Skip to main content
×
Home

An integrated theory of language production and comprehension

  • Martin J. Pickering (a1) and Simon Garrod (a2)
Abstract
Abstract

Currently, production and comprehension are regarded as quite distinct in accounts of language processing. In rejecting this dichotomy, we instead assert that producing and understanding are interwoven, and that this interweaving is what enables people to predict themselves and each other. We start by noting that production and comprehension are forms of action and action perception. We then consider the evidence for interweaving in action, action perception, and joint action, and explain such evidence in terms of prediction. Specifically, we assume that actors construct forward models of their actions before they execute those actions, and that perceivers of others' actions covertly imitate those actions, then construct forward models of those actions. We use these accounts of action, action perception, and joint action to develop accounts of production, comprehension, and interactive language. Importantly, they incorporate well-defined levels of linguistic representation (such as semantics, syntax, and phonology). We show (a) how speakers and comprehenders use covert imitation and forward modeling to make predictions at these levels of representation, (b) how they interweave production and comprehension processes, and (c) how they use these predictions to monitor the upcoming utterances. We show how these accounts explain a range of behavioral and neuroscientific data on language processing and discuss some of the implications of our proposal.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Adank P. & Devlin J. T. (2010) On-line plasticity in spoken sentence comprehension: Adapting to time-compressed speech. NeuroImage 49:1124–32.
Adank P., Hagoort P. & Bekkering H. (2010) Imitation improves language comprehension. Psychological Science 21:1903–909.
Allopena P. D., Magnuson J. S. & Tanenhaus M. K. (1998) Tracking the time course of spoken word recognition using eye movements: Evidence for continuous mapping models. Journal of Memory and Language 38:419–39.
Altmann G. T. M. & Kamide Y. (1999) Incremental interpretation at verbs: Restricting the domain of subsequent reference. Cognition 73(3):247–64.
Altmann G. T. M. & Mirkovic J. (2009) Incrementality and prediction in human sentence processing. Cognitive Science 33(4):583609.
Barsalou L. (1999) Perceptual symbol systems. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22:577600.
Bavelas J. B., Coates L. & Johnson T. (2000) Listeners as co-narrators. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 79:941–52.
Ben Shalom D. & Poeppel D. (2008) Functional anatomic models of language: assembling the pieces. The Neuroscientist 14:119–27.
Blackmer E. R. & Mitton J. L. (1991) Theories of monitoring and the timing of repairs in spontaneous speech. Cognition 39:173–94.
Blakemore S.-J., Frith C. D. & Wolpert D. M. (1999) Spatio-temporal prediction modulates the perception of self-produced stimuli. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 11:551–59.
Bock J. K. (1996) Language production: Methods and methodologies. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 3:395421.
Bock J. K. & Levelt W. J. M. (1994) Language production: Grammatical encoding. In: Handbook of psycholinguistics, ed. Gernsbacher M. A., Academic Press.
Bock K. & Miller C. A (1991) Broken agreement. Cognitive Psychology 23:4593.
Branigan H. P., Pickering M. J. & Cleland A. A. (2000) Syntactic coordination in dialogue. Cognition 75:B1325.
Brown R. & McNeill D. (1966) The “tip of the tongue” phenomenon. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 5:325–37.
Chang F., Dell G. S. & Bock K. (2006) Becoming syntactic. Psychological Review 113(2):234272.
Chartrand T. L. & Bargh J. A. (1999) The chameleon effect: The perception-behavior link and social interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76:893910.
Clark H. H. (1996) Using language. Cambridge University Press.
Clark H. H. & Wilkes-Gibbs D. (1986) Referring as a collaborative process. Cognition 22:139.
Corley M., Brocklehurst P. H. & Moat H. S. (2011) Error biases in inner and overt speech: Evidence from tongue twisters. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 37(1):162–75. DOI:10.1037/a0021321.
Csibra G. & Gergely G. (2007) ‘Obsessed with goals’: Functions and mechanisms of teleological interpretation of actions in humans. Acta Psychologica 124:6078.
D'Ausilio A., Jarmolowska J., Busan P., Bufalari I. & Craighero L. (2011) Tongue corticospinal modulation during attended verbal stimuli: Priming and coarticulation effects. Neuropsychologia 49:3670–76.
D'Ausilio A., Pulvermüller F., Salmas P., Bufalari I., Begliomini C. & Fadiga L. (2009) The motor somatotopy of speech perception. Current Biology 19:381–85.
Davidson P. R. & Wolpert D. M. (2005) Widespread access to predictive models in the motor system: A short review. Journal of Neural Engineering 2:S313–19.
De Ruiter J. P., Mitterer H. & Enfield N. J. (2006) Predicting the end of a speaker's turn; a cognitive cornerstone of conversation. Language 82(3):515–35.
Dell G. S. (1986) A spreading-activation theory of retrieval in sentence production. Psychological Review 93:283321.
Dell G. S. (1988) The retrieval of phonological forms in production: Tests of predictions from a connectionist model. Journal of Memory and Language 27:124–42.
Dell G. S., Schwartz M. F., Martin N., Saffran E. M. & Gagnon D. A. (1997) Lexical access in aphasic and nonaphasic speakers. Psychological Review 104:801–38.
DeLong K. A., Urbach T. P. & Kutas M. (2005) Probabilistic word pre-activation during language comprehension inferred from electrical brain activity. Nature Neuroscience 8(8):1117–21.
Desai R. H., Binder J. R., Conant L. L. & Seidenberg M. S. (2010) Activation of sensory-motor areas in sentence comprehension. Cerebral Cortex 20:468–78.
Di Pellegrino G., Fadiga L., Fogassi L., Gallese V. & Rizzolatti G. (1992) Understanding motor events: A neurophysiological study. Experimental Brain Research 91(1):176–80.
Dijksterhuis A. & Bargh J. A. (2001) The perception-behavior expressway: Automatic effects of social perception on social behavior. In: Advances in experimental social psychology, vol. 33, ed. Zanna M. P., pp. 140. Academic Press.
Dikker S. & Pylkkänen L. (2011) Before the N400: Effects of lexical-semantic violations in visual cortex. Brain and Language 118:2328.
Dikker S., Rabagliati H., Farmer T. A. & Pylkkänen L. (2010) Early occipital sensitivity to syntactic category is based on form typicality. Psychological Science 21:629–34.
Dikker S., Rabagliati H. & Pylkkänen L. (2009) Sensitivity to syntax in visual cortex. Cognition 110(3):293321.
Echterhoff G., Higgins E. T. & Levine J. M. (2009) Shared reality: Experiencing commonality with others' inner states about the world. Perspectives on Psychological Science 4:496521.
Elman J. L. (1990) Finding structure in time. Cognitive Science, 14(2), 179211.
Fadiga L., Craighero L., Buccino G. & Rizzolati G. (2002) Speech listening specifically modultes the excitability of tongue muscles: A TMS study. European Journal of Neuroscience 15:399402.
Federmeier K. D. (2007) Thinking ahead: The role and roots of prediction in language comprehension. Psychophysiology 44:491505.
Ferreira F. (2003) The misinterpretation of noncanonical sentences. Cognitive Psychology 47:164203.
Ferreira V. S. (1996) Is it better to give than to donate? Syntactic flexibility in language production. Journal of Memory and Language 35:724–55.
Fischer M. H. & Zwaan R. A. (2008) Embodied language: A review of the role of the motor system in language comprehension. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology (2006) 61(6):825–50. DOI:10.1080/17470210701623605.
Fodor J. A. (1983) The modularity of mind. MIT Press.
Fowler C. A., Brown J., Sabadini L. & Weihing J. (2003) Rapid access to speech gestures in perception: Evidence from choice and simple response time tasks. Journal of Memory and Language 49:296314.
Frazier L. (1987) Sentence processing: A tutorial review. In: Attention and performance XII: The psychology of reading, ed. Coltheart M., pp. 559–86. Erlbaum.
Freyd J. J. & Finke R. A. (1984) Representational momentum. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 10:126–32.
Gallese V. (2008) Mirror neurons and the social nature of language: The neural exploitation hypothesis. Social Neuroscience 3:317–33.
Garrett M. (1980) Levels of processing in speech production. In: Language production, vol. 1. Speech and talk, ed. Butterworth B., pp. 177220. Academic Press.
Garrett M. (2000) Remarks on the architecture of language production systems. In: Language and the brain: Representation and processing. ed. Grodzinsky Y. & Shapiro L. P., pp. 3169. Academic Press.
Garrod S. & Anderson A. (1987) Saying what you mean in dialogue: A study in conceptual and semantic co-ordination. Cognition 27:181218.
Garrod S. & Pickering M. J. (2004) Why is conversation so easy? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8(1):811.
Garrod S. & Pickering M. J. (2009) Joint action, interactive alignment and dialogue. Topics in Cognitive Science 1:292304.
Gaskell G. (2007) Oxford handbook of psycholinguistics. Oxford University Press.
Gergely G., Bekkering H. & Király I. (2002) Developmental psychology: Rational imitation in preverbal infants. Nature 415:755.
Gibson E. (1998) Linguistic complexity: Locality of syntactic dependencies. Cognition 68:176.
Glenberg A. M. & Gallese V. (2012) Action-based language: A theory of language acquisition, comprehension, and production. Cortex 48(7):905–22. DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2011.04.010.
Glenberg A. M. & Kaschak M. P. (2002) Grounding language in action. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 9:558–65.
Goldberg A. E. (1995) Constructions: A construction grammar approach to argument structure. University of Chicago Press.
Goldman A. I. (2006) Simulating minds. The philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience of mindreading. Oxford University Press.
Gordon R. (1986) Folk psychology as simulation. Mind and Language 1:158–71.
Graf M., Schütz-Bosbach S. & Prinz W. (2010) Motor involvement in object perception: Similarity and complementarity. In: Grounding sociality: Neurons, minds, and culture, ed. Semin G. & Echterhoff G., pp. 2752. Psychology Press.
Gregoromichelaki E., Kempson R., Purver M., Mills J. G., Cann R., Meyer-Viol W. & Healey P. G. T. (2011) Incrementality and intention–recognition in utterance processing. Dialogue and Discourse 2:199233.
Grush R. (2004) The emulation theory of representation: Motor control, imagery, and perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27(3):377–96.
Häberle A., Schütz-Bosbach S., Laboissière R. & Prinz W. (2008) Ideomotor action in cooperative and competitive settings. Social Neuroscience 3:2636.
Hale J. (2006) Uncertainty about the rest of the sentence. Cognitive Science 30:609–42.
Hanna J. E., Tanenhaus M. K. & Trueswell J. C. (2003) The effects of common ground and perspective on domains of referential interpretation. Journal of Memory and Language 49:4361.
Harley T. (2008) The psychology of language: From data to theory, 3rd Edn., Psychology Press.
Hartsuiker R. J. & Kolk H. H. J. (2001) Error monitoring in speech production: A computational test of the Perceptual Loop Theory. Cognitive Psychology 42:11357.
Haruno M., Wolpert D. M. & Kawato M. (2001) MOSAIC Model for sensorimotor learning and control. Neural Computation 13:2201–20.
Haruno M., Wolpert D. M. & Kawato M. (2003) Hierarchical MOSAIC for movement generation. International Congress Series 1250:575–90.
Haueisen J. & Knösche T. R. (2001) Involuntary motor activity in pianists evoked by music perception. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 13:786–92.
Hawkins J. A. (1994) A performance theory of order and constituency. Cambridge University Press.
Heim S., Opitz B., Müller K. & Friederici A. D. (2003) Phonological processing during language production: fMRI evidence for a shared production-comprehension network. Cognitive Brain Research 12:285–29.
Heinks-Maldonado T. H., Nagarajan S. S. & Houde J. F. (2006) Magnetoencephalographic evidence for a precise forward model in speech production. NeuroReport 17(13):1375–79.
Hommel B., Müsseler J., Aschersleben G. & Prinz W. (2001) The theory of event coding (TEC): A framework for perception and action planning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24:849–78.
Hostetter A. B. & Alibali M. W. (2008) Visual embodiment: Gesture as simulated action. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 15:495514.
Howes C., Purver M., Healey P. G. T., Mills G. J. & Gregoromichelaki E. (2011) Incrementality in dialogue: Evidence from compound contributions. Dialogue and Discourse 2:279311.
Huettig F. & Hartsuiker R. J. (2010) Listening to yourself is like listening to others: External, but not internal, verbal self-monitoring is based on speech perception. Language and Cognitive Processes 25:347–74.
Huettig F. & McQueen J. M. (2007) The tug of war between phonological, semantic and shape information in language-mediated visual search. Journal of Memory and Language 57:460–82.
Huettig F., Rommers J. & Meyer A. S. (2011) Using the visual world paradigm to study language processing: A review and critical evaluation. Acta Psychologica 137:151–71.
Hurley S. (2008a) The shared circuits model (SCM): How control, mirroring, and simulation can enable imitation, deliberation, and mindreading. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31(01):122.
Hurley S. (2008b) Understanding simulation. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 77:755–74.
Indefrey P. & Levelt W. J. M. (2004) The spatial and temporal signatures of word production components. Cognition 92:101–44.
Ito T., Tiede M. & Ostry D. J. (2009) Somatosensory function in speech perception. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106:1245–48.
Jaeger T. F. (2010) Redundancy and reduction: Speakers manage syntactic information density. Cognitive Psychology 61:2362.
Kaiser E. & Trueswell J. C. (2004) The role of discourse context in the processing of a flexible word-order language. Cognition 94:113–47.
Kamide Y., Altmann G. T. M. & Haywood S. L. (2003) Prediction and thematic information in incremental sentence processing: Evidence from anticipatory eye movements. Journal of Memory and Language 49:133–56.
Keysar B., Barr D. J., Balin J. A. & Brauner J. S. (2000) Taking perspective in conversation: The role of mutual knowledge in comprehension. Psychological Science 11:3238.
Kilner J. M., Paulignan Y. & Blakemore S.-J. (2003) An interference effect of observed biological movement on action. Current Biology 13:522–25.
Kim A. & Lai V. (2012) Rapid interactions between lexical semantic and word form analysis during word recognition in context: Evidence from ERPs. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 24: 1104–12.
Knoblich G. & Flach R. (2001) Predicting action effects: Interaction between perception and action. Psychological Science 12:467–72.
Knoblich G., Seigerschmidt E., Flach R. & Prinz W. (2002) Authorship effects in the prediction of handwriting strokes: Evidence for action simulation during action perception. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 55A:1027–46.
Knoeferle P., Crocker M. W., Scheepers C. & Pickering M. J. (2005) The influence of the immediate visual context on incremental thematic role-assignment: Evidence from eye-movements in depicted events. Cognition 95:95127.
Kutas M., DeLong K. A. & Smith N. J. (2011). A look around at what lies ahead: Prediction and predictability in language processing. In: Predictions in the brain: Using our past to generate a future, ed. Bar M., pp. 190207. Oxford University Press.
Lakin J. & Chartrand T. L. (2003) Using nonconscious behavioral mimicry to create affiliation and rapport. Psychological Science 14:334–39.
Lau E., Stroud C., Plesch S. & Phillips C. (2006) The role of structural prediction in rapid syntactic analysis. Brain and Language 98:7488.
Laver J. D. M. (1980) Monitoring systems in the neurolinguistic control of speech production. In: Errors in linguistic performance: Slips of the tongue, ear, pen, and hand, ed. Fromkin V. A., Academic Press.
Levelt W. J. M. (1983) Monitoring and self-repair in speech. Cognition 14:41104.
Levelt W. J. M. (1989) Speaking: From intention to articulation. MIT Press.
Levelt W. J. M., Roelofs A. & Meyer A. S. (1999) A theory of lexical access in speech production. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22(1):175.
Levy R. (2008) Expectation-based syntactic comprehension. Cognition 106(3):1126–77.
MacDonald M. C., Pearlmutter N. J. & Seidenberg M. S. (1994) The lexical nature of syntactic ambiguity resolution. Psychological Review 101:676703.
MacKay D. G. (1982) The problems of flexibility, fluency, and speed-accuracy trade-off in skilled behaviors. Psychological Review 89:483506.
Mar R. A. (2004) The neuropsychology of narrative: Story comprehension, story production and their interrelation. Neuropsychologia 42:1414–34.
Marslen-Wilson W. D. & Welsh A. (1978) Processing interactions and lexical access during word recognition in continuous speech. Cognitive Psychology 10:2963.
Menenti L., Gierhan S. M. E., Segaert K. & Hagoort P. (2011) Shared language: Overlap and segregation of the neuronal infrastructure for speaking and listening revealed by fMRI. Psychological Science 22:1173–82.
Metzing C. & Brennan S. E. (2003) When conceptual pacts are broken: Partner-specific effects in the comprehension of referring expressions. Journal of Memory and Language 49:201–13.
Miall R. C., Stanley J., Todhunter S., Levick C., Lindo S. & Miall J. D. (2006) Performing hand actions assists the visual discrimination of similar hand postures. Neuropsychologia 44:966–76.
Motley M. T., Camden C. T. & Baars B. J. (1982) Covert formulation and editing of anomalies in speech production: Evidence from experimentally elicited slips of the tongue. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 21:578–94.
Mottonen R. & Watkins K. E. (2009) Motor representations of articulators contribute to categorical perception of speech sounds. Journal of Neuroscience 29(31):9819–25. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6018-08.2009.
Mukamel R., Ekstrom A. D., Kaplan J., Iacoboni M. & Fried I. (2010) Single-neuron responses in humans during execution and observation of actions. Current Biology 20:750–56.
Neda Z., Ravasz Y., Brechet T., Vicsek T. & Barabasi A. L. (2000) The sound of many hands clapping. Nature 403:849.
Newman-Norlund R. D., van Schie H. T., van Zuijlen A. M. J. & Bekkering H. (2007) The mirror neuron system is more active during complementary compared with imitative action. Nature Neuroscience 10:817–18.
Nozari N., Dell G. S. & Schwartz M. F. (2011) Is comprehension necessary for error detection? A conflict-based account of monitoring in speech production. Cognitive Psychology 63(1):133. DOI:10.1016/j.cogpsych.2011.05.001.
Oppenheim G. M. & Dell G. S. (2008) Inner speech slips exhibit lexical bias, but not the phonemic similarity effect. Cognition 106(1):528–37. DOI:10.1016/j.cognition.2007.02.006.
Oppenheim G. M. & Dell G. S. (2010) Motor movement matters: The flexible abstractness of inner speech. Memory & cognition 38(8):1147–60. DOI:10.1016/j.cognition.2007.02.006.
Pardo J. S. (2006) On phonetic convergence during conversational interaction. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 119:2382–93.
Paus T., Perry D. W., Zatorre R. J., Worsley K. J. & Evans A. C. (1996) Modulation of cerebral blood flow in the human auditory cortex during speech: Role of motor-to-sensory discharges. European Journal of Neuroscience. 8:2236–46.
Peterson R. R., Burgess C., Dell G. S. & Eberhard K. A. (2001) Dissociation between syntactic and semantic processing during idiom comprehension. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 27:1223–37.
Pezzulo G. (2011a) Grounding procedural and declarative knowledge in sensorimotor anticipation. Mind and Language 26:78114.
Pickering M. J. & Garrod S. (2004) Toward a mechanistic psychology of dialogue. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27(2):169226.
Pickering M. J. & Garrod S. (2007) Do people use language production to make predictions during comprehension? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11(3): 105–10.
Plaut D. C. & Kello C. T. (1999) The emergence of phonology from the interplay of speech comprehension and production: A distributed connectionist approach. In: The emergence of language, ed. MacWhinney B., pp. 381415. Erlbaum.
Postma A. (2000) Detection of errors during speech production. A review of speech monitoring models. Cognition 77: 97131.
Prinz W. (2006) What renactment earns us. Cortex 42:515–18.
Pulvermüller F. & Fadiga L. (2010) Active perception: Sensorimotor circuits as a cortical basis for language. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 11(5):351–60. DOI: 10.1038/nrn2811.
Pulvermüller F., Huss M., Kherif F., Moscoso del Prado Martin F., Hauk O. & Shtyrov Y. (2006) Motor cortex maps articulatory features of speech sounds. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103(20):7865–70.
Rapp B. & Goldrick M. (2000) Discreteness and interactivity in spoken word production. Psychological Review 107:460–99.
Rapp B. & Goldrick M. (2004). Feedback by any other name is still interactivity: A reply to Roelofs (2004). Psychological Review 111:573–78.
Richardson M. J., Marsh K. L., Isenhower R. W., Goodman J. R. L. & Schmidt R. C. (2007) Rocking together: Dynamics of intentional and unintentional interpersonal coordination. Human Movement Science 26:867–91.
Roelofs A. (2004). Error biases in spoken word planning and monitoring by aphasic and nonaphasic speakers: Comment on Rapp and Goldrick (2000). Psychological Review 111:561–72.
Sacks H., Schegloff E. A. & Jefferson G. (1974) A simplest systematics for the organization of turn-taking for conversation. Language 50:696735.
Sahin N. T., Pinker S., Cash S. S., Schomer D. & Halgren E. (2009) Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and articulatory information within Broca's area. Science 326:445–49.
Sams M., Möttönen R. & Sihvonen T. (2005) Seeing and hearing others and oneself talk. Brain Research: Cognitive Brain Research 23(2–3):429–35.
Sanford A. J. & Garrod S. C. (1981) Understanding written language. Wiley.
Schlenck K.-J., Huber W. & Willmes K. (1987) “Prepairs” and repairs: Different monitoring functions in aphasic language production. Brain and Language 30:226–44.
Schober M. F. & Clark H. H. (1989) Understanding by addressees and overhearers. Cognitive Psychology 21:211–32.
Schriefers H., Meyer A. S. & Levelt W. J. M. (1990) Exploring the time course of lexical access in language production: Picture-word interference studies. Journal of Memory and Language 29:86102.
Scott S. & Johnsrude I. S. (2003) The neuroanatomical and functional organisation of speech perception. Trends in Neurosciences 26: 100107.
Scott S., McGettigan C. & Eisner F. (2009) A little more conversation, a little less action – candidate roles for the motor cortex in speech perception. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 10:295302.
Sebanz N., Bekkering H. & Knoblich G. (2006a) Joint action: Bodies and minds moving together. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10(2):7076.
Sebanz N. & Knoblich G. (2009) Prediction in joint action: What, when, and where. Topics in Cognitive Science 1:353–67.
Sebanz N., Knoblich G., Prinz W. & Wascher E. (2006b) Twin peaks: An ERP study of action planning and control in coacting individuals. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 18:859–70.
Segaert K., Menenti L., Weber K., Petersson K. M. & Hagoort P. (2012) Shared syntax in language production and language comprehension – an fMRI study. Cerebral Cortex 22:1662–70.
Shockley K., Santana M. V. & Fowler C. A. (2003) Mutual interpersonal postural constraints are involved in cooperative conversation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 29:326–32.
Stanley J., Gowen E. & Miall R. C. (2007) Effects of agency on movement interference during observation of a moving dot stimulus. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 33:915–26.
Staub A. & Clifton C. Jr. (2006) Syntactic prediction in language comprehension: Evidence from either…or. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 32:425–36.
Stephens G. J., Silbert L. J. & Hasson U. (2010) Speaker-listener neural coupling underlies successful communication. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:14425–30.
Swinney D. (1979) Lexical access during sentence comprehension: (Re) consideration of context effects. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 18:645–59.
Tian X. & Poeppel D. (2010) Mental imagery of speech and movement implicates the dynamics of internal forward models. Frontiers in Psychology 1:166.
Tourville J. A. & Guenther F. H. (2011) The DIVA model: A neural theory of speech acquisition and production. Language and Cognitive Processes 26:952–81.
Tourville J. A., Reily K. J. & Guenther F. K. (2008) Neural mechanisms underlying auditory feedback control of speech. NeuroImage 39:1429–43.
Trueswell J. C., Tanenhaus M. K. & Garnsey S. M. (1994) Semantic influences on parsing: Use of thematic role information in syntactic ambiguity resolution. Journal of Memory and Language 33:285318.
Umiltà M. A., Kohler E., Gallese V., Fogassi L., Fadiga L., Keysers C. & Rizzolatti G. (2001) I know what you are doing: A neurophysiological study. Neuron, 32:91101.
Van Berkum J. J. A., Brown M. C., Zwitserlood P., Kooijman V. & Hagoort P. (2005) Anticipating upcoming words in discourse: Evidence from ERPs and reading times. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 31:443–67.
Van den Bussche E., Van den Noortgate W. & Reynvoet B. (2009) Mechanisms of masked priming: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin 135:452–77.
Van Schie H. T., van Waterschoot B. M. & Bekkering H. (2008) Understanding action beyond imitation: Reversed compatibility effects of action observation in imitation and joint action. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 34:1493–500.
Van Wijk C. & Kempen G. (1987) A dual system for producing self-repairs in spontaneous speech: Evidence from experimentally elicited corrections. Cognitive Psychology 19:403–40.
Vigliocco G., Antonini T. & Garrett M. F. (1997) Grammatical gender is on the tip of Italian tongues. Psychological Science 8:314–17.
Vigliocco G. & Hartsuiker R. J. (2002) The interplay of meaning, sound, and syntax in sentence production. Psychological Bulletin 128:442–72.
Vigneau M., Beaucousin V., Hervé P. Y., Duffau H., Crivello F., Houdé O., Mazoyer B. & Tzourio-Mazoyer N. (2006) Meta-analyzing left hemisphere language areas: Phonology, semantics, and sentence processing. NeuroImage 30(4):1414–32. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.11.002.
Vissers C. T., Chwilla D. J. & Kolk H. H. (2006) Monitoring in language perception: The effect of misspellings of words in highly constrained sentences. Brain Research 1106:150–63.
Watkins K. & Paus T. (2004) Modulation of motor excitability during speech perception: The role of Broca's area. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 16:978–87.
Watkins K., Strafella A. P. & Paus T. (2003) Seeing and hearing speech excites the motor system involved in speech production. Neuropsychologia 41:989–94.
Weber A., Grice M. & Crocker M. W. (2006) The role of prosody in the interpretation of structural ambiguities: A study of anticipatory eye movements. Cognition 99:B6372.
Wheeldon L. R. & Levelt W. J. M. (1995) Monitoring the time course of phonological encoding. Journal of Memory and Language 34:311–34.
Wijnen F. & Kolk H. H. J. (2005) Phonological encoding, monitoring, and language pathology: Conclusions and prospects. In: Phonological encoding in normal and pathological speech, ed. Hartsuiker R.J. Bastiaanse R., Postma A. & Wijnen F., pp. 283304. Psychology Press.
Wilson M. & Knoblich G. (2005) The case for motor involvement in perceiving conspecifics. Psychological Bulletin 131:460–73.
Wilson M. & Wilson T. P. (2005) An oscillator model of the timing of turn-taking. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 12:957–68.
Wilson S. M., Saygin A. P., Sereno M. I. & Iacoboni M. (2004) Listening to speech activates motor areas involved in speech production. Nature Neuroscience 7(7):701702.
Wohlschläger A. (2000) Visual motion priming by invisible actions. Vision Research 40:925–30.
Wolpert D. M. (1997) Computational approaches to motor control. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 1:209–16.
Wolpert D. M., Doya K. & Kawato M. (2003) A unifying computational framework for motor control and social interaction. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 358(1431):593602. DOI:10.1098/rstb.2002.1238.
Wolpert D. M., Ghahramani Z. & Flanagan J. R. (2001) Perspectives and problems in motor learning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5:487–94.
Wright B. & Garrett M. F. (1984) Lexical decision in sentences: Effects of syntactic structure. Memory & Cognition 12:3145.
Yoshida M., Dickey M. W. & Sturt P. (2013) Predictive processing of syntactic structure: Sluicing and ellipsis in real-time sentence processing. Language and Cognitive Processes 28:272302.
Yuen I., Davis M. H., Brysbaert M. & Rastle K. (2010) Activation of articulatory information in speech perception. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:592–97.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 71
Total number of PDF views: 862 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1990 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.