, for example, in Robert Kilwardby. The connection between the principles dici de omni et nullo and the syllogism is variously expressed by thirteenth- and fourteenth-century logicians. There is not so much theorising about logic in the Tractatus longior as there is in the and by William Ockham's Summa logicae.
  • 15 - Consequences
    pp 300-314
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    A consequentia may be a conditional proposition or the relationship between the antecedent and the consequent in a conditional proposition. It may be an argument or the relationship between the premiss and conclusion of an argument, which may be called, confusingly, 'a rational proposition'. Scholars disagree about the origins of the theory of consequences. The word 'consequentia' can be found in Boethius, who found its Greek equivalent in Aristotle, even though it does not there have the technical sense of a relation among propositions. Garlandus Compotista and Peter Abelard inherited much from Boethius, yet in many ways the two were rethinking his doctrine very carefully. For a sample of the difficulties encountered in later medieval attempts to formulate a satisfactory definition of a consequence, we can turn to the Pseudo-Scotus. The century of Walter Burley, William Ockham, John Buridan, and others was indeed a golden age of logic, in which the theory of consequences attained its mature form.
  • A - From the beginning to the early fourteenth century
    pp 315-334
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Perhaps one of the last really obscure areas of medieval logic is contained in the scholastic work on 'obligations'. From the fourteenth century onwards, scholastic work on obligations proliferates and diversifies. The putative Sherwood and the authentic Burley treatises on obligations differ only in the fulness of discussion, in the number of species of obligations considered, and in minor details of organisation or of content. William Burley begins his discussion of positio, as he does his discussion of obligations at the opening of the treatise, with a division into species. A clear and historically significant example of theoretical, philosophical interest in obligations can be seen in the forty-seventh of Richard Kilvington's Sophismata. Something of the same shift of emphasis, though much less dramatic or historically significant, can be seen in William Ockham's work on obligations in his Summa logicae.
  • B - Obligations: Developments in the fourteenth century
    pp 335-341
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The obligations-literature appears to have entered a new phase with the Oxford Calculators, centred at Merton College in the 1320s and 1330s. There is reason to speculate that some of the most characteristic features of Roger Swineshead's Insolubilia grew out of reflection on Richard Kilvington's Sophismata. One of the most characteristic features of the old tradition of obligations was lost in new response. Certainly, if the purpose of the obligations was to provide students with logical exercises to sharpen their skills, the old response was much better suited to that purpose than was the new response. Swineshead's new response generated a certain amount of controversy. His view was accepted by Richard Lavenham in the second half of the fourteenth century, and was discussed by Robert Fland as apparently no less plausible than the old response. Peter of Candia also rejected Swineshead's second conclusion in the later fourteenth century, as did Paul of Venice in the early fifteenth century.
  • 17 - Modal logic
    pp 342-357
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Aristotle's 'logical' definition of possibility might be recognised as important element of his modal theory. This chapter provides some examples of the medieval use of the statistical interpretation of modality, because it seems to have been the dominant model in logical contexts. In their doctrine of consequentiae ut nunc some writers explicitly used the interrelated ideas of statistically interpreted modal concepts and changing truth-values. The Aristotelian paradigm of potentiality as a power which strives to manifest itself was unqualifiedly accepted in Aristotelian scholasticism as a characterisation of natural reality. Albert the Great says that the assertoric premiss in valid syllogisms must be de inesse simpliciter and not de inesse ut nunc. The starting-point of Duns Scotus' modal theory is the concept of logical possibility. The chapter also discusses John Buridan as an example of the new fourteenth-century approach to modal logic. The formulations introduced above show that something like quantification into modal contexts was usual in fourteenth-century modal logic.
  • 18 - Future contingents
    pp 358-382
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The later Middle Ages inherited the various problems of future contingents from antiquity and from the Church Fathers. This chapter discusses the state of the problem at the beginning of the later Middle Ages by considering the position defended by Anselm of Canterbury. In the period after Anselm much of the discussion of future contingents centred around the interpretation of Aristotle's view of truth, the view that a sentence is true if things are as the sentence says they are. The first towering figure in this discussion after Anselm is Peter Abelard. The most influential twelfth-century work on future contingents is recorded in the Sentences of Peter Lombard. Robert Holkot, one of William Ockham's followers, devotes the last part of Book II, Q. II of his Sentences-commentary to a discussion of whether God is able to reveal a future contingent. Thomas Bradwardine's views on future contingents are intimately connected with his views about time and modality.
  • 19 - Essence and existence
    pp 383-410
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The recovery of Aristotle's Metaphysics by medieval Western thinkers prepared the way for them to concentrate on the science of 'being as being' in the high Middle Ages. This work was enhanced by the translation into Latin of Avicenna's Metaphysics in the twelfth century and of Averroes' Commentary on Aristotle's Metaphysics in the early thirteenth century. Thomas Aquinas agrees with Avicenna, Siger of Brabant, and Duns Scotus in maintaining that the subject of metaphysics is being as being or being in general, but he denies that God is included under this notion of being in general. Quite different from any of these positions regarding the subject of metaphysics is the one taken by William Ockham, who distinguished between the object and the subject of a science. Earlier in the thirteenth century, universal hylemorphism had been criticised by William of Auvergne.
  • 20 - Universals in the early fourteenth century
    pp 411-439
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The vigorous early-fourteenth-century debate about universals was based on a rejection of Platonism, the theory that universal natures really exist independently of the particulars whose natures they are and independently of every mind. Duns Scotus' theory of universals develops his conviction that the nature must be somehow common in reality, even though it cannot exist apart from any and every particular. Another version of moderate realism current in William Ockham's time and apparently endorsed by his rival Walter Burley, in effect concurs in Scotus' theses but rejects the troublesome. Ockham and Henry of Harclay also argue that Burley's position will lead to contradictories, when it comes to accounting for the relation between substances and accidents. Ockham gave up the objective-existence theory, partly because of his own developing reservations and partly because of criticisms raised by his contemporary and fellow-Franciscan, Walter Chatton.
  • 21 - Faith, ideas, illumination, and experience
    pp 440-459
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Religious faith was one distinct source of human knowledge. Augustine's use of the intelligible world to explain human thought is generally called today, as it was occasionally in the Middle Ages, the doctrine of divine illumination. The influential theologians of the school of Chartres, though immersed in the Neoplatonism of Augustine and Dionysius the pseudo-Areopagite, tended in their commentaries on Boethius to describe universals as somehow abstracted from singulars by the activity of the intellect. In the first quarter of the thirteenth century, William of Auxerre was in full accord with the Aristotelian doctrines. Albert the Great, whose writings date from at least 1245 onwards, benefited from closer interpretation of Aristotle's De anima. Bonaventure likewise maintained that philosophy was necessary for the pursuit of theology, yet care had to be taken to avoid deception by it. As with Augustine and Anselm, understanding requires faith. William Ockham's nominalistic way of philosophising became widespread during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.

Page 1 of 3

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

G. Fink-Errera (1962). ‘une institution du monde medieval: la pecia’. revue philosophique de louvain 60 (iii. série, 66):

G. Makdisi (1974). ‘The Scholastic Method in Medieval Education: An Inquiry into its Origins in Law and Theology’, Speculum 49:

Jan Pinborg (1979). ‘The English Contribution to Logic before Ockham’, Synthese 40:.

James A. Weisheipl (1964a). ‘Curriculum of the Faculty of Arts at Oxford in the Early Fourteenth Century’, Mediaeval Studies 26:.

A. H. Armstrong , ed. (1967). The Cambridge History of Later Greek and Early Medieval Philosophy, Cambridge University Press

Martin Grabmann (1938b). ‘Ungedruckte lateinische Kommentare zur aristotelischen Topik aus dem 13. Jahrhundert’, Archiv für Kulturgeschichte, 28:

Martin Grabmann (1950). ‘Aristoteles im 12. Jahrhundert’, Mediaeval Studies 12:

J. Reginald O'Donnell (1958). ‘Themistius’ Paraphrase of the Posterior Analytics in Gerard of Cremona's Translation’, Mediaeval Studies 20:.

J. K. Otte (1976). ‘The Role of Alfred of Sareshel (Alfredus Anglicus) and his Commentary on the Metheora in the Reacquisition of Aristotle’, Viator 7:

Lynn Thorndike (1959). ‘Jonn of Seville’, Speculum 34:.

Aphrodisias Alexander of (1883). In Aristotelis Analyticorum priorum librum I commentarium, ed. M. Wallies (Commentaria in Aristotelem Graeca, II. 1), Reimer

Michael Frede (1977) ‘the origins of traditional grammar’ in Butts and Hintikka (ed.) historical and philosophical dimensions of logic, methodology and philosophy of science, reidel

Paul Moraux (1973). Der Arislotelismus bei den Griechen. Erster Band (Peripatoi, 5), De Gruyter

D. Walton (1976). ‘Logical Form and Agency’, Philosophical Studies 29:.

R. W. Hunt (1975). ‘Absoluta, The Summa of Petrus Hispanus on Priscianus Minor’, Historiographia Linguistica 2:.

Paul Vincent Spade (1974b). ‘Ockham on Self-Reference’, Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 15:.

Paul Vincent Spade (1974c). ‘Ockham's Rule of Supposition: Two Conflicts in His Theory’, Vivarium 12:.

Paul Vincent Spade (1975c). ‘Ockham's Distinctions between Absolute and Connotative Terms’, Vivarium 13:.

William J. Courtenay (1971). ‘A revised text of Robert Holcot's quodlibetal dispute on whether God is able to know more than he knows’, Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 53:.

Gedeon GÁL (1977). ‘adam of wodeham's question on the “complexe significabile” as the immediate object of scientific knowledge’, franciscan studies 37:.

J. Reginald O'Donnell ed. (1941). ‘The Syncategoremata of William of Sherwood’, Mediaeval Studies 3:.

S. Ebbesen (1979). ‘The Dead Man is Alive’, Synthese 40:.

C. H. Kneepkens (1978). ‘Master Guido and his View on Government: On Twelfth Century Linguistic Thought’, Vivarium 16:.

Jan Pinborg (1971a). ‘Bezeichnung in der Logik des Mittelalters’ in Der Begriff der Repraesentatio im Mittelalter (Miscellanea Mediaevalia, 8), De Gruyter

Otto Bird (1960). ‘The Formalizing of Topics in Mediaeval Logic’, Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 1:.

Otto Bird (1961). ‘Topic and Consequence in Ockham's Logic’, Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic, 2:

Ivan Boh (1964). ‘An Examination of Some Proofs in Burleigh's Propositional Logic’, The New Scholasticism 38:.

Atanasio GonzÁLez (1958–9). ‘The Theory of Assertoric Consequence in Albert of Saxony’, Franciscan Studies 18:. and 19:

Jan Pinborg (1975b). ‘Radulphus Brito's Sophism on Second Intentions’, Vivarium 13:.

A. N. Prior (1953). ‘On Some Consequentiae in Walter Burleigh’, The New Scholasticism 27:.

Paul Vincent Spade (1976). ‘Robert Fland's Consequentiae: An Edition’, Mediaeval Studies 38:.

Eleonore Stump (1974). ‘Boethius's Works on the Topics’, Vivarium 12:.

Eleonore Stump (1980a). ‘William of Sherwood's Treatise on Obligations’, Historiographia Linguistica 7:.

A. C. S. Mcdermott (1972). ‘Notes on the Assertoric and Modal Propositional Logic of the Pseudo-Scotus’, Journal of the History of Philosophy 10:

Eleonore Stump (1980). ‘Dialectic in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries: Garlandus Compotista’, History and Philosophy of Logic 1:.

Paul Vincent Spade (1978c). ‘Robert Fland's Insolubilia: An Edition, with Comments on the Dating of Fland's Works’, Mediaeval Studies 40:.

Paul Vincent Spade (1980). ‘Robert Fland's Obligationes: An Edition’, Mediaeval Studies 42:.

James A. Weisheipl (1969). ‘Repertorium Mertonense’, Mediaeval Studies 31:.

Simo Knuuttila (1981). ‘Time and Modality in Scholasticism’ in S. Knuuttila, ed., Reforging the Great Chain of Being: Studies of the History of Modal Theories (Synthese Historical Library 20), Reidel

L. D. Roberts (1973). ‘Indeterminism in Duns Scotus' Doctrine of Human Freedom’, The Modern Schoolman 51:.

William Carlo (1966a). ‘Idea and Concept: A Key to Epistemology’ in Frederick J. Adelmann (ed.) The Quest for the Absolute (Boston College Studies in Philosophy, No. 1), Boston College and Martinus Nijhoff

W. N. Clarke (1952b). ‘The Meaning of Participation in St Thomas’, Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 26:.

F. Cunningham (1962). ‘Distinction According to St Thomas’, The New Scholasticism 36:.

B. Geyer (1963). ‘Albertus Magnus und die Entwicklung der Scholastischen Metaphysik’, in P. Wilpert (ed.) Die Metaphysik im Mittelalter (Miscellanea Mediaevalia, 2), De Gruyter

E. KöNig (1970). ‘Aristoteles' erste Philosophie als universale Wissenschaft von den APXAI’, Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 52:.

P. Nash (1950–1). ‘Giles of Rome, Auditor and Critic of St. Thomas’, The Modern Schoolman 28:.

Joseph Owens (1965). ‘Quiddity and Real Distinction in St. Thomas Aquinas’, Mediaeval Studies 27:.

Anton C. Pegis (1973). ‘St Thomas and the Coherence of the Aristotelian Theology’, Mediaeval Studies 35:

Philotheus Boehner (1943a). ‘Ockham's political ideas’, Review of Politics 5:.

Gareth B. Matthews (1977). ‘Consciousness and Life’, Philosophy 52:.

T. K. Scott (1969). ‘Ockham on Evidence, Necessity and Intuition’, Journal of the History of Philosophy 7:.

Gedeon GÁL (1967c). ‘gualteri de chatton et guillelmi de ockham controversia de natura conceptus universalis’, franciscan studies 27:.

R. W. Schmidt (1966). The Domain of Logic according to Saint Thomas Aquinas, Nijhoff

Robert Butts and Joseph Pitt (1978). New Perspectives on Galileo, Reidel

Edmund F. Byrne (1968). Probability and Opinion, Mouton

Norman Kretzmann (1970). ‘Medieval Logicians on the Meaning of the Propositio’, Journal of Philosophy 67:

T. K. Scott (1971). ‘Nicholas of Autrecourt, Buridan, and Ockhamism’, Journal of the History of Philosophy 9:.

Simo Knuuttila and Anja Inkeri Lehtinen (1979). ‘Plato in Infinitum Remisse Incipit Esse Albus. New Texts on the Late Medieval Discussion on the Concept of Infinity in Sophismata Literature’, in E. Saarinen, R. Hilpinen, I. NÜNiluoto and M. Provence Hintikka (eds.) Essays in Honour of jaakko Hintikka, Reidel

William A. Wallace (1969). ‘The “Calculatores” in Early Sixteenth-Century Physics’, The British Journal for the History of Science 4:.

James A. Weisheipl (1959) ‘The place of John Dumbleton in the Merton School’, Isis 50:.

James A. Weisheipl (1968). ‘Ockham and Some Mertonians’, Mediaeval Studies 30:.

Georg Cantor (1932). Gesammelte Abhandlungen, ed. E. Zermelo, Springer

John E. Murdoch (1975a). ‘From Social into Intellectual Factors: An Aspect of the Unitary Character of Late Medieval Learning’, in J. E. Murdoch and E. D. Sylla (eds.) The Cultural Context of Medieval Learning, Reidel

Herman Shapiro and Charlotte (1965). ‘De Primo et Ultimo Instanti des Walter Burley’, Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 47:.

Bernardo Carlos Bazán (1974). ‘Le dialogue philosophique entre Siger de Brabant et Thomas d'Aquin. A Propos d'un ouvrage récent de E. H. Weber O.P.’, Revue philosophique de Louvain 72:.

Robert E. Brennan (1941). ‘The Thomistic Concept of Imagination’, The New Scholasticism 15:.

Charles J. Ermatinger (1954). ‘Averroism in Early Fourteenth Century Bologna’, Mediaeval Studies 16:.

Augustin Mansion (1953). ‘L'immortalité de l'âme et de l'intellect d'après Aristote’, Revue philosophique de Louvain 51:

Robert Miller (1954). ‘An Aspect of Averroes' Influence on St. Albert’, Mediaeval Studies 16:.

Joseph Owens (1970). ‘Judgment and Truth in Aquinas’, Mediaeval Studies 32:.

Jean Rohmer (1951). ‘L'intentionnalité des sensations de Platon à Ockham’, Revue des sciences religieuses 25:.

J. Vennebusch (1966). ‘Die Questiones metaphysice tres des Siger von Brabant’, Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 48:.

Gérard Verbeke (1960). ‘L'unite de l'homme: saint Thomas contre Averroés’, Revue philosophique de Louvain 58:.

A. P. Monahan (1954). ‘The Subject of Metaphysics for Peter of Auvergne’, Mediaeval Studies 16:

R. Hissette (1976). ‘La date de quelques commentaires à l'Éthique’, Bulletin de la Philosophie Médiévale 18:.

A. S. Mcgrade (1978). ‘Repentance and Spiritual Power: Book VI of Richard Hooker's Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History 29:

J. Miethke (1969). Ockhams Weg zur Sozialphibsophie, De Gruyter

E.J. Ashworth (1973). ‘The Doctrine of Exponibilia in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries’, Vivarium 11:.

E.J. Ashworth (1974a). Language and Logic in the Post-medieval Period (Synthese Historical Library, 12), Reidel

E.J. Ashworth (1978a). ‘Multiple Quantification and the Use of Special Quantifiers in Early Sixteenth Century Logic’, Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 19:.

John Herman Randall (1940). ‘The Development of Scientific Method in the School of Padua’, Journal of the History of Ideas 1:.

A. Faust (1922). ‘die dialektik rudolf agricolas: ein beitrag zur charakteristik des deutschen humanismus’, archiv für geschichte der philosophie 34 (n. f. 27):

J. Ruysschaert (1961). ‘A propos des trois premières grammaires latines de Pomponio Leto’, Scriptorium 15:.

R. Tambuyser (1958). ‘L'érection de la chaire de philosophic thomiste à l'Université de Louvain (1880–1882)’, Revue philosophique de Louvain 56:.

Marilyn McCord Adams (1976). ‘Ockham on Identity and Distinction’, Franciscan Studies 36:5–74.

Marilyn McCord Adams (1977). ‘Ockham's Nominalism and Unreal Entities’, Philosophical Review 86:144–76.

I. Angelelli 1970. ‘The Techniques of Disputation in the History of Logic’. Journal of Philosophy 67:800–15

Angelelli,(1972). ‘Franciscus Sebastiani's Logica (1791)’, Journal of the History of Philosophy 10:76–82.

R. A. Armstrong (1966). Primary and Secondary Precepts in Thomistic Natural Law Teaching, Martinus Nijhoff

R.J. Arway (1962). ‘A Half Century of Research on Godfrey of Fontaines’, The New Scholasticism 36:192–218.

E.J. Ashworth (1972). ‘The Treatment of Semantic Paradoxes from 1400 to 1700’, Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 13 :34–52

E.J. Ashworth (1974b). ‘“For Riding is Required a Horse”: A Problem of Meaning and Reference in Late Fifteenth- and Early Sixteenth-Century Logic’, Vivarium 12:94–123.

E.J. Ashworth (1976a). ‘“1 Promise You a Horse”: A Second Problem of Meaning and Reference in Late Fifteenth- and Early Sixteenth-Century Logic’, 1, Vivarium 14:62–79, II, Ibid., 14:149–55

E.J. Ashworth (1977a). ‘Chimeras and Imaginary Objects: A Study in the Post-medieval Theory of Signification’, Vivarium 15:57–79.

E.J. Ashworth (1977b). ‘Thomas Bricot (d. 1516) and the Liar Paradox’, Journal of the History of Philosophy 15:267–80.

R. H. Bainton (1946). ‘The Early Church and War’, Harvard Theological Review 39:189–212.

Jonathan Barnes (1972). The Ontological Argument, Macmillan and St Martin's Press

C. C. Bayley (1949). ‘Pivotal concepts in the political philosophy of William of Ockham’, Journal of the History of Ideas 10:199–218.

H. Beha (1960–1). ‘Matthew of Aquasparta's Theory of Cognition’, Franciscan Studies 20:161–204; 21:1–79, 383–465

Otto Bird (1959). ‘The logical interest of the topics as seen in Abelard’, The Modern Schoolman, 37:53–7

Otto Bird (1962a). ‘The Tradition of the Logical Topics: Aristotle to Ockham’, Journal of the History of Ideas 23:307–23.

Otto Bird (1962b). ‘What Peirce Means by Leading Principles’, Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 3:175–8.

Jean Bodin (1962). The Six Bookes of a Commonweale, Richard Knolles' trans, of 1606 edn. With introd. and notes by Kenneth Douglas McRae, Harvard University Press

Philotheus Boehner (1951b). ‘Does Ockham Know of Material Implication?’, Franciscan Studies 11:203–50.

W. F. Boggess (1971). ‘Hermannus Alemannus' Rhetorical Translations’, Viator 2:227–5.

Ivan Boh (1963b). ‘Walter Burleigh's Hypothetical Syllogistic’, Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 4:241–69.

Ivan Boh (1966). ‘Propositional Connectives, Supposition and Consequence in Paul of Pergula’, Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 7:109–28.

Ivan Boh (1977) ‘The “Conditionatim”-Clause: One of the Problems of Existential Import in the History of Logic’, Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 18:459–66.

J. F. Boler (1976). ‘Ockham on Evident Cognition’, Franciscan Studies 36:85–98.

Leonard J. Bowman (1972–3). ‘The Development of the Doctrine of the Agent Intellect in the Franciscan School of the Thirteenth Century’, The Modem Schoolman 50:251–79.

H. A. G. Braakhuis (1967). “The Second Tract on Insolubilia Found in Paris, B.N. Lat. 16.617: An Edition of the Text with an Analysis of Its Contents’, Vivarium 5: III–45

Ignatius Brady (1950). ‘Law in the Summa Fratris Akxandri’, Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 24:133–47

A. Brounts (1970). ‘Nouvelles précisions sur la pecia'. Scriptorium 24:343–59

J. V. Brown (1971). ‘Sensation in Henry of Ghent’, Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 53:238–66.

Mary A. Brown (1966). ‘The Role of the Tractatus de Obligationibus in Medieval Logic’, Franciscan Studies 26:26–35.

I. Browne (1963). International Law and the Use of Force by States, Clarendon Press

J. H. Burns (1954). ‘New light on John Major’, The Innes Review 5:83–100.

G. L. Bursill-Hall (1971). Speculative Grammars of the Middle Ages (Approaches to Semantics, II), Mouton

H. L. L. Busard (1965). ‘Unendliche Reihen in A est unum calidum‘, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 2: 387–97

Helder Camara (1978). ‘What would Saint Thomas Aquinas, the Aristotle commentator, do if faced with Karl Marx?The Journal of Religion 58 Supplement: S 174–82

A. Campana (1946). ‘The origin of the word ‘humanist’, Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 9:60–173

A. H. Chroust (1947). ‘The Corporate Idea and the Body Politic in the Middle Ages’, Review of Politics 9:423–52.

A. H. Chroust and J. A. Corbett (1949). ‘The fifteenth century Review of Politics of Laurentius of Arezzo’, Mediaeval Studies 11:62–76.

Marshall Clagett (1950). ‘Richard Swineshead and Late Medieval Physics’, Osiris 9:131–61.

David W. Clark (1973) ‘William of Ockham on right reason’, Speculum 48:13–36.

Janet Coleman (1975), ‘Jean de Ripa, O. F. M. and the Oxford Calculators’, Mediaeval Studies 37:130–89.

M. B. Crowe (1977). The Changing Profile of the Natural law, Martinus Nijhoff

F. Cunningham (1970). ‘The “Real Distinction” in John Quidort’, Journal of the History of Philosophy 8:9–28

J. Doig (1965). ‘Science première et science universelle dans le “Commentaire de la métaphysique” de saint Thomas d'Aquin’, Revue philosophique de Louvain 63:41–96.

Alan Donagan (1969). ‘The Scholastic Theory of Moral Law in the Modern World’ in Anthony Kenny (ed.) Aquinas: A Collection of Critical Essays, Anchor Books

A. Dondaine (1967). ‘Un cas majeur d'utilisation d'un argument paléographique en critique textuelle’, Scriptorium 21:261–76.

I. T. Eschmann (1943). ‘A Thomistic Glossary on the Principle of the Preeminence of a Common Good’, Mediaeval Studies 5:123–65.

I. T. Eschmann (1944). ‘Bonum commune melius est quam bonum unius’, Mediaeval Studies 6:62–120.

I. T. Eschmann (1946). ‘Studies on the notion of society in St Thomas Aquinas’, Mediaeval Studies 8: 1–42

I. T. Eschmann (1947). ‘thomistic social philosophy and the theory of original sin’, mediaeval studies 9:19–55

I. T. Eschmann (1958). ‘st thomas aquinas on the two powers’, mediaeval studies 20:177–205.

J. A. Fernández-Santamaria (1977). the state, war and peace: spanish political thought in the renaissance, 1516–1559, cambridge university press

Michael Frede (1974b). ‘stoic vs. aristotelian syllogistic’, archiv für ceschichte der philosophie 56:1–32.

Gedeon GÁL (1969). ‘quaestio ioannis de reading de necessitate specierum intelligibilium defensio doctrinae scoti’, franciscan studies 29:66–156.

Étienne Gilson (1948b). ‘L'Objet de la Metaphysique selon Duns Scot’, Mediaeval Studies 10:21–92.

Martin Grabmann (1934a). ‘Eine für Examinazwecke abgefasste Quaestionensammlung der Pariser Artistenfakultät aus der ersten Hälfte des 13. Jahrhunderts’, Revue Néoscolastique de Philosophic, 36:211–26

Martin Grabmann (1947). ‘Ein Tractatus de Universalibus und andere logische Inedita aus dem 12. Jahrhundert im Cod lat. 2486 der Nationalbibliothek in Wien’, Mediaeval Stueies 9: 56–70

Germain G. Grisez (1969). ‘The first principle of practical reason’ (abridgement of Grisez 1965) in Anthony Kenny (ed.) Aquinas: A Collection of Critical Essays, Doubleday

Rita Guerlac (1979). Juan Luis Vives Against the Pseudodialecticians: A Humanist Attack on Medieval Logic (Synthese Historical Library, 18), Reidel

Kwame Gyekye (1971). ‘The Terms “Prima Intentio” and “Secunda Intentio” in Arabic Logic’, Speculum 46:32–8.

Terrence Heath (1971). ‘Logical Grammar, Grammatical Logic, and Humanism in Three German Universities’, Studies in the Renaissance 18:9–64.

Desmond Paul Henry (1974). Commentary on De grammatico: The Historical-Logical Dimension of a Dialogue of St Anselm's (Synthese Historical Library, 8), Reidel

Michael Hoskin and A. G. Molland (1966). ‘Swineshead on Falling Bodies: An Example of Fourteenth Century Physics’, British Journal for the History of Science 3:150–82.

R. W. Hunt (1977). ‘The Preface to the “Speculum Ecclesiae” of Giraldus Cambrensis’, Viator 8:189–213.

J. IJsewijn (1971). ‘Alexander Hegius (d. 1498): Invectiva in modos significandi’, Forum for Modem Language Studies 7:299–318

Lisa Jardine (1974). ‘The Place of Dialectic Teaching in Sixteenth-Century Cambridge’, Studies in the Renaissance 21:31–62.

Lisa Jardine (1975b). ‘Humanism and the Sixteenth-Century Cambridge Arts Course’, History of Education 4:16–31

H. Kaminsky (1963). ‘Wyclifism as ideology of revolution’, Church History 32:57–74.

Leonard A. Kennedy (1959–60). ‘The Nature of the Human Intellect According to St Albert the Great’, The Modern Schoolman 37:121–37.

Leonard A. Kennedy (1962–3). ‘St Albert the Great's Doctrine of Divine Illumination’, The Modern Schoolman 40:23–37.

Anthony Kenny (1969a). ‘Intellect and Imagination in Aquinas’ in Anthony Kenny (ed.) Aquinas: A Collection oj Critical Essays, Doubleday

Julius Kirshner (1973). ‘Civitas sibifaciat civem: Bartolus of Sassoferrato's doctrine on the making of a citizen’, Speculum 48:694–713.

M. Jean Kitchel (1974). ‘The “De potentiis animae” of Walter Burley’, Mediaeval Studies 33:85–113.

George P. Klubertanz (1952a). ‘St Thomas and the Knowledge of the Singular’, New Scholasticism 26:135–66.

C. H. Kneepkens (1977). ‘The Relatio simplex in the Grammatical Tracts of the Late Twelfth and Early Thirteenth Century’, Vivarium 15:1–30.

Norman Kretzmann (1975). ‘Transformationalism and the Port-Royal Grammar’, in J. Rieux and B. E. Rollin (eds.), General and Rational Grammar: the Port-Royal Grammar (Janua Linguarum, Series Minor, 208), Mouton

Norman Kretzmann John Longeway, Eleonore Stump, and John DykVan (1978). ‘L. M. De Rijk on Peter of Spain’, Journal of the History of Philosophy 16:325–33.

Gerhart B. Ladner (1967). ‘Homo viator, medieval ideas on alienation and order’, Speculum 42:233–59.

C.J. Lewis T. (1976). ‘The Fortunes of Richard Swineshead in the Time of Galileo’, Annals of Science 33:561–84.

Ewart Lewis (1938). ‘Organic tendencies in medieval political thought’, American Political Science Review 32:849–76.

Ewart Lewis (1963). ‘The “positivism” of Marsiglio of Padua’, Speculum 38:541–82.

Hans Liebeschütz (1968). ‘Chartres und Bologna: Naturbegriff und Staatsidee bei Johannes von Salisbury’, Archiv für Kulturgeschichte 50:3–32.

Ermengildo Lio (1950). ‘De elementis traditionalibus justitiae in primaeva schola Franciscana’, Franciscan Studies 10:164–85.

A. C. Lloyd (1956). ‘Neoplatonic logic and Aristotelian Logic’, Phronesis 1: 58–72; 146–60

Charles H. Lohr (1974–). Renaissance Latin Aristotle Commentaries. (Authors A – B in Studies in the Renaissance 21 (1974): 228–89; Authors C in Renaissance Quarterly 28 (1975) : 689–741; Authors D–F, ibid. 29 (1976) 1714–45; Authors G–K, ibid. 30 (1977): 681–741; Authors L – M, ibid. 31 (1978): 532–603; Authors N – Ph, ibid. 32 (1979): 529–80.)

O. Lottin (1932). ‘La composition hylémorphique des substances spirituelles’, Revue Néoscolastique de Philosophic 34:21–41.

Jan Łukasiewicz (1935). ‘Zur Geschichte der Aussagenlogik’, Erkenntnis 5:111–31.

D. E. Luscombe (1969). The School of Peter Abelard: The Influence of Abelard's Thought in the Early Scholastic Period (Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought, 14), Cambridge University Press

Edward P. Mahoney (1973b). Review of Marcia L. Colish, The Mirror of Language: A Study in the Medieval Theory of Knowledge, Yale University Press, 1968, in Journal of the History of Philosophy 11:258–62

Edward P. Mahoney (1974b). ‘Saint Thomas and the School of Padua at the End of the Fifteenth Century’, Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 48:277–85.

John Malcolm (1971). ‘On Grabmann's text of William of Sherwood’, Vivarium 9:108–18

Gonçalo Mattos de (1940). ‘L'intellect agent personnel dans les premiers écrits d'Albert le Grand et de Thomas d'Aquin’, Revue néoscolastique de philosophie 43:145–61.

Armand Maurer (1946). ‘Esse and Essentia in the Metaphysics of Siger of Brabant’, Mediaeval Studies 8:68–86.

Armand Maurer (1955) ‘Boethius of Dacia and the Double Truth’, Mediaeval Studies 17:233–9.

Armand Maurer (1956). ‘The State of Historical Research in Siger of Brabant’, Speculum 31:49–56.

Armand Maurer (1958). ‘Ockham's Conception of the Unity of Science’, Mediaeval Studies 20:98–112.

William D. Mccready (1973). ‘Papal plentitudo potestatis and the source of temporal authority in late medieval papal hierocratic theory’, Speculum 48 654–74

William D. Mccready (1975). ‘Papalists and anti-papalists: aspects of the Church – State controversy in the later middle ages’, Viator 6:241–73.

William D. Mccready (1977). ‘The papal sovereign in the ecclesiology of Augustinus Triumphus’, Mediaeval Studies 39:177–205.

James Mcevoy (1977). ‘La connaissance intellectuelle selon Robert Grossesteste’, Revue Philosophique du Louvain 75:5–48.

A. S. Mcgrade (1963). ‘The coherence of Hooker's Polity: the books on power’, Journal of the History of Ideas 24:163–82.

A. S. Mcgrade (1974). The Political Thought of William of Ockham. Personal and Institutional Principles (Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought, third series, 7), Cambridge University Press

R. Mckeon (1938). ‘The development of the concept of property in political philosophy: a study of the background of the constitution’. Ethics 48:297–366

Albert D. Menut (1969). ‘A Provisional Bibliography of Oresme's Writings: A Supplementary Note’, Mediaeval Studies 31:346–7.

A. Milet (1945). ‘Les “Cahiers” du Père Maréchal. Sources doctrinales et influences subies’, Revue nhscolastique de philosophie 43:225–51

A. Modde (1949). ‘Le bien commun dans la philosophic de Saint Thomas’, Revue philosophique de Louvain 47:221–47.

A. G. Molland (1968a). ‘The Geometrical Background to the “Merton School”’, British Journal for the History of Science 4:108–25.

A. G. Molland (1978). ‘An Examination of Bradwardine's Geometry’, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 19:113–75.

Ernest A. Moody (1947). ‘Ockham, Buridan, and Nicholas of Autrecourt’, Franciscan Studies 7:113–46.

Ernest A. Moody (1951). ‘Galileo and Avempace: The Dynamics of the Leaning Tower Experiment’, Journal of the History of Ideas 12:163–93.; 375–422

Ernest A. Moody (1964). ‘A quodlibetal question of Robert Holkot, O. P. on the problem of the objects of knowledge and of belief’, Speculum 39:53–74.

P. Morewedge (1972). ‘Philosophical Analysis and Ibn Sīnā's “Essence-Existence” Distinction’, Journal of the American Oriental Society 92:425–35.

John B. Morrall (1949). ‘Some notes on a recent interpretation of William of Ockham's political philosophy’, Franciscan Studies 9:335–69.

J. T. Muckle (1958). ‘R. Holcot, “Utrum theologia sit scientia”: A Quodlibet Question’, Mediaeval Studies 20:127–53.

M. Mullick (1971). ‘Does Ockham Accept Material Implication?’, Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 12:117–24.

Robert J. Mulvaney (1973). ‘Political wisdom: an interpretation of Summa Theol. II–II, 50’, Mediaeval Studies 35:294–305.

John E. Murdoch (1979). ‘Prepositional Analysis in Fourteenth-Century Natural Philosophy’, Synthese 40:117–46.

John E. Murdoch and Edith Sylla, eds. (1975). The Cultural Context of Medieval Learning, Reidel

John E. Murdoch and Edward Synan (1966). ‘Two Questions on the Continuum; Walter Chatton (?), O.F.M. and Adam Wodeham, O.F.M.’, Franciscan Studies 26:212–88.

P. Nash (1950). ‘Giles of Rome on Boethius’ “Diversum est esse et id quod est”’, Mediaeval Studies 12:57–91.

Francis Oakley (1965). ‘Almain and Major: Conciliar theory on the eve of Reformation’, The American Historical Review 70:673–90.

Francis Oakley (1969). ‘Figgis, Constance and the divines of Paris’, The American Historical Review 75:368–86.

A.J. O'Brien (1964). ‘Duns Scotus’ Teaching on the Distinction Between Essence and Existence’, The New Scholasticism 38:61–77.

Daniel John O'Connor (1967). Aquinas and Natural Law, Macmillan

J. Reginald O'Donnell (1939–42). ‘Nicholas of Autrecourt’, Mediaeval Studies 1:179–280.:4:97–125

H. S. Offler (1977). ‘The Three Modes of Natural Law in Ockham: A Revision of the Text’, Franciscan Studies 37:207–18.

John W. O'Malley (1972). ‘Man's dignity, God's love, and the destiny of Rome: a text of Giles of Viterbo’, Viator 3:389–416.

Walter Jackson Ong (1958b). Ramus and Talon Inventory, Harvard University Press

J. K. Otte (1972). ‘The Life and Writings of Alfredus Anglicus’, Viator 3:275–91.

Joseph Owens (1948). ‘Up to What Point is God Included in the Metaphysics of Duns Scotus?’, Mediaeval Studies 10:163–77.

Joseph Owens (1953). ‘The Conclusion of the Prima Via’, The Modem Schoolman 30:109–21.

Joseph Owens (1966). ‘Aquinas and the Proof from the “Physics”’, Mediaeval Studies 28:119–50.

C. Partee (1960). ‘Peter John Olivi: Historical and Doctrinal Study’, Franciscan Studies 20:215–60.

J. Paulus (1949). ‘A propos de la théorie de la connaissance d'Henri de Gand’, Revue philo sophique du Louvain 47:493–6.

Pierre J. Payer (1979). ‘Prudence and the principles of natural law: a medieval development’, Speculum 54:55–70.

Julien Peghaire (1942–3). ‘A Forgotten Sense, The Cogitative according to St Thomas Aquinas’, The Modern Schoolman 20:123–40 and 210–29

A. Pelzer (1911). ‘Les initiateurs italiens du thomisme contemporain’, Revue néoscholastique de philosophic 18:230–54.

Jan Pinborg (1971b). ‘Simon of Faversham's Sophisma: Universale est Intentio: A Supplementary Note’, Mediaeval Studies 33:360–5.

Jan Pinborg (1973). ‘Neues zum Erfurter Schulleben des XIV. Jahrhunderts nach Handschriften der Jagiellonischen Bibliothek zu Kraków’, Bulletin de philosophie médiévale 15:146–51.

Gaines Post (1964). Studies in Medieval Legal Thought, Princeton University Press

Timothy C. Potts (1980). Conscience in Medieval Philosophy, Cambridge University Press

James S. Preuss (1972). ‘Theological legitimation for innovation in the middle ages’, Viator 3:1–26.

L. Raeymaeker de (1951). ‘Les origines de I'Institut Supérieur de Philosophic à Louvain’, Revue Philosophique de Louvain 49: 505–633

James P. Reilly (1968). ‘Ockham Bibliography: 1950–1967’, Franciscan Studies 28:197–214.

Thomas J. Renna (1973). ‘Kingship in the Disputatio inter clericum et militem’, Speculum 48:675–93

Thomas J. Renna (1978). ‘Aristotle and the French monarchy, 1260–1303’, Viator 9:309–24.

G. Riet Van (1953). ‘La théorie thomiste de la sensation externe’, Revue philosophique de Louvain 51:374–408.

L. M. Rijk de ed. (1966a) ‘Some new Evidence on Twelfth-Century Logic’, Vivarium 4:1–57.

L. M. Rijk de ed. (1966b). ‘Some Notes on the Mediaeval Tract De insolubilibus with the Edition of a Tract Dating from the End of the Twelfth Century’, Vivarium 4:83–115.

L. M. Rijk de ed. (1968a). ‘On the genuine text of Peter of Spain's Summule logicales, IVivarium 6:1–34

L. M. Rijk de ed. (1968b). ‘On the genuine text of Peter of Spain's Summule logicales II’, Vivarium 6:69–101.

L. M. Rijk de ed. (1969a). ‘On the genuine text of Peter of Spain's Summule logicales. III’, Vivarium 7:8–61.

L. M. Rijk de ed. (1969b). ‘On the genuine text of Peter of Spain's Summule logicales, IV’, Vivarium 7:120–62.

L. M. Rijk de ed. (1971–3). ‘The Development of Suppositio naturalis in Mediaeval Logic’, Vivarium 9:71–107.; 11:43–79.

L. M. Rijk de ed. (1974–6). ‘Some Thirteenth Century Tracts on the Game of Obligation’, Vivarium 12:94–123.; 13:22–54; 14:26–49

L. M. Rijk de ed. (1976a). ‘Some thirteenth century tracts on the game of obligation’, Vivarium 14:26–49.

L. M. Rijk de ed. (1976b). ‘Richard Billingham's Works on Logic’, Vivarium 14:121–38.

L. M. Rijk de ed. (1977a). ‘On Ancient and Mediaeval Semantics and Metaphysics’, Vivarium 15:81–110.

J. S. C. Riley-Smith (1977). What Were The Crusades?, Macmillan

M. L. Rivero (1976). ‘William of Sherwood on Composition and Division’, Historio-graphia Linguistica 3:17–36.

Richard H. Rouse and A. Mary . (1967). ‘John of Salisbury and the doctrine of tyrannicide’, Speculum 42:693–709.

J. C. Russell (1933). ‘The Preferments and “Adiutores” of Robert Grosseteste’, Harvard Theological Review 26:161–72.

J. Ruysschaert (1954). ‘Les manuels de grammaire latine composés par Pomponio Leto’, Scriptorium 8:98–107.

V. Salmon (1969). [Review of Cartesian Linguistics by N. Chomsky], Journal of Linguistics 5:165–87

F. Sassen (1931). ‘Siger de Brabant et la doctrine de la double verité’, Revue néscolastique de philosophie 33:170–9.

T. K. Scott (1965). ‘John Buridan on the Objects of Demonstrative Science’, Speculum 40:654–73.

Eileen F. Serene (1979) ‘Robert Grosseteste on Induction and Demonstrative Science’, Synthese 40:97–115.

Herman Shapiro (1959). ‘Walter Burley and the Intension and Remission of Forms’, Speculum 34:413–27.

Paul E. Sigmund (1963). Nicholas of Cusa and Medieval Political Thought, Harvard University Press

V. Smith (1954). ‘Prime Mover, Physical and Metaphysical Considerations’, Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 28:78–94.

B. Sobociński (1956). ‘In memoriam Jan Łukasiewicz’, Philosophical Studies (Maynooth) 6:3–46

Paul Vincent Spade (1971). ‘An Anonymous Tract on Insolubilia from Ms Vat. lat. 674: An Edition and Analysis of the Text’, Vivarium 9: l–18

Paul Vincent Spade (1973a). ‘The Treatises On Modal Propositions and On Hypothetical Propositions by Richard Lavenham’, Mediaeval Studies 35:49–59.

Paul Vincent Spade (1975b). ‘Notes on Some Manuscripts of Logical and Physical Works by Richard Lavenham’, Manuscripta 19:139–46.

Paul Vincent Spade (1975d). ‘Some Epistemological Implications of the Burley-Ockham Dispute’, Franciscan Studies 35:212–22.

Paul Vincent Spade (1978a). ‘John Buridan on the Liar: A Study and Reconstruction’, Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 19: 579–90

Paul Vincent Spade (1979c). ‘Recent Research on Medieval Logic’, Synthese 40:3–18.

Paul Vincent Spade (1980a). ‘Richard Lavenham and the Cambridge Logic’, Historiographia Linguistica 7:241–7.

F. Steenberghen Van (1930). ‘Siger de Brabant d'après ses oeuvres inédites’, Revue néoscolastique de philosophie 32:403–23.

F. Steenberghen Van (1948). ‘Maurice de Wulf, historien de la philosophie médiévale’, Revue Philosophique de Louvain 46:421 –47

F. Steenberghen Van (1951). ‘Siger of Brabant’, The Modern Schoolman 29:11–27.

F. Steenberghen Van (1956). ‘Nouvelles recherches sur Siger de Brabant et son école’, Revue philosophique de Louvain 54:130–47.

F. Steenberghen Van (1979) ‘Etienne Gilson, historien de la pensée médiévale’. Revue philosophique de Louvain 77:487–508

Harry S. Stout (1974). ‘Marsilius of Padua and the Henrician Reformation’, Church History 43:308–18.

Leo Sweeney (1963). ‘Existence/Essence in Thomas Aquinas's Early Writings’, Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 37:97–131.

Leo Sweeney and C.J. Ermatinger (1958). ‘Divine Infinity according to Richard Fishacre’, The Modern Schoolman 35:191–235.

John J. Swiniarski (1970). ‘A New Presentation of Ockham's Theory of Supposition with an Evaluation of Some Contemporary Criticisms’, Franciscan Studies 30:181–217.

Edith Sylla (1971). ‘Medieval Quantifications of Qualities: the “Merton School”’, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 8:9–39.

Edith Sylla (1979). ‘The A Posteriori Foundations of Natural Science. Some Medieval Commentaries on Aristotle's Physics, Book I, Chapters 1 and 2’, Synthese 40:147–87.

E. A. Synan (1962). ‘Sixteen Sayings by Richard of Campsall on Contingency and Foreknowledge’, Mediaeval Studies 24:250–62.

Brian Tierney (1953). ‘The Canonists and the medieval state’, Review of Politics 15:378–88.

Brian Tierney (1954). ‘Ockham, the conciliar theory and the canonists’, The Journal of the History of Ideas 15:40–70.

Brian Tierney (1955a). ‘Grosseteste and the theory of papal sovereignty’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History 6:1–17.

Damasus Trapp (1962). ‘New Approaches to Gregory of Rimini’, Augustinianum 2:115–30.

J.A. Tremtman (1978). ‘Bad Names: A Linguistic Argument in Late Medieval Natural Law Theories’, Noûs 12:29–39.

J. A. Trentman (1976). ‘The Study of Logic and Language in England in the Early 17th Century’, Historiographia Linguistica 3:179–201

J. Vennebusch (1965). ‘Die Quaestiones in tres libros De anima des Simon von Faversham’, Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 47:20–39.

Gérard Verbeke (1949). ‘Le développement de la connaissance humaine d'après saint Thomas’, Revue philosophique de Louvain 47:437–57.

Paul Vignaux (1977). ‘La problématique du nominalisme médiéval peut-elle éclairer des problèmes philosophiques actuels?’, Revue philosophique de Louvain 75:293–331.

William A. Wallace (1971). ‘Mechanics from Bradwardine to Galileo’, Journal of the History of Ideas 32:15–28.

James J. Walsh (1964). ‘Is Buridan a Sceptic about Free Will?’, Vivarium 2:50–61.

James J. Walsh (1966). ‘Nominalism and Ethics: Some Remarks about Buridan's Commentary’, Journal of the History of Philosophy 4:1–13.

Édouard-Henri Wéber (1976). ‘Les discussions de 1270 à l'Université de Paris et leur influence sur la pensée philosophique de S. Thomas d'Aquin’ in Albert Zimmermann (ed.) Die Auseinandersetzungen an der Pariser Universität im XIII.Jahrhundert (Miscellanea Mediaevalia, Band 10), De Gruyter

James A. Weisheipl (1965b). ‘Classification of the Sciences in Medieval Thought’, Mediaeval Studies 27:54–90.

James A. Weisheipl (1966). ‘Developments in the Arts Curriculum at Oxford in the Early Fourteenth Century’, Mediaeval Studies 28:151–75.

James A. Weisheipl (1976). ‘The Relationship of Medieval Natural Philosophy to Modern Science: The Contribution of Thomas Aquinas to its Understanding’, Manuscripta 20:181–96.

J. C. Wey (1949). ‘The Sermo Finalis of Robert Holcot’, Mediaeval Studies 11:219–24.

Michael Wilks (1969). ‘The early Oxford Wyclif’, Studies in Church History, 5:69–98

M. Winterbottom (1967). ‘Fifteenth-Century Manuscripts of Quintilian’, Classical Quarterly 17:339–69.

Harry Austryn Wolfson (1935). ‘The Internal Senses in Latin, Arabic, and Hebrew Philosophic Texts’, Harvard Theological Review 28:69–133.

Tetsuo Yokoyama (1969). ‘Simon of Faversham's Sophisma: Universale est Intentio’, Mediaeval Studies 31:1–14

A. Zimmermann ed. (1976). Die Auseinandersetzungen an der Pariser Universität im XIII. Jahrhundert (Miscellanea Mediaevalia, 10), De Gruyter