Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-5c569c448b-r8t2r Total loading time: 1.89 Render date: 2022-07-05T16:55:17.332Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Such stuff as dreams are made on? Elaborative encoding, the ancient art of memory, and the hippocampus

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 November 2013

Sue Llewellyn*
Faculty of Humanities, University of Manchester, Manchester M15 6PB, United Kingdom.


This article argues that rapid eye movement (REM) dreaming is elaborative encoding for episodic memories. Elaborative encoding in REM can, at least partially, be understood through ancient art of memory (AAOM) principles: visualization, bizarre association, organization, narration, embodiment, and location. These principles render recent memories more distinctive through novel and meaningful association with emotionally salient, remote memories. The AAOM optimizes memory performance, suggesting that its principles may predict aspects of how episodic memory is configured in the brain. Integration and segregation are fundamental organizing principles in the cerebral cortex. Episodic memory networks interconnect profusely within the cortex, creating omnidirectional “landmark” junctions. Memories may be integrated at junctions but segregated along connecting network paths that meet at junctions. Episodic junctions may be instantiated during non–rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep after hippocampal associational function during REM dreams. Hippocampal association involves relating, binding, and integrating episodic memories into a mnemonic compositional whole. This often bizarre, composite image has not been present to the senses; it is not “real” because it hyperassociates several memories. During REM sleep, on the phenomenological level, this composite image is experienced as a dream scene. A dream scene may be instantiated as omnidirectional neocortical junction and retained by the hippocampus as an index. On episodic memory retrieval, an external stimulus (or an internal representation) is matched by the hippocampus against its indices. One or more indices then reference the relevant neocortical junctions from which episodic memories can be retrieved. Episodic junctions reach a processing (rather than conscious) level during normal wake to enable retrieval. If this hypothesis is correct, the stuff of dreams is the stuff of memory.

Target Article
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Addis, D. R., Wong, A. T. & Schacter, D. L. (2007) Remembering the past and imagining the future: Common and distinct neural substrates during event construction and elaboration. Neuropsychologia 45(7):1363–77.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Anderer, P., Klösch, G., Gruber, G., Trenker, E., Pascual-Marqui, R. D., Zeitlhofer, J., Barbanoj, M. J., Rappelsberger, P. & Saletu, B. (2001) Low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography revealed simultaneously active frontal and parietal sleep spindle sources in the human cortex. Neuroscience 103:581–92.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Anderson, J. A. (1977) Neural models with cognitive implications. In: Basic processes in reading perception and comprehension, ed. LaBerge, D. & Samuels, S. J., pp. 2790. Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Anderson, N. H. (1997) Functional memory versus reproductive memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20(1):1920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Archer, M. S. (2000) Being human: The problem of agency. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aristotle (335–323 B.C./1996) On sleep and dreams, ed. Gallop, D.. Aris & Phillips.Google ScholarPubMed
Arkin, A. M. & Antrobus, J. S. (1978) The effects of external stimuli applied prior and during sleep on sleep experience. In: The mind in sleep: Psychology and psychophysiology, ed. Arkin, A. M., Antrobus, J. S. & Ellman, S. J., pp. 351–91. Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Aserinsky, E. & Kleitman, N. (1953) Regularly occurring periods of ocular motility and concomitant phenomena during sleep. Science 118:361–75.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Atienza, M. & Cantero, J. L. (2008) Modulatory effects of emotion and sleep on recollection and familiarity. Journal of Sleep Research 17:285–94.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bak, P. (1996) How nature works: The science of self-organized criticality. Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ballard, D. H. (1986) Cortical connections and parallel processing: Structure and function. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9:67120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bar-On, R., Tranel, D., Denburg, N. L. & Bechara, A. (2003) Exploring the neurological substrate of emotional and social intelligence. Brain 126:1790–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bartlett, F. C. (1932) Remembering: A study in experimental and social psychology. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Başar, E., Başar-Eroğlu, C., Karakaş, S. & Schürmann, M. (2000) Brain oscillations in perception and memory. International Journal of Psychophysiology 35:95124.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bauman, Z. (1978) Hermeneutics and social science: Approaches to social science. Hutchinson.Google Scholar
Baylor, G. W. & Cavallero, C. (2001) Memory sources associated with REM and NREM dream reports throughout the night: A new look at the data. Sleep 24(2):165–70.Google Scholar
Benjamin, A. S. & Bjork, R. A. (1997) Problematic aspects of embodied memory [Open peer commentary]. Behavioral and Brain Science 20(1):20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bolzoni, L. (2001) The gallery of memory: Literary and iconographic models in the age of the printing press, trans. Parzen, J.. University of Toronto Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bower, G. H. (1970a) Analysis of a mnemonic device. American Scientist 58:496510.Google Scholar
Bower, G. H. (1970b) Imagery as a relational organizer in associative memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 9:529–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bower, G. H. (1972) Mental imagery and associative learning. In: Cognition in learning and memory, ed. Gregg, L. W., pp. 5188. Wiley.Google Scholar
Bower, G. H., Clark, M. C., Lesgold, A. M. & Winzenz, D. (1969) Hierarchical retrieval schemes in recall of categorized word lists. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 8:323–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bowker, R. M. & Morrison, A. A. (1976) The startle reflex and PGO spikes. Brain Research 102:185–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bradshaw, G. L. & Anderson, J. R. (1982) Elaborative encoding as an explanation of levels of processing. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 21:165–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bradwardine, T. (2002) On acquiring a trained memory. In: The medieval craft of memory: An anthology of texts and pictures, ed. Carruthers, M. & Ziolkowski, J. M., pp. 205–14. University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
Brady, T. F., Konkle, T., Alvarez, G. A. & Oliva, A. (2008) Visual long-term memory has a massive storage capacity for object details. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105(38):14325–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Braun, A. R., Balkin, T. J., Wesensten, N. J., Carson, R. E., Varga, M., Baldwin, P., Selbie, S., Belenky, G. & Herscovitch, P. (1997) Regional cerebral blood flow throughout the sleep–wake cycle: An H2 15O PET study. Brain 120:1173–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Braun, A. R., Balkin, T. J., Wesensten, N. J., Gwadry, F., Carson, R. E., Varga, M., Baldwin, P., Belenky, G. & Herscovitch, P. (1998) Dissociated pattern of activity in visual cortices and their projections during human rapid eye movement sleep. Science 279(5347):9195.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brierley, B., Medford, N., Shaw, P. & David, A. S. (2004) Emotional memory and perception in temporal lobectomy patients with amygdala damage. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 75:593–99.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Briggs, G. G., Hawkins, S. & Crovitz, H. F. (1970) Bizarre images in artificial memory. Psychonomic Science 19:353–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, R. & Kulik, J. (1977) Flashbulb memories. Cognition 5:7399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bruner, J. (1990) Acts of meaning: Four lectures on mind and culture. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Bruner, J. (1991) The narrative construction of reality. Critical Inquiry 18(1):121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bruni, O., Ferri, R., Novelli, L., Terribili, M., Troianiello, M., Finotti, E., Leuzzi, V. & Curatolo, P. (2009) Sleep spindle activity is correlated with reading abilities in developmental dyslexia. Sleep 32(10):1333–40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burgess, N. (2002) The hippocampus, space, and viewpoints in episodic memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Section A: Human Experimental Psychology 55(4):1057–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Butts, C. T. (2009) Revisiting the foundations of network analysis. Science 325(5939):414–16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buzsáki, G. (1996) The hippocampo-neocortical dialogue. Cerebral Cortex 6:8192.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buzsáki, G. (2002) Theta oscillations in the hippocampus. Neuron 33:325–40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buzsáki, G. (2005) Theta rhythm of navigation: Link between path integration and landmark navigation, episodic and semantic memory. Hippocampus 15(7):827–40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buzsáki, G. (2006) Rhythms of the brain. Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cahill, L., Uncapher, M., Kilpatrick, L., Alkire, M. T. & Turner, J. (2004) Sex-related hemispheric lateralization of amygdala function in emotionally influenced memory: An FMRI investigation. Learning and Memory 11(3):261–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cai, D. J., Mednick, S. A., Harrison, E. M., Kanady, J. C. & Mednick, S. C. (2009) REM, not incubation, improves creativity by priming associative networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106(25):10130–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Canli, T., Zhao, Z., Brewer, J., Gabrieli, J. D. E. & Cahill, L. (2000) Event-related activation in the human amygdala associates with later memory for individual emotional experience. Journal of Neuroscience 20(19):RC99 (1–5).Google ScholarPubMed
Caplan, J. B., Madsen, J. R., Schulze-Bonhage, A., Aschenbrenner-Scheibe, R., Newman, E. L. & Kahana, M. J. (2003) Human theta oscillations related to sensorimotor integration and spatial learning. Journal of Neuroscience 23:4726–36.Google ScholarPubMed
Carruthers, M. (1998) The craft of thought: Meditation, rhetoric, and the making of images. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Carruthers, M. (2008) The book of memory: A study of memory in medieval culture, 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carruthers, M. J. (2009) Ars oblivionalis, ars inveniendi: The cherub figure and the arts of memory. Gesta 48:119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carruthers, M. & Ziolkowski, J. M. (2002) General introduction. In: The medieval craft of memory: An anthology of texts and pictures, ed. Carruthers, M. & Ziolkowski, J. M., pp. 131. University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
Cavallero, C. & Cicogna, P. (1993) Memory and dreaming. In: Dreaming as cognition, ed. Cavallero, C. & Foulkes, D., pp. 3857. Harvester Wheatsheaf.Google Scholar
Cavallero, C., Foulkes, D., Hollifield, M. & Terry, R. (1990) Memory sources of REM and NREM dreams. Sleep 13:449–55.Google ScholarPubMed
Cicogna, P. & Bosinelli, M. (2001) Consciousness during dreams. Consciousness and Cognition 10(1):2641.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cipolli, C., Bolzani, R. & Tuozzi, G. (1998) Story-like organization of dream experience in different periods of REM sleep. Journal of Sleep Research 7:1319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, A. (1999) An embodied cognitive science? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3(9):345–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clemens, Z., Fabó, D. & Halász, P. (2005) Overnight verbal memory retention correlates with the number of sleep spindles. Neuroscience 132:529–35.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clemens, Z., Fabó, D. & Halász, P. (2006) Twenty-four hours retention of visuospatial memory correlates with the number of parietal sleep spindles. Neuroscience Letters 403:5256.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clemens, Z., Mölle, M., Eróss, L., Barsi, P., Halász, P. & Born, J. (2007) Temporal coupling of parahippocampal ripples, sleep spindles and slow oscillations in humans. Brain 130:2868–78.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cohen, B. H. (1963) Recall of categorized word lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology 66:227–34.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Combs, A. & Krippner, S. (1998) Dream sleep and waking reality: A dynamical view of two states of consciousness. In: Toward a science of consciousness II: The Second Tucson Discussions and Debates, ed. Hameroff, S., Kaszniak, A. W. & Scott, A. C., pp. 478–93. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Conway, M. A. (2009) Episodic memories. Neuropsychologia 47(11):2305–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Conway, M. A. & Pleydell-Pearce, C. W. (2000) The construction of autobiographical memories in the self memory system. Psychological Review 107:261–88.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cook, R. F. (2011) Correspondences in visual imaging and spatial orientation in dreaming and film viewing. Dreaming 21(2):89104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Craik, F. I. M. (1983) On the transfer of information from temporary to permanent memory. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 302:341–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Craik, F. I. M. (2002) Levels of processing: Past, present and future? Memory 10(5–6):305–18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Craik, F. I. M. & Jacoby, L. I. (1979) Elaboration and distinctiveness in episodic memory. In: Perspective on memory research: Essays in honor of Uppsala University's 500th anniversary, ed. Nilsson, L., pp. 145–63. Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Craik, F. I. M. & Lockhart, R. S. (1972) Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Memory 11:671–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Craik, F. I. M., Routh, D. a. & Broadbent, D. E. (1983) On the transfer of information from temporary to permanent memory [and discussion]. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 302(1110):341–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Craik, F. I. M. & Tulving, E. (1975) Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 104:268–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crick, F. & Koch, C. (1990) Towards a neurobiological theory of consciousness. Seminars in the Neurosciences 2:263–75.Google Scholar
Crick, F. & Mitchison, G. (1995) REM sleep and neural nets. Behavioural Brain Research 69:147–55.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crovitz, H. F. (1969) Memory loci in artificial memory. Psychonomic Science 16:8283.Google Scholar
Crovitz, H. F. & Schiffman, H. (1974) Frequency of episodic memories as a function of age. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 5:517–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Damasio, A. R. (1989) The brain binds entities and events by multiregional activation from convergence zones. Neural Computation 1(1):123–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Damasio, A. R. (1990a) Category-related recognition defects as a clue to the neural substrates of knowledge. Trends in Neurosciences 13(3):9598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Damasio, A. R. (1990b) Synchronous activation in multiple cortical regions: A mechanism for recall. Seminars in the Neurosciences 2:287–96.Google Scholar
Davachi, L. (2006) Item, context and relational episodic encoding in humans. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 16:693700.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davachi, L. & Wagner, A. D. (2002) Hippocampal contributions to episodic encoding: Insights from relational and item-based learning. Journal of Neurophysiology 88:982–90.Google Scholar
De Beni, R. & Cornoldi, C. (1985) Effects of mnemotechnique of loci in the memorization of concrete words. Acta Psychologica 60:1124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Gennaro, L. & Ferrara, M. (2003) Sleep spindles: An overview. Sleep Medicine Reviews 7(5):423–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Koninck, J.-M. & Koulack, D. (1975) Dream content and adaptation to a stressful situation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 84(3):250–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dehaene, S., Changeux, J. P., Naccache, L., Sackur, J. & Sergent, C. (2006) Conscious, preconscious, and subliminal processing: A testable taxonomy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10:204–11.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Deiana, S., Platt, B. & Riedel, G. (2011) The cholinergic system and spatial learning. Behavioural Brain Research 221:389–11.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dement, W. & Kleitman, N. (1957b) The relation of eye movements during sleep to dream activity: An objective method for the study of dreaming. Journal of Experimental Psychology 53:339–46.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dement, W. C., Kahn, E. & Roffwarg, H. P. (1965) The influence of the laboratory situation on the dreams of the experimental subject. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 140:119–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Desseilles, M., Dang-Vu, T. T., Sterpenich, V. & Schwartz, S. (2011a) Cognitive and emotional processes during dreaming: A neuroimaging view. Consciousness and Cognition 20(4):9981008. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2010.10.005.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Diekelmann, S. & Born, J. (2010) The memory function of sleep. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 11:114–26.Google ScholarPubMed
Diekelmann, S., Wilhelm, I. & Born, J. (2009) The whats and whens of sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Sleep Medicine Reviews 13:309–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dolcos, F., LaBar, K. S. & Cabeza, R. (2004) Interaction between the amygdala and the medial temporal lobe memory system predicts better memory for emotional events. Neuron 42:855–63.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Domhoff, G. W. (1996) Finding meaning in dreams: A quantitative approach. Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Domhoff, G. W. (2011) The neural substrate for dreaming: Is it a subsystem of the default network? Consciousness and Cognition 20(4):1163–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Domhoff, G. W. & Kamiya, J. (1964) Problems in dream content study with objective indicators. Archives of General Psychiatry 11:519–32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Domhoff, G. W. & Scheider, A. (2008) Studying dream content using the archive and search engine on Consciousness and Cognition 17:1238–47.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Donald, M. (1991) Origins of the modern mind: Three stages in the evolution of culture and cognition. Harvard Business Press.Google Scholar
Donald, M. (1993) Précis of origins of the modern mind: Three stages in the evolution of culture and cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16:737–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Donald, M. (1995) The neurobiology of human consciousness. Neuropsychologia 33(9):1087–102.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Doran, S. M. (2003) The dynamic topography of individual sleep spindles. Sleep Research Online 5(4):133–39.Google Scholar
Dragoi, G. & Buzsáki, G. (2006) Temporal encoding of place sequences by hippocampal cell assemblies. Neuron 50:145–57.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Drosopoulos, S., Windau, E., Wagner, U. & Born, J. (2007) Sleep enforces the temporal order in memory. PLoS ONE 2(4):e376. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000376.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dudai, Y. (2002) Molecular bases of long-term memories: A question of persistence. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 12:211–16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dudai, Y. (2004) The neurobiology of consolidations, or, how stable is the engram? Annual Review of Psychology 55:5186.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Edelman, G. M. (1987) Neural Darwinism: The theory of neuronal group selection. Basic Books.Google Scholar
Eichenbaum, H. & Cohen, N. J. (2001) From conditioning to conscious recollection: Memory systems of the brain. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Ellenbogen, J. M., Hu, P. T., Payne, J. D., Titone, D. & Walker, M. P. (2007) Human relational memory requires time and sleep. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104(18):7723–28.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ellenbogen, J. M., Payne, J. D. & Stickgold, R. (2006) The role of sleep in declarative memory consolidation: Passive, permissive, active or none? Current Opinion in Neurobiology 16:716–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Epstein, W., Rock, I. & Zuckerman, C. B. (1960) Meaning and familiarity in associative learning. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied 74 (4, Whole No. 491).Google Scholar
Ericsson, K. A. (2003) Exceptional memorizers: Made, not born. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7(6):233–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ericsson, K. A., Chase, W. G. & Faloon, S. (1980) Acquisition of a memory skill. Science 208:1181–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Esper, E. A. (1973) Analogy and association in linguistics and psychology. University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
Esser, S. K., Hill, S. & Tononi, G. (2009) Breakdown of effective connectivity during slow wave sleep: Investigating the mechanism underlying a cortical gate using large-scale modeling. Journal of Neurophysiology 102:2096–11.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Feldman, J. A. (1981) A connectionist model of visual memory. In: Parallel models of associative memory, ed. Hinton, G. E. & Anderson, J. A., pp. 4981. Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Ferrarelli, F., Huber, R., Peterson, M. J., Massimini, M., Murphy, M., Riedner, B. A., Watson, A., Bria, P. & Tononi, G. (2007) Reduced sleep spindle activity in schizophrenia patients. American Journal of Psychiatry 164:483–92.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ferrarelli, F., Peterson, M. J., Sarasso, S., Riedner, B. A., Murphy, M. J., Benca, R. M., Bria, P., Kalin, N. H. & Tononi, G. (2010) Thalamic dysfunction in schizophrenia suggested by whole-night deficits in slow and fast spindles. American Journal of Psychiatry 167(11):1339–48.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Finkenauer, C., Gisle, L. & Luminet, O. (1997) When collective memories are socially shaped: Flashbulb memories of socio-political events. In: Collective memories of political events: Social and psychological perspectives, ed. Pennebaker, J. W., Paez, D. & Rimé, B., pp. 191208. Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Foer, J. (2011) Moonwalking with Einstein: The art and science of remembering everything. Allen Lane.Google Scholar
Fornito, A., Zalesky, A., Pantelis, C. & Bullmore, E. T. (2012) Schizophrenia, neuroimaging and connectomics. NeuroImage 62(4):2296–314.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fortin, N. J., Agster, K. L. & Eichenbaum, H. B. (2002) Critical role of the hippocampus in memory for sequences of events. Nature Neuroscience 5:458–62.Google Scholar
Fosse, M. J., Fosse, R., Hobson, J. A. & Stickgold, R. J. (2003) Dreaming and episodic memory: A functional dissociation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 15(1):19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fosse, R. & Domhoff, G. W. (2007) Dreaming as non-executive orienting: A conceptual framework for consciousness during sleep. In: The new science of dreaming: Content, recall, and personality correlates, vol. 2, ed. Barratt, D. & McNamara, P., pp. 127. Praeger.Google Scholar
Fosse, R., Stickgold, R. & Hobson, J. A. (2004) Thinking and hallucinating: Reciprocal changes in sleep. Psychophysiology 41(2):298305.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Foulkes, D. (1967) Dreams of the male child: Four case studies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 8:8198.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Foulkes, D. (1985) Dreaming: A cognitive-psychological analysis. Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Foulkes, D., Bradley, L., Cavallero, C. & Hollifield, M. (1989) Processing of memories and knowledge in REM and NREM dreams. Perceptual and Motor Skills 68:365–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Foulkes, D. & Rechtschaffen, A. (1964) Presleep determinants of dream content: Effects of two films. Perceptual and Motor Skills 19:9831005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frankland, P. W. & Bontempi, B. (2005) The organization of recent and remote memories. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 6(2):119–30. doi:10.1038/nrn1607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freeman, W. J. (1975) Mass action in the nervous system: Examination of the neurophysiological basis of adaptive behavior through the EEG. Academic Press.Google Scholar
Freeman, W. J. (1999) How brains make up their minds. Weidenfeld & Nicolson.Google Scholar
Freidman, W. J. (1993) Memory for the time of past events. Psychological Bulletin 113:4466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freud, S. (1899/1999) The interpretation of dreams, trans. Crick, J.. Oxford University Press. (Original work published in 1899).Google Scholar
Freud, S. (1963) Three case histories. Collier Books.Google Scholar
Fuster, J. M. (1989) The prefrontal cortex: Anatomy, physiology, and neuropsychology of the frontal lobe, 2nd edition. Raven Press.Google Scholar
Fuster, J. M. (1997) Network memory. Trends in Neurosciences 20:451–59.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fuster, J. M. (1999) Memory in the cerebral cortex: An empirical approach to neural networks in the human and nonhuman primate. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Fuster, J. M. (2001) The prefrontal cortex – an update: Time is of the essence. Neuron 2:319–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fuster, J. M. (2008) The prefrontal cortex, 4th edition. Academic Press.Google ScholarPubMed
Gais, S. & Born, J. (2004) Declarative memory consolidation: Mechanisms acting during human sleep. Learning and Memory 11(6):679–85.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gais, S., Mölle, M., Helms, K. & Born, J. (2002) Learning-dependent increases in sleep spindle density. Journal of Neuroscience 22:6830–34.Google ScholarPubMed
Gallagher, M. & Chiba, A. A. (1996) The amygdala and emotion. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 6:221–27.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Galton, F. (1879) Psychometric experiments. Brain 2:148–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Genzel, L., Dresler, M., Wehrle, R., Grözinger, M. & Steiger, A. (2009) Slow wave sleep and REM awakenings do not affect sleep dependent memory consolidation. Sleep 32(3):302–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Giddens, A. (1993) New rules of sociological method, 2nd ed. Polity Press.Google Scholar
Giddens, A. (1984) The constitution of society: Outline of the theory of structuration. Polity Press.Google Scholar
Giovanello, K. S., Schnyer, D. M. & Verfaellie, M. (2004) A critical role for the anterior hippocampus in relational memory: Evidence from an fMRI study comparing associative and item recognition. Hippocampus 14(1):58.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Giuditta, A. (1985) A sequential hypothesis for the function of sleep. In: Sleep '84, ed. Koella, W. P., Ruther, E. & Schulz, H., pp. 222–24. Fisher-Verlag.Google Scholar
Giuditta, A., Ambrosini, M. V., Montagnese, P., Mandile, P., Cotugno, M., Grassi Zucconi, G. & Vescia, S. (1995) The sequential hypothesis of the function of sleep. Behavioural Brain Research 69(1–2):157–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glenberg, A. M. (1997) What memory is for. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20(1):155.Google ScholarPubMed
Globus, G. G. (1991) Dream content: Random or meaningful? Dreaming 1:2740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goodenough, D. R., Witkin, H. A., Koulack, D. & Cohen, H. (1975) The effects of stress films on dream affect and on respiration and eye-movement activity during rapid-eye-movement sleep. Psychophysiology 12:313–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goodwin, B. (1994) How the leopard changed its spots: The evolution of complexity. Phoenix.Google Scholar
Gottesmann, C. (1999) Neurophysiological support of consciousness during waking and sleep. Progress in Neurobiology 59:469508.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gottesmann, C. (2006) The dreaming sleep stage: A new neurobiological model of schizophrenia? Neuroscience 140:1105–15.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Graf, P. & Schacter, D. L. (1985) Implicit and explicit memory for new associations in normal and amnesic subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 11(3):501–18.Google ScholarPubMed
Groninger, L. D. (1971) Mnemonic imagery and forgetting. Psychonomic Science 23:161–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guba, E. G. & Lincoln, Y. S. (1981) Effective evaluation: Improving the usefulness of evaluation results through responsive and naturalistic approaches. Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
Hall, C. (1966) The meaning of dreams. McGraw-Hill.Google ScholarPubMed
Hartley, D. (1834) Observations on man, his frame, his duty, and his expectations, 6th edition. Thomas Tegg.Google Scholar
Hartmann, E. (1991) Dreams that work or dreams that poison: What does dreaming do? Dreaming 1:2325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hartmann, E. (1996) Outline for a theory on the nature and functions of dreaming. Dreaming 6(2):147–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hartmann, E. (1998) Dreams and nightmares: The origin and meaning of dreams. Perseus.Google Scholar
Hassabis, D., Kumaran, D. & Maguire, E. A. (2007) Using imagination to understand the neural basis of episodic memory. Journal of Neuroscience 27(52):14365–74.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hassabis, D. & Maguire, E. A. (2007) Deconstructing episodic memory with construction. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11:299306.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hasselmo, M. E. (2005) The role of hippocampal regions CA3 and CA1 in matching entorhinal input with retrieval of associations between objects and context: Theoretical comment on Lee et al. (2005). Behavioral Neuroscience 119:342–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hasselmo, M. E. & Bower, J. M. (1993) Acetylcholine and memory. Trends in Neurosciences 16:218–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hasselmo, M. E., Hay, J., Ilyn, M. & Gorchetchnikov, A. (2002) Neuromodulation, theta rhythm and rat spatial navigation. Neural Networks 15:689707.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hasselmo, M. E. & McGaughy, J. (2004) High acetylcholine levels set circuit dynamics for attention and encoding and low acetylcholine levels set dynamics for consolidation. Progress in Brain Research 145:207–31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hebb, D. O. (1949) The organization of behavior: A neuropsychological theory. Wiley.Google Scholar
Henke, K., Buck, A., Weber, B. & Wieser, H. G. (1997) Human hippocampus establishes associations in memory. Hippocampus 7:249–56.3.0.CO;2-G>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hennevin, E., Hars, B., Maho, C. & Bloch, V. (1995) Processing of learned information in paradoxical sleep. Behavioural Brain Research 69(1–2):125–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hirsh, R. (1974) The hippocampus and contextual retrieval of information from memory: A theory. Behavioral Biology 12(4):421–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hirshman, E. (1988) The expectation-violation effect: Paradoxical effects of semantic relatedness. Journal of Memory and Language 27:4058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hobson, J. A. (1988) The dreaming brain: How the brain creates both the sense and the nonsense of dreams. Basic Books.Google Scholar
Hobson, J. A. (1999a) Consciousness. W. H. Freeman.Google ScholarPubMed
Hobson, J. A. (2002) Dreaming: An introduction to the science of sleep. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Hobson, J. A. (2004) A model for madness? Nature 430(6995):21. doi:10.1038/430021a.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hobson, J. A. (2005) 13 Dreams Freud never had: The new mind science. Pi Press.Google Scholar
Hobson, J. A. (2009) REM sleep and dreaming: Towards a theory of protoconsciousness. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience 10:803–14.Google ScholarPubMed
Hobson, J. A. (2011) Dream life. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Hobson, J. A. & Pace-Schott, E. F. (2002) The cognitive neuroscience of sleep: Neuronal systems, consciousness and learning. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience 3:679–93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hobson, J. A., Pace-Schott, E. F. & Stickgold, R. (2003) Dreaming and the brain: Toward a cognitive neuroscience of conscious states. In: Sleep and dreaming: Scientific advances and reconsiderations, ed. Pace-Schott, E. F., Solms, M., Blagrove, M. & Harnad, S., pp. 150. Cambridge University Press. (First published in the December 2000 Special Issue of BBS on “Sleep and dreaming,” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23(6):793–842).Google Scholar
Hoskins, A. (2009) Flashbulb memories, psychology and media studies: Fertile ground for interdisciplinarity? Memory Studies 2:147–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hughes, T (1997) By heart: 101 poems to remember. Faber and Faber.Google Scholar
Hunt, R. R. & Elliott, J. M. (1980) The role of nonsemantic information in memory: Orthographic distinctiveness effects on retention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 109:4974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hyde, T. S. & Jenkins, J. J. (1973) Recall for words as a function of semantic, graphic, and syntactic orienting tasks. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 12:471–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ironsmith, M. & Lutz, J. (1996) The effects of bizarreness and self-generation on mnemonic imagery. Journal of Mental Imagery 20:113–26.Google Scholar
Jacoby, L. L. (1991) A process dissociation framework: Separating automatic from intentional uses of memory. Journal of Memory and Language 30:513–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
James, W. (1890) Principles of psychology, 2 vols. Henry Holt.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Janowsky, J., Shimamura, A. P. & Squire, L. R. (1989) Source memory impairment in patients with frontal lobe lesions. Neuropsychologia 27:1043–56.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jenkins, J. G. & Dallenbach, K. M. (1924) Obliviscence during sleep and waking. American Journal of Psychology 35:605–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ji, D. & Wilson, M. A. (2007) Coordinated memory replay in the visual cortex and hippocampus during sleep. Nature Neuroscience 10:100107.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnson, M. K. & Chalfonte, B. L. (1994) Binding complex memories: The role of reactivation and the hippocampus. In: Memory systems 1994, ed. Schacter, D. L. & Tulving, E., pp. 311–50. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Jouvet, M. (1962) Recherches sur les structures nerveuses et les mechanisms responsables des différentes phases du sommeil physiologique. Archives of Italian Biology 100:125206.Google Scholar
Jouvet, M. (1965) Paradoxical sleep: A study of its nature and mechanism. Progress in Brain Research 18:2062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jouvet, M. (1967) Neurophysiology of the states of sleep. Physiological Reviews 47:117–77.Google Scholar
Jouvet, M. (1969) Biogenic amines and the states of sleep. Science 163:3241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jouvet, M. (1999) The paradox of sleep: The story of dreaming, trans. Garey, L.. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Kahn, D., Krippner, S. & Combs, A. (2000) Dreaming and the self-organizing brain. Journal of Consciousness Studies 7(7):411.Google Scholar
Kahn, D., Pace-Schott, E. F. & Hobson, J. A. (1997) Consciousness in waking and dreaming: The roles of neuronal oscillation and neuromodulation in determining similarities and differences. Neuroscience 78:1338.Google Scholar
Kandel, E. R. (2006) In search of memory: The emergence of a new science of mind. Norton.Google Scholar
Kanerva, P. (1988) Sparse distributed memory. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Karacan, I., Goodenough, D. R., Shapiro, A. & Starker, S. (1966) Erection cycle during sleep in relation to dream anxiety. Archives of General Psychiatry 15:183–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kauffman, S. A. (1993) The origins of order: Self-organization and selection in evolution. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Kearney, R. (2001) On stories. Routledge.Google Scholar
Kensinger, E. A. (2004) Remembering emotional experiences: The contribution of valence and arousal. Reviews in the Neurosciences 15:241–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keshavan, M. S., Montrose, D. M., Miewald, J. M. & Jindal, R. D. (2011) Sleep correlates of cognition in early course psychotic disorders. Schizophrenia Research 131:231–34.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kohonen, T. (1977) Associative memory: A system-theoretical approach. Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kohonen, T. (1988) Self-organization and associative memory, 2nd edition. Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kopelman, M. D., Wilson, B. A. & Baddeley, A. D. (1989) The autobiographical memory interview: A new assessment of autobiographical and personal semantic memory in amnesic patients. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 11(5):724–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kosslyn, S. M. (1980) Image and mind. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Kosslyn, S. M. (1996) Image and brain: The resolution of the imagery debate. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Kramer, M. (2007) The dream experience: A systematic exploration. Routledge.Google Scholar
Kramer, M., Whitman, R. M., Baldridge, B. J. & Lansky, L. M. (1964) Patterns of dreaming: The interrelationship of the dreams of a night. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 139:426–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuo, M. L. A. & Hooper, S. (2004) The effects of visual and verbal coding mnemonics on learning Chinese characters in computer-based instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development 52:2338.Google Scholar
Lavie, P., Matanya, Y. & Yehuda, S. (1984) Cognitive asymmetries after waking from REM and NREM sleep in right-handed females. International Journal of Neuroscience 23:111–15.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lea, G. (1975) Chronometric analysis of the method of loci. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1(2):95104.Google Scholar
Lee, K. H., Choi, Y. Y. & Gray, J. R. (2007) What about the neural basis of crystallized intelligence? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30(2):159–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Limb, C. J. & Braun, A. R. (2008) Neural substrates of spontaneous musical performance: An fMRI study of jazz improvisation. PLoS ONE 3(2):e1679. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001679.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Limosani, I., D'Agostino, A., Manzone, M. L. & Scarone, S. (2011b) The dreaming brain/mind, consciousness and psychosis. Consciousness and Cognition 20(4):987–92.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lisman, J. (2005) The theta/gamma phase code occurring during the hippocampal phase precession may be a more general brain coding scheme. Hippocampus 15:913–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Llewellyn, S. (2011) If waking and dreaming became dedifferentiated, would schizophrenia result? Consciousness and Cognition 20(4):1059–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Llinás, R. R. (2002) I of the vortex: From neurons to self. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Llinás, R. R. & Paré, D. (1991) Of dreaming and wakefulness. Neuroscience 44:521–35.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Llinás, R. R. & Ribary, U. (1993) Coherent 40-Hz oscillation characterizes dream state in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 90:2078–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lockhart, R. S., Craik, F. I. M. & Jacoby, L. (1976) Depth of processing, recognition and recall. In: Recall and recognition, ed. Brown, J., pp. 75102. Wiley.Google Scholar
Luria, A. R. (1968) The mind of a mnemonist: Little book about a vast memory. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Magnus, A. (2002) Commentary on Aristotle, on memory and recollection. In: The medieval craft of memory: An anthology of texts and pictures, ed. Carruthers, M. & Ziolkowski, J. M., pp. 118–52. University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
Maguire, E. A., Valentine, E. R., Wilding, J. M. & Kapur, N. (2003) Routes to remembering: The brains behind superior memory. Nature Neuroscience 6(1):9095.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mamelak, A. N. & Hobson, J. A. (1989) Dream bizarreness as the cognitive correlate of altered neuronal behavior in REM sleep. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 1(3):201–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mander, B. A., Santhanam, S., Saletin, J. M. & Walker, M. P. (2011) Wake deterioration and sleep restoration of human learning. Current Biology 21(5):183–84.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mandler, J. M. (1979) Categorical and schematic organization in memory. In: Memory organization and structure, ed. Puff, C. R., pp. 259–99. Academic Press.Google Scholar
Mandler, J. M. (1984) Stories, scripts, and scenes: Aspects of schema theory. Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Manns, J. R., Zilli, E. A., Ong, K. C., Hasselmo, M. E. & Eichenbaum, H. (2007) Hippocampal CA1 spiking during encoding and retrieval: Relation to the theta phase. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 87:920.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Manoach, D. S., Thakkar, K. N., Stroynowski, E., Ely, A., McKinley, S. K., Wamsley, E., Djonlagic, I., Vangel, M. G., Goff, D. C. & Stickgold, R. (2010) Reduced overnight consolidation of procedural learning in chronic medicated schizophrenia is related to specific sleep stages. Journal of Psychiatric Research 44(2):112–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maquet, P. (2000) Functional neuroimaging of normal human sleep by positron emission tomography. Journal of Sleep Research 9(3):207–31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maquet, P. (2005) Current status of brain imaging in sleep medicine. Sleep Medicine Reviews 9(3):155–56.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maquet, P., Laureys, S., Peigneux, P., Fuchs, S., Petiau, C., Phillips, C., Aerts, J., Del Fiore, G., Degueldre, C., Meulemans, T., Luxen, A., Franck, G., Van Der Linden, M., Smith, C. & Cleeremans, A. (2000) Experience-dependent changes in cerebral activation during human REM sleep. Nature Neuroscience 3:831–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maquet, P., Peters, J., Aerts, J., Delfiore, G., Degueldre, C., Luxen, A. & Franck, G. (1996) Functional neuroanatomy of human rapid-eye-movement sleep and dreaming. Nature 383(6596):163–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maquet, P. & Ruby, P. (2004) Insight and the sleep committee. Nature 427:304305.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marr, D. (1970) A theory for cerebral neocortex. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 176:161234.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marr, D. (1971) Simple memory: A theory for archicortex. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 262:2381.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Martindale, C. (1995) Creativity and connectionism. In: The creative cognition approach, ed. Smith, S. M., Ward, T. B. & Finke, R. A., pp. 249–68. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Massen, C. & Vaterrodt-Plünnecke, B. (2006) The role of proactive interference in mnemonic techniques. Memory 2:189–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Massimini, M., Ferrarelli, F., Huber, R., Esser, S. K., Singh, H. & Tononi, G. (2005) Breakdown of cortical effective connectivity during sleep. Science 309(5744):2228–32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Massimini, M., Ferrarelli, F., Murphy, M. J., Huber, R., Riedner, B. A., Casarotto, S. & Tononi, G. (2010) Cortical reactivity and effective connectivity during REM sleep in humans. Cognitive Neuroscience 1(3):176–83.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mazzarello, P. (2000) What dreams may come? Nature 408:523.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCarley, R. W. & Hoffman, E. (1981) REM sleep dreams and the activation-synthesis hypothesis. American Journal of Psychiatry 138(7):904–12.Google ScholarPubMed
McClelland, J. L. & Rumelhart, D. E. (1985) Distributed memory and the representation of general and specific information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 114:159–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCloskey, M. & Cohen, N. J. (1989) Catastrophic interference in connectionist networks: The sequential learning problem. In: The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory, vol. 24, ed. Bower, G. H., pp. 109–65. Academic Press.Google Scholar
McDaniel, M. A., DeLosh, E. L. & Merritt, P. S. (2000) Order information and retrieval distinctiveness: Recall of common versus bizarre material. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 26:1045–56.Google ScholarPubMed
McDaniel, M. A. & Einstein, G. O. (1986) Bizarre imagery as an effective memory aid: The importance of distinctiveness. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 12(1):5465.Google Scholar
McDaniel, M. A., Einstein, G. O., DeLosh, E. L., May, C. P. & Brady, P. (1995) The bizarreness effect: It's not surprising, it's complex. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 21:422–35.Google Scholar
McGaugh, J. L. (2004) The amygdala modulates the consolidation of memories of emotionally arousing experiences. Annual Review of Neuroscience 27:128.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Merleau-Ponty, M. (1945/2002) Phenomenology of perception: An introduction, 2nd edition. Psychology Press. (Original work published in French, 1945.)Google Scholar
Metzinger, T. (2003b) Phenomenal transparency and cognitive self-reference. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 2:353–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Metzinger, T. (2009) The ego tunnel: The science of the mind and the myth of the self. Basic Books.Google Scholar
Meyer, K. & Damasio, A. (2009) Convergence and divergence in a neural architecture for recognition and memory. Trends in Neurosciences 32(7):376–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, G. A. (1956) The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review 63:8197.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miller, R. (1989) Cortico-hippocampal interplay: Self-organizing phase-locked loops for indexing memories. Psychobiology 17(2):115–28.Google Scholar
Miller, R. (1991) Cortico-hippocampal interplay and the representation of contexts in the brain. Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, R. (1996) Neural assemblies and laminar interactions in the cerebral cortex. Biological Cybernetics 75:253–61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mizumori, S. J. Y., Cooper, B. G., Leutgeb, S. & Pratt, W. E. (2000) A neural systems analysis of adaptive navigation. Molecular Neurobiology 21:5782.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mizumori, S. J. Y., Ragozzino, K. E., Cooper, B. G. & Leutgeb, S. (1999) Hippocampal representational organization and spatial context. Hippocampus 9:444–51.3.0.CO;2-Z>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moè, A. & De Beni, R. (2005) Stressing the efficacy of the loci method: Oral presentation and the subject-generation of the loci pathway with expository passages. Applied Cognitive Psychology 19:95106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mölle, M., Bergmann, T. O., Marshall, L. & Born, J. (2011) Fast and slow spindles during sleep slow oscillation: Disparate coalescence and engagement in memory processes. Sleep 34(10):1411–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moscovitch, M. (1989) Confabulation and the frontal systems: Strategic versus associated retrieval in neuropsychological theories of memory. In: Varieties of memory and consciousness: Essays in honour of Endel Tulving, ed. Roediger III, H. L. & Craik, F. I. M., pp. 133–60. Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Moscovitch, M. (1992) Memory and working-with-memory: A component process model based on modules and central systems. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 4:257–67.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moscovitch, M. (1994) Cognitive resources and dual-task interference effects at retrieval in normal people: The role of the frontal lobes and medial temporal cortex. Neuropsychology 8:524–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moscovitch, M. & Nadel, L. (1998) Consolidation and the hippocampal complex revisited: In defense of the multiple-trace model. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 8:297300.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Müller, G. E. & Pilzecker, A. (1900) Experimentelle Beiträge zur Lehre vom Gedächtnis. Zeitschrift für Psychologie: Ergänzungsband 1:1300.Google Scholar
Nadel, L. & Moscovitch, M. (1997) Memory consolidation, retrograde amnesia and the hippocampal complex. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 7:217–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nadel, L., Samsonovitch, A., Ryan, L. & Moscovitch, M. (2000) Multiple trace theory of human memory: Computational, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological results. Hippocampus 10:352–68.3.0.CO;2-D>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neisser, U. (1962) Cultural and cognitive discontinuity. In: Anthropology and human behavior, ed. Gladwin, T. E. & Sturtevant, W., pp. 5471. Anthropological Society of Washington.Google Scholar
Neisser, U. & Hyman, I. E. Jr. (2000) Memory observed: Remembering in natural contexts, 2nd edition. Worth.Google Scholar
Nickerson, R. S. (1965) Short-term memory for complex meaningful visual configurations: A demonstration of capacity. Canadian Journal of Psychology 19:155–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nickerson, R. S. (1968) A note on long-term recognition for pictorial material. Psychonomic Science 11:58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nielson, T. A. (2003) A review of mentation in REM and NREM sleep: “Covert” REM sleep as a possible reconciliation of two opposing models. In: Sleep and dreaming: Scientific advances and reconsiderations, ed. Pace-Schott, E. F., Solms, M., Blagrove, M. & Harnad, S., pp. 5974. Cambridge University Press. (First published in the December 2000 Special Issue of BBS on “Sleep and dreaming,” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23(6):851–66).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nielsen, T. A., Kuiken, D., Alain, G., Stenstrom, P. & Powell, R. A. (2004) Immediate and delayed incorporations of events into dreams: Further replication and implications for dream function. Journal of Sleep Research 13:327–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nielsen, T. A. & Powell, R. A. (1988b) The dream lag effect: A temporal delay in dream incorporation. Paper presented the Fifth Annual International Conference of the Association for the Study of Dreaming, Santa Cruz, CA, June 28–July 2.Google Scholar
Nielsen, T. A. & Powell, R. A. (1989) The “dream-lag” effect: A 6-day temporal delay in dream content incorporation. Psychiatric Journal of the University of Ottawa 14:561–65.Google ScholarPubMed
Nielsen, T. A. & Powell, R. A. (1992) The day-residue and dream-lag effects: A literature review and limited replication of two temporal effects in dream formation. Dreaming 2(2):6777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nielsen, T. A. & Stenstrom, P. (2005) What are the memory sources of dreaming? Nature 437:1286–89.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nir, Y. & Tononi, G. (2010) Dreaming and the brain: From phenomenology to neurophysiology. Trends in Cognitive Science 14(2):88100. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2009.12.001.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nofzinger, E. A., Mintun, M. A., Wiseman, M., Kupfer, D. J. & Moore, R. Y. (1997) Forebrain activation in REM sleep: An FDG PET study. Brain Research 770(1–2):192201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O'Keefe, J. & Dostrovsky, J. (1971) The hippocampus as a spatial map. Preliminary evidence from unit activity in the freely-moving rat. Brain Research 34:171–75.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O'Keefe, J. & Nadel, L. (1978) The hippocampus as a cognitive map. Clarendon Press.Google ScholarPubMed
Osipova, D., Takashima, A., Oostenveld, R., Fernández, G., Maris, E. & Jensen, O. (2006) Theta and gamma oscillations predict encoding and retrieval of declarative memory. Journal of Neuroscience 26(28):7523–31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paivio, A. (1969) Mental imagery in associative learning and memory. Psychological Review 76:241–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paivio, A. (1970) On the functional significance of imagery. Psychological Bulletin 73(6):385–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paivio, A. (1971) Imagery and verbal processes. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
Paivio, A. (1986) Mental representations: A dual coding approach. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Paivio, A. (2007) Mind and its evolution: A dual coding theoretical approach. Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Paller, K. A. & Voss, J. L. (2004) Memory reactivation and consolidation during sleep. Learning and Memory 11:664–70.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Payne, J. D. & Nadel, L. (2004) Sleep, dreams, and memory consolidation: The role of the stress hormone cortisol. Learning and Memory 11:671–78.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Plihal, W. & Born, J. (1997) Effects of early and late nocturnal sleep on declarative and procedural memory. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 9(4):534–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Plihal, W. & Born, J. (1999) Effects of early and late nocturnal sleep on priming and spatial memory. Psychophysiology 36:571–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Polkinghorne, D. (1988) Narrative knowing and the human sciences. State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
Popper, K. (1959) The logic of scientific discovery. Basic Books.Google Scholar
Pylyshyn, Z. W. (1973) What the mind's eye tells the mind's brain: A critique of mental imagery. Psychological Bulletin 80:124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pylyshyn, Z. W. (2002) Mental imagery: In search of a theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25(2):157237.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ratcliff, R. (1990) Connectionist models of recognition memory: Constraints imposed by learning and forgetting functions. Psychological Review 97:285308.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rauchs, G., Bertran, F., Guillery-Girard, B., Desgranges, B., Kerrouche, N., Denise, P., Foret, J. & Eustache, F. (2004) Consolidation of strictly episodic memories mainly requires rapid eye movement sleep. Sleep 27:395401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rauchs, G., Desgranges, B., Foret, J. & Eustache, F. (2005) The relationships between memory systems and sleep stages. Journal of Sleep Research 14:123–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raz, A., Packard, M. G., Alexander, G. M., Buhle, J. T., Zhu, H., Yu, S. & Peterson, B. S. (2009) A slice of π: An exploratory neuroimaging study of digit encoding and retrieval in a superior memorist. Neurocase 15:(5):361–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rechtschaffen, A. (1978) The single-mindedness and isolation of dreams. Sleep 1(1):97109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Revonsuo, A. (2003) The reinterpretation of dreams: An evolutionary hypothesis of the function of dreaming. In: Sleep and dreaming: Scientific advances and reconsiderations, ed. Pace-Schott, E. F., Solms, M., Blagrove, M. & Harnad, S., pp. 85111. Cambridge University Press. (First published in the December 2000 Special Issue of BBS on “Sleep and dreaming,”Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23(6):877–901).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ribeiro, S. & Nicolelis, M. A. L. (2004) Reverberation, storage, and postsynaptic propagation of memories during sleep. Learning and Memory 11:686–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Richardson, J. T. E. (1980) Mental imagery and human memory. Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ricoeur, P. (1974) The conflict of interpretations, ed. Ihde, D.. Northwestern University Press.Google Scholar
Ricoeur, P. (1981) Hermeneutics and the human sciences: Essays on language, action and interpretation, ed. & trans. Thompson, J. B.. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rittenhouse, C. D., Stickgold, R. & Hobson, J. A. (1994) Constraint on the transformation of characters, objects, and settings in dream reports. Consciousness and Cognition 3:100–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, M. (2005) Housekeeping. Faber and Faber.Google Scholar
Roediger, H. L. (1980) The effectiveness of four mnemonics in ordering recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 6:558–67.Google Scholar
Rohwer, W. D. Jr. (1966) Constraints, syntax and meaning in paired-associate learning. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 5:541–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rolls, E. T. (2007) An attractor network in the hippocampus: Theory and neurophysiology. Learning and Memory 14:714–31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosanova, M. & Ulrich, D. (2005) Pattern-specific associative long-term potentiation induced by a sleep spindle-related spike train. Journal of Neuroscience 25(41):9398–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ross, J. & Lawrence, K. (1968) Some observations on memory artifice. Psychonomic Science 13:107108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rubin, D. C., Schrauf, R. W. & Greenberg, D. L. (2003) Belief and recollection of autobiographical memories. Memory and Cognition 31(6):887901.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ruby, P. & Decety, J. (2001) Effect of subjective perspective taking during simulation of action: A PET investigation of agency. Nature Neuroscience 4(5):546–50.Google Scholar
Rugg, M. D., Mark, R. E., Walla, P., Schloerscheidt, A. M., Birch, C. S. & Allan, K. (1998) Dissociation of the neural correlates of implicit and explicit memory. Nature 392:595–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sarter, M. & Bruno, J. P. (2000) Cortical cholinergic inputs mediating arousal, attentional processing and dreaming: Differential afferent regulation of the basal forebrain by telecephalic and brainstem afferents. Neuroscience 95:933–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scarone, S., Manzone, M. L., Gambini, O., Kantzas, I., Limosani, I., D'Agostino, A. & Hobson, J. A. (2008) The dream as a model for psychosis: An experimental approach using bizarreness as a cognitive marker. Schizophrenia Bulletin 34(3):515–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schabus, M., Gruber, G., Parapatics, S., Sauter, C., Klösch, G., Anderer, P., Klimesch, W., Saletu, B. & Zeitlhofer, J. (2004) Sleep spindles and their significance for memory consolidation. Sleep 27(8):1479–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schachtel, E. (1947) On memory and childhood amnesia. Psychiatry 10:126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schacter, D. L. (1987) Implicit memory: History and current status. Journal of Experimental Psychology; Learning, Memory, and Cognition 13(3):501–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schacter, D. L. (1992) Understanding implicit memory: A cognitive neuroscience approach. American Psychologist 47(4):559–69.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schacter, D. L. (1995) Memory distortion: How minds, brains, and societies reconstruct the past. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Schacter, D. L. (2001) How the mind forgets and remembers: The seven sins of memory. Souvenir Press.Google Scholar
Schacter, D. L. & Addis, D. R. (2007b) The cognitive neuroscience of constructive memory: Remembering the past and imagining the future. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 362:773–86.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schacter, D. L., Addis, D. R. & Buckner, R. L. (2007) Remembering the past to imagine the future: The prospective brain. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience 8:657–61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schacter, D. L., Norman, K. A. & Koutstaal, W. (1998) The cognitive neuroscience of constructive memory. Annual Review of Psychology 49:289318.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schmidt, S. R. (1991) Can we have a distinctive theory of memory? Memory and Cognition 19(6):523–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schredl, M. (2003) Dream research: Integration of physiological and psychological models [Open peer commentary]. In: Sleep and dreaming: Scientific advances and reconsiderations, ed. Pace-Schott, E. F., Solms, M., Blagrove, M. & Harnad, S., pp. 213–15. Cambridge University Press. (First published in the December 2000 Special Issue of BBS on “Sleep and dreaming,” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23(6):1001–1003).Google Scholar
Schredl, M. (2010) Characteristics and contents of dreams. International Review of Neurobiology, 92: 135–54.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scoville, W. B. & Milner, B. (1957) Loss of recent memory after bilateral hippocampal lesions. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 20:1121.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Seligman, M. & Yellen, A. (1987) What is a dream? Behaviour Research and Therapy 25:124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sharot, T., Delgado, M. R. & Phelps, E. A. (2004) How emotion enhances the feeling of remembering. Nature Neuroscience 7:1376–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shepard, R. N. (1967) Recognition memory for words, sentences, and pictures. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 6:156–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Siapas, A. G. & Wilson, M. A. (1998) Coordinated interactions between hippocampal ripples and cortical spindles during slow wave sleep. Neuron 21:1123–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Singer, W. & Gray, C. M. (1995) Visual feature integration and the temporal correlation hypothesis. Annual Review of Neuroscience 18:555–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sirota, A., Csicsvari, J., Buhl, D. & Buzsáki, G. (2003) Communication between neocortex and hippocampus during sleep in rodents. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 100:2065–69.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Slotnick, S. D. & Schacter, D. L. (2010) Conscious and nonconscious memory effects are temporally dissociable. Cognitive Neuroscience 1(1):815.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Snyder, F. (1970) The phenomenology of dreaming. In: The psychodynamic implications of the physiological studies on dreams, ed. Madow, L. & Snow, L. D., pp. 124–51. Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
Snyder, F., Karacan, J., Tharp, V. K. & Scott, J. (1968) Phenomenology of REMs dreaming [Abstract]. Psychophysiology 4:375.Google Scholar
Solms, M. (1997) The neuropsychology of dreams: A clinical–anatomical study. Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Solms, M. (2003a) Dreaming and REM sleep are controlled by different brain mechanisms. In: Sleep and dreaming: Scientific advances and reconsiderations, ed. Pace-Schott, E. F., Solms, M., Blagrove, M. & Harnad, S., pp. 5158. Cambridge University Press. (First published in the December 2000 Special Issue of BBS on “Sleep and dreaming,” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23(6):843–50).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Solms, M. & Turnbull, O. (2002) The brain and the inner world: An introduction to the neuroscience of the subjective experience. Other Press.Google Scholar
Spoormaker, V. I., Czisch, M., Maquet, P. & Jäncke, L. (2011) Large-scale functional brain networks in human non-rapid eye movement sleep: Insights from combined electroencephalographic/functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Physical, Mathematical and Engineering Sciences 369:3708–29.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spoormaker, V. I., Schröter, M. S., Gleiser, P. M., Andrade, K. C., Dresler, M., Wehrle, R., Sämann, P. G. & Czisch, M. (2010) Development of a large-scale functional brain network during human non-rapid eye movement sleep. Journal of Neuroscience 30(34):11379–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sporns, O. (2011a) Networks of the brain. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Sprenger, A., Lappe-Osthege, M., Talamo, S., Gais, S., Kimmig, H. & Helmchen, C. (2010) Eye movements during REM sleep and imagination of visual scenes. NeuroReport 21:4549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Squire, L. R. (1987) Memory and brain. Oxford University Press.Google ScholarPubMed
Squire, L. R. (2009) Memory and brain systems: 1969–2009. Journal of Neuroscience 29(41):12711–16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Squire, L. R., Knowlton, B. & Musen, G. (1993) The structure and organization of memory. Annual Review of Psychology 44:453–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Squire, L. R. & Zola, S. M. (1998) Episodic memory, semantic memory, and amnesia. Hippocampus 8:205–11.3.0.CO;2-I>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Standing, L. (1973) Learning 10,000 pictures. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 25:207–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Standing, L., Conezio, J. & Haber, R. N. (1970) Perception and memory for pictures: Single trial learning of 2500 visual stimuli. Psychonomic Science 19:7374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steriade, M. (2003) The corticothalamic system in sleep. Frontiers in Bioscience 8:878–99.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steriade, M. & Timofeev, I. (2003) Neuronal plasticity in thalamocortical networks during sleep and waking. Neuron 37(4):563–76.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stickgold, R. (2002) EMDR: A putative neurobiological mechanism of action. Journal of Clinical Psychology 58(1):6175.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stickgold, R. (2003) Inclusive versus exclusive approaches to sleep and dream research [Open peer commentary]. In: Sleep and dreaming: Scientific advances and reconsiderations, ed. Pace-Schott, E. F., Solms, M., Blagrove, M. & Harnad, S., pp. 223–25. Cambridge University Press. (First published in the December 2000 Special Issue of BBS on “Sleep and dreaming,” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23(6):1011–1013).Google Scholar
Stickgold, R. (2005) Sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Nature 427:1272–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stickgold, R. (2006) A memory boost while you sleep. Nature 444:559–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stickgold, R. (2009) How do I remember? Let me count the ways. Sleep Medicine Reviews 13:305308.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stickgold, R., Hobson, J. A., Fosse, R. & Fosse, M. (2001) Sleep, learning, and dreams: Off-line memory reprocessing. Science 294(5544):1052–57.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stickgold, R., Malia, A., Maguire, D., Roddenberry, D. & O'Connor, M. (2000) Replaying the game: Hypnagogic images in normals and amnesics. Science 290(5490):350–53.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stickgold, R., Rittenhouse, C. D., & Hobson, J. A. (1994) Dream splicing: A new technique for assessing thematic coherence in subjective reports of mental activity. Consciousness and Cognition: An International Journal.3(1):114–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stickgold, R., Scott, L., Rittenhouse, C. & Hobson, J. A. (1999) Sleep-induced changes in associative memory. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 11:182–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stickgold, R. & Walker, M. P. (2007) Sleep-dependent memory consolidation and reconsolidation. Sleep Medicine 8(4):331–43.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Szpunar, K. K., Watson, J. M. & McDermott, K. B. (2007) Neural substrates of envisioning the future. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104(2):642–47.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tamminen, J., Payne, J. D., Stickgold, R., Wamsley, E. J. & Gaskell, M. G. (2010) Sleep spindle activity is associated with the integration of new memories and existing knowledge. Journal of Neuroscience 30(43):14356–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Teyler, T. J. & DiScenna, P. (1986) The hippocampal memory indexing theory. Behavioral Neuroscience 100(2):147–54.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Teyler, T. J. & Rudy, J. W. (2007) The hippocampal indexing theory and episodic memory: Updating the index. Hippocampus 17(12):1158–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tononi, G. (2004) An information integration theory of consciousness. BMC Neuroscience 5(42):122. doi: 10.1186/1471-2202-5-42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tononi, G. (2008) Consciousness as integrated information: A provisional manifesto. Biological Bulletin 215:216–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tononi, G. & Edelman, G. M. (1998) Consciousness and complexity. Science 282:1846–51.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tononi, G., Sporns, O. & Edelman, G. M. (1994) A measure for brain complexity: Relating functional segregation and integration in the nervous system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 91:5033–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tsakiris, M., Prabhu, G. & Haggard, P. (2006) Having a body versus moving your body: How agency structures body-ownership. Consciousness and Cognition 15(2):423–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tulving, E. (1983) Elements of episodic memory. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Tulving, E. (1991) Concepts in human memory. In: Memory: Organization and locus of change, ed. Squire, L. R., Weinberger, N. M., Lynch, G. & McGaugh, J., pp. 332. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Tulving, E., Markowitsch, H. J., Craik, F. I. M., Habib, R. & Houle, S. (1996) Novelty and familiarity activations in PET studies of memory encoding and retrieval. Cerebral Cortex 6(1):7179.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tulving, E. & Thomson, D. M. (1973) Encoding specificity and retrieval processes in episodic memory. Psychological Review 80:352–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Uttl, B. (2005) Measurement of individual differences: Lessons from memory assessment research and clinical practice. Psychological Science 16:460–67.Google ScholarPubMed
Vanderwolf, C. H. (1969) Hippocampal electrical activity and voluntary movement in the rat. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 26:407–18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vertes, R. P. (2005a) Hippocampal theta rhythm: A tag for short-term memory. Hippocampus 15:923–35.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vertes, R. P. (2005b) Sleep is for rest, waking consciousness is for learning and memory – of any kind. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28(1):8687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vertes, R. P. & Siegel, J. M. (2005) Time for the sleep community to take a critical look at the purported role of sleep in memory processing. Sleep 10:1228–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vogt, S. & Magnussen, S. (2007) Long-term memory for 400 pictures on a common theme. Experimental Psychology 54:298303.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wagner, U., Gais, S. & Born, J. (2001) Emotional memory formation is enhanced across sleep intervals with high amounts of rapid eye movement sleep. Learning and Memory 8:112–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wagner, U., Gais, S., Haider, H., Verleger, R. & Born, J. (2004) Sleep inspires insight. Nature 427(6972):352–55.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Walker, M. P., Liston, C., Hobson, J. A. & Stickgold, R. (2002) Cognitive flexibility across the sleep-wake cycle: REM-sleep enhancement of anagram problem solving. Brain Research: Cognitive Brain Research 14(3):317–24.Google Scholar
Walker, M. P. & Stickgold, R. (2010) Overnight alchemy: Sleep-dependent memory evolution. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience 11(3):218.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wamsley, E. J. & Stickgold, R. (2010) Dreaming and off-line memory processing. Current Biology 20:R1010–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wamsley, E. J., Tucker, M., Payne, J. D., Benavides, J. A. & Stickgold, R. (2010) Dreaming of a learning task is associated with enhanced sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Current Biology 20:850–55.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, A. Y. & Thomas, M. H. (2000) Looking for long-term effects on serial recall: The legacy of Simonides. American Journal of Psychology 113:331–40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Whitman, R., Pierce, C., Maas, J. & Baldridge, B. (1962) The dreams of the experimental subject. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 134:431–39.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wierzynski, C. M., Lubenov, E. V., Gu, M. & Siapas, A. G. (2009) State-dependent spike-timing relationships between hippocampal and prefrontal circuits. Neuron 61:587–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilding, J. & Valentine, E. (1997) Superior memory: Essays in cognitive psychology. Psychology Press.Google Scholar
Wilhelm, I., Diekelmann, S., Molzow, I., Ayoub, A., Mölle, M. & Born, J. (2011) Sleep selectively enhances memory expected to be of future relevance. Journal of Neuroscience 31(5):1563–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wills, T. J., Lever, C., Cacucci, F., Burgess, N. & O'Keefe, J. (2005) Attractor dynamics in the hippocampal representation of the local environment. Science 308(5723):873–76.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wilson, M. (2002) Six views of embodied cognition. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 9(4):625–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Winson, J. (1972) Interspecies differences in occurrence of theta. Behavioral Biology 7:479–87.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Winson, J. (1986) Brain and psyche: The biology of the unconscious. Vintage Books.Google Scholar
Winson, J. (1993) The biology and function of rapid eye movement sleep. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 3:243–48.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Winson, J. (2002) The meaning of dreams. Scientific American 12:5461.Google Scholar
Winson, J. (2004) To sleep, perchance to dream. Learning and Memory 11:659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Witkin, H. A. & Lewis, H. B. (1967) Presleep experiences and dreams. In: Experimental studies of dreaming, ed. Witkin, H. A. & Lewis, H. B., pp. 164–65. Random House.Google Scholar
Wollen, K. A. & Lowry, D. H. (1974) Conditions that determine effectiveness of picture-mediated paired-associate learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102(1):181–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woodward, A. E., Bjork, R. A. & Jongeward, R. H. (1973) Recall and recognition as a function of primary rehearsal. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 12:608–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Worthen, J. B. & Hunt, R. R. (2008) Mnemonics: Underlying processes and practical applications. In: Cognitive psychology of memory, vol. 2: Learning and memory – A comprehensive reference, 4 vols., ed. Roediger III, H. L. & Byrne, J. pp. 145–56. Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Worthen, J. B. (2006) Resolution of discrepant memory strengths: An explanation of the effects of bizarreness on memory. In: Distinctiveness and memory, ed. Hunt, R. R. & Worthen, J. B., pp. 133–56. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Worthen, J. B. & Hunt, R. R. (2011) Mnemonology: Mnemonics for the 21st century. Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
Yates, F. A. (1966) The art of memory. Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
Yin, R. K. (1991) Case study research: Design and methods. Sage.Google Scholar
Zadra, A. L., Nielsen, T. A. & Donderi, D. C. (1997) The prevalence of auditory, olfactory, gustatory and pain experiences in 3372 home dreams. Sleep Research 26:181.Google Scholar
Zalesky, A., Fornito, A., Harding, I. H., Cocchi, L., Yücel, M., Pantelis, C. & Bullmore, E. T. (2010) Whole-brain anatomical networks: Does the choice of nodes matter? NeuroImage 50:970–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zeki, S. (1978) Functional specialization in the visual cortex of the rhesus monkey. Nature 274:423–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zeki, S. & Shipp, S. (1988) The functional logic of cortical connections. Nature 335:311–17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zola-Morgan, S. & Squire, L. R. (1993) Neuroanatomy of memory. Annual Review of Neuroscience 16:547–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cited by