Skip to main content Accessibility help

A conceptual framework for the neurobiological study of resilience

  • Raffael Kalisch (a1), Marianne B. Müller (a2) and Oliver Tüscher (a3)


The well-replicated observation that many people maintain mental health despite exposure to severe psychological or physical adversity has ignited interest in the mechanisms that protect against stress-related mental illness. Focusing on resilience rather than pathophysiology in many ways represents a paradigm shift in clinical-psychological and psychiatric research that has great potential for the development of new prevention and treatment strategies. More recently, research into resilience also arrived in the neurobiological community, posing nontrivial questions about ecological validity and translatability. Drawing on concepts and findings from transdiagnostic psychiatry, emotion research, and behavioral and cognitive neuroscience, we propose a unified theoretical framework for the neuroscientific study of general resilience mechanisms. The framework is applicable to both animal and human research and supports the design and interpretation of translational studies. The theory emphasizes the causal role of stimulus appraisal (evaluation) processes in the generation of emotional responses, including responses to potential stressors. On this basis, it posits that a positive (non-negative) appraisal style is the key mechanism that protects against the detrimental effects of stress and mediates the effects of other known resilience factors. Appraisal style is shaped by three classes of cognitive processes – positive situation classification, reappraisal, and interference inhibition – that can be investigated at the neural level. Prospects for the future development of resilience research are discussed.



Hide All
Abraham, A. D., Neve, K. A. & Lattal, K. M. (2013) Dopamine and extinction: A convergence of theory with fear and reward circuitry. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 108:6577.
Achenbach, T. M. & Rescorla, L. A. (2003) Manual for the ASEBA adult forms and profiles. University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, and Families .
American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.) . American Psychiatric Association.
American Psychological Association (2010) The road to resilience. Available at:
Arnold, M. B. (1969) Human emotion and action. Academic Press.
Aron, A. R. (2011) From reactive to proactive and selective control: Developing a richer model for stopping inappropriate responses. Biological Psychiatry 69:e5568.
Bandura, A. (1977) Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review 84:191215.
Bari, A. & Robbins, T. W. (2013) Inhibition and impulsivity: Behavioral and neural basis of response control. Progress in Neurobiology 108:4479.
Beck, A. T. & Clark, D. A. (1988) Anxiety and depression: An information processing perspective. Anxiety Research 1:2336.
Beck, A. T., Emery, G. & Greenberg, R. L. (1985) Anxiety disorders and phobias. Basic Books.
Benight, C. C. & Cieslak, R. (2011) Cognitive factors and resilience: How self-efficacy contributes to coping with adversities. In: Resilience and mental health: Challenges across the lifespan, ed . Southwick, S. M., Litz, B. T., Charney, D. & Friedman, M. J., pp . 4555. Cambridge University Press.
Bonanno, G. A. & Mancini, A. D. (2011) Toward a lifespan approach to resilience and potential trauma. In: Resilience and mental health: Challenges across the lifespan, ed . Southwick, S. M., Litz, B. T., Charney, D. & Friedman, M. J., pp . 120–34. Cambridge University Press.
Bonanno, G. A., Westphal, M. & Mancini, A. D. (2011) Resilience to loss and potential trauma. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 7:511–35. doi: 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032210-104526.
Bouton, M. E. (1984) Differential control by context in the inflation and reinstatement paradigms. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 10:5674.
Bouton, M. E. (2004) Context and behavioral processes in extinction. Learning and Memory 11(5):485–94. doi: 10.1101/lm.78804.
Britton, J. C., Lissek, S., Grillon, C., Norcross, M. A. & Pine, D. S. (2011) Development of anxiety: The role of threat appraisal and fear learning. Depression and Anxiety 28:517.
Buhle, J. T., Silvers, J. A., Wager, T. D., Lopez, R., Onyemekwu, C., Kober, H., Weber, J. & Ochsner, K. N. (2013) Cognitive reappraisal of emotion: A meta-analysis of human neuroimaging studies. Cerebral Cortex 24:2981–90.
Caspi, A., Hariri, A. R., Holmes, A., Uher, R. & Moffitt, T. E. (2010) Genetic sensitivity to the environment: The case of the serotonin transporter gene and its implications for studying complex diseases and traits. American Journal of Psychiatry 167:509–27.
Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Thornton, A., Freedman, D., Amell, J. W., Harrington, H., Smeijers, J. & Silva, P. A. (1996) The life history calendar: A research and clinical assessment method for collecting retrospective event-history data. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 6:101–14.
Chaudhury, D., Walsh, J. J., Friedman, A. K., Juarez, B., Ku, S. M., Koo, J. W., Ferguson, D., Tsai, H. C., Pomeranz, L., Christoffel, D. J., Nectow, A. R., Ekstrand, M., Domingos, A., Mazei-Robison, M. S., Mouzon, E., Lobo, M. K., Neve, R. L., Friedman, J. M., Russo, S. J., Deisseroth, K., Nestler, E. J. & Han, M. H. (2013) Rapid regulation of depression-related behaviours by control of midbrain dopamine neurons. Nature 493:532–36. doi: 10.1038/nature11713
Clark, D. A. & Beck, A. T. (2010) Cognitive theory and therapy of anxiety and depression: Convergence with neurobiological findings. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14:418–24.
Corbetta, M. & Shulman, G. L. (2002) Control of goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention in the brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3:201–15.
Craddock, N. & Owen, M. J. (2010) The Kraepelinian dichotomy – going, going … but still not gone. British Journal of Psychiatry 196:9295.
Craske, M. G., Wolitzky-Taylor, K. B., Mineka, S., Zinbarg, R., Waters, A. M., Vrshek-Schallhorn, S., Epstein, A., Naliboff, B. & Ornitz, E. (2012) Elevated responding to safe conditions as a specific risk factor for anxiety versus depressive disorders: Evidence from a longitudinal investigation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 121:315–24.
Cuthbert, B. N. & Insel, T. R. (2013) Toward the future of psychiatric diagnosis: The seven pillars of RDoC. BMC Medicine 11:126.
Daniel, R. M., Cousens, S. N., De Stavola, B. L., Kenward, M. G. & Sterne, J. A. C. (2013) Methods for dealing with time-dependent confounding. Statistics in Medicine 32:1584–618.
Dayan, P. & Abbott, L. F. (2001) Classical conditioning and reinforcement learning. In: Theoretical Neuroscience, pp . 331–39. MIT Press.
De Kloet, E. R. (2008) About stress hormones and resilience to psychopathology. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 20:885–92.
Dickinson, A. & Pearce, J. M. (1977) Inhibitory interactions between appetitive and aversive stimuli. Psychological Bulletin 84:690711.
Etkin, A., Egner, T. & Kalisch, R. (2011) Emotional processing in anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15:8593.
Etkin, A. & Wager, T. (2007) Functional neuroimaging of anxiety: A meta-analysis of emotional processing in PTSD, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. American Journal of Psychiatry 164(10):1476–88. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07030504.
Feder, A., Charney, D. & Abe, K. (2011) Neurobiology of resilience. In: Resilience and mental health: Challenges across the lifespan, ed . Southwick, S. M., Litz, B. T., Charney, D. & Friedman, M. J., pp . 129. Cambridge University Press.
Foa, E. B., Franklin, M. E., Perry, K. J. & Herbert, J. D. (1996) Cognitive biases in generalized social phobia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 105:433–39.
Franklin, T. B., Saab, B. J. & Mansuy, I. M. (2012) Neural mechanisms of stress resilience and vulnerability. Neuron 75(5):747–61. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2012.08.016.
Friedman, A. K., Walsh, J. J., Juarez, B., Ku, S. M., Chaudhury, D., Wang, J., Li, X., Dietz, D. M., Pan, N., Vialou, V. F., Neve, R. L., Yue, Z. & Han, M. H. (2014) Enhancing depression mechanisms in midbrain dopamine neurons achieves homeostatic resilience. Science 344:313–19. doi: 10.1126/science.1249240
Frijda, N. H. (1993) The place of appraisal in emotion. Cognition and Emotion 7:357–87.
Galea, S. & Maxwell, A. R. (2009) Methodological challenges in studying the mental health consequences of disasters. In: Mental health and disasters. ed . Neria, Y., Galea, S. & Norris, F. H., pp . 579–93. Cambridge University Press.
Garnefski, N. & Kraaij, V. (2006) Cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire – development of a short 18-item version (CERQ-short). Personality and Individual Differences 41:1045–53.
Gazendam, F. J., Kamphuis, J. H. & Kindt, M. (2013) Deficient safety learning characterizes high trait anxious individuals. Biological Psychology 92:342–52.
Goldberg, D. P. & Hillier, V. F. (1979) A scaled version of the General Health Questionnaire. Psychological Medicine 9:139–45.
Gotlib, I. H. & Joormann, J. (2010) Cognition and depression: Current status and future directions. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 6:285312.
Gottfried, J. A. & Dolan, R. J. (2004) Human orbitofrontal cortex mediates extinction learning while accessing conditioned representations of value. Nature Neuroscience 7:1144–52.
Gray, J. A. (1976) Elements of a two-process theory of learning. Academic Press.
Grillon, C., Baas, J. M., Cornwell, B. & Johnson, L. (2006) Context conditioning and behavioral avoidance in a virtual reality environment: Effect of predictability. Biological Psychiatry 60:752–59.
Gross, J. J. (1998) Antecedent- and response-focused emotion regulation: Divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74:224–37. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.74.1.224.
Gross, J. J. & John, O. P. (2003) Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85:348–62. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.348.
Haaker, J., Gaburro, S., Sah, A., Gartmann, N., Lonsdorf, T. B., Meier, K., Singewald, N., Pape, H.-C., Morellini, F. & Kalisch, R. (2013) Single dose of l-dopa makes extinction memories context-independent and prevents the return of fear. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110:E2428–36.
Hahn, S. E. & Smith, C. S. (1999) Daily hassles and chronic stressors: Conceptual and measurement issues. Stress Medicine 15:89101.
Hatfield, T., Jan, J. S., Conley, M., Gallagher, M. & Holland, P. (1996) Neurotoxic lesions of basolateral, but not central, amygdala interfere with Pavlovian second-order conditioning and reinforcer devaluation effects. Journal of Neuroscience 16:5256–65.
Hochberg, Z., Feil, R., Constancia, M., Fraga, M., Junien, C., Carel, J.-C., Boileau, P., Le Bouc, Y., Deal, C. L., Lillycrop, K., Scharfmann, R., Sheppard, A., Skinner, M., Szyf, M., Waterland, R. A., Waxman, D. J., Whitelaw, E., Ong, K. & Albertsson-Wikland, K. (2010) Child health, developmental plasticity, and epigenetic programming. Endocrine Reviews 32:159224.
Holsboer, F. & Ising, M. (2010) Stress hormone regulation: Biological role and translation into therapy. Annual Review of Psychology 61:81109.
Hosoba, T., Iwanaga, M. & Seiwa, H. (2001) The effect of UCS inflation and deflation procedures on “fear” conditioning. Behaviour Research and Therapy 39:465–75.
Janicki-Deverts, D. & Cohen, S. (2011) Social ties and resilience in chronic disease. In: Resilience and mental health: Challenges across the lifespan, ed . Southwick, S. M., Litz, B. T., Charney, D. & Friedman, M. J., pp . 7689. Cambridge University Press.
Javaras, K. N., Schaefer, S. M., van Reekum, C. M., Lapate, R. C., Greischar, L. L., Bachhuber, D. R., Love, G. D., Ryff, C. D. & Davidson, R. J. (2012) Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion. Emotion 12(5):875–81.
Jovanovic, T. & Ressler, K. J. (2010) How the neurocircuitry and genetics of fear inhibition may inform our understanding of PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry 167:648–62.
Kalisch, R. (2009) The functional neuroanatomy of reappraisal: Time matters. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 33:1215–26.
Kalisch, R. & Gerlicher, A. (2014) Making a mountain out of a molehill: On the role of the rostral dorsal anterior cingulate and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex in conscious threat appraisal, catastrophizing, and worrying. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 42:18.
Kalisch, R., Korenfeld, E., Stephan, K. E., Weiskopf, N., Seymour, B. & Dolan, R. J. (2006a) Context-dependent human extinction memory is mediated by a ventromedial prefrontal and hippocampal network. Journal of Neuroscience 26:9503–11.
Kaouane, N., Porte, Y., Vallee, M., Brayda-Bruno, L., Mons, N., Calandreau, L., Marighetto, A., Piazza, P. V. & Desmedt, A. (2012) Glucocorticoids can induce PTSD-like memory impairments in mice. Science 335:1510–13.
Kapur, S., Phillips, A. G. & Insel, T. R. (2012) Why has it taken so long for biological psychiatry to develop clinical tests and what to do about it? Molecular Psychiatry 17:1174–79.
Kent, M., Davis, M. C. & Reich, J. W., eds. (2014) The resilience handbook: Approaches to stress and trauma. Routledge.
Kheirbek, M. A., Klemenhagen, K. C., Sahay, A. & Hen, R. (2012) Neurogenesis and generalization: A new approach to stratify and treat anxiety disorders. Nature Neuroscience 15:1613–20.
Konorski, J. (1967) Integrative activity of the brain: An interdisciplinary approach. The University of Chicago Press.
Korn, C. W., Sharot, T., Walter, H., Heekeren, H. R. & Dolan, R. J. (2014) Depression is related to an absence of optimistically biased belief updating about future life events. Psychological Medicine 44(3):579–92.
Krishnan, V., Han, M. H., Graham, D L., Berton, O., Renthal, W., Russo, S. J., Laplant, Q., Graham, A., Lutter, M., Lagace, D. C., Ghose, S., Reister, R., Tannous, P., Green, T. A., Neve, R. L., Chakravarty, S., Kumar, A., Eisch, A. J., Self, D. W., Lee, F. S., Tamminga, C. A., Cooper, D. C., Gershenfeld, H. K. & Nestler, E. J. (2007) Molecular adaptations underlying susceptibility and resistance to social defeat in brain reward regions. Cell 131:391404.
Kubiak, T. & Stone, A. A. (2012) Ambulatory monitoring of biobehavioral processes in health and disease. Psychosomatic Medicine 74:325–26.
Lazarus, R. S. & Folkman, S. (1984) Stress, appraisal and coping. Springer.
LeDoux, J. (1998) The emotional brain: The mysterious underpinnings of emotional life. Simon & Schuster/Touchstone.
Lesch, K.-P. (2011) When the serotonin transporter gene meets adversity: The contribution of animal models to understanding epigenetic mechanisms in affective disorders and resilience. In: Current topics in behavioral neurosciences, vol. 7: Molecular and functional models in neuropsychiatry, ed . Hagan, J. J., pp . 251–80. Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Levenson, H. (1981) Differentiating among internality, powerful others, and chance. In: Research with the locus of control construct, ed . Lefcourt, H. M., pp . 1563. Academic Press.
Leventhal, H. & Scherer, K. R. (1987) The relationship of emotion to cognition: A functional approach to a semantic controversy. Cognition and Emotion 1:328.
Levy, D. J. & Glimcher, P. W. (2012) The root of all value: A neural common currency for choice. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 22:1027–38.
Liberzon, I. & Knox, D. (2012) Expanding our understanding of neurobiological mechanisms of resilience by using animal models. Neuropsychopharmacology 37:317–18.
Lissek, S., Bradford, D. E., Alvarez, R. P., Burton, P., Espensen-Sturges, T., Reynolds, R. C. & Grillon, C. (2014) Neural substrates of classically conditioned fear-generalization in humans: A parametric fMRI study. Social, Cognitive and Affective Neurosciences 9:1134–42.
Lissek, S., Rabin, S., Heller, R. E., Lukenbaugh, D., Geraci, M., Pine, D. S. & Grillon, C. (2009) Overgeneralization of conditioned fear as a pathogenic marker of panic disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 167:4755. Available at:
Lommen, M. J. J., Engelhard, I. M., Sijbrandij, M., van den Hout, M. A. & Hermans, D. (2013) Pre-trauma individual differences in extinction learning predict posttraumatic stress. Behaviour Research and Therapy 51:6367.
Mancini, A. D. & Bonanno, G. A. (2009) Predictors and parameters of resilience to loss: Toward an individual differences model. Journal of Personality 77:1805–32.
Mathews, A. & MacLeod, C. (2005) Cognitive vulnerability to emotional disorders. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 1:167–95.
McEwen, B. S. & Stellar, E. (1993) Stress and the individual: Mechanisms leading to disease. Archives of Internal Medicine 153(18):2093–101. doi: 10.1001/archinte.1993.00410180039004.
Meaney, M. J. (2010) Epigenetics and the biological definition of gene×environment interactions. Child Development 81:4179.
Milad, M. R. & Quirk, G. J. (2002) Neurons in medial prefrontal cortex signal memory for fear extinction. Nature 420:7074.
Milad, M. R. & Quirk, G. J. (2012) Fear extinction as a model for translational neuroscience: Ten years of progress. Annual Review of Psychology 63:129–51. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.121208.131631.
Milad, M. R., Wright, C. I., Orr, S. P., Pitman, R. K., Quirk, G. J. & Rauch, S. L. (2007) Recall of fear extinction in humans activates the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in concert. Biological Psychiatry 62:446–54.
Miller, M. W. & Harrington, K. M. (2011) Personality factors in resilience to traumatic stress. In: Resilience and mental health: Challenges across the lifespan, ed . Southwick, S. M., Litz, B. T., Charney, D. & Friedman, M. J., pp . 5675. Cambridge University Press.
Mitchell, C. J., De Houwer, J. & Lovibond, P. F. (2009) The propositional nature of human associative learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32:183–98.
Moors, A. (2009) Theories of emotion causation: A review. Cognition and Emotion 23(4):625–62. doi: 10.1080/02699930802645739.
Moors, A. (2010) Automatic constructive appraisal as a candidate cause of emotion. Emotion Review 2:139–59.
Moskowitz, T. J., Folkman, S., Collette, L. & Vittinghoff, E. (1996) Coping and mood during AIDS-related caregiving and bereavement. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 18:4957.
Mowrer, O. H. (1960) Learning theory and behavior. Wiley.
Nasser, H. M. & McNally, G. P. (2012) Appetitive-aversive interactions in Pavlovian fear conditioning. Behavioral Neuroscience 126:404–22.
Nonkes, L. J., Tomson, K., Maertin, A., Dederen, J., Maes, J. H. & Homberg, J. (2010) Orbitofrontal cortex and amygdalar over-activity is associated with an inability to use the value of expected outcomes to guide behaviour in serotonin transporter knockout rats. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 94:6572.
Norris, F. H. & Elrod, C. L. (2006) Psychosocial consequences of disaster: A review of past research. In: Methods for disaster mental health research, ed . Norris, F. H., Galea, S., Friedman, M. J. & Watson, P. J., pp . 2044. The Guildford Press.
Norris, F. H. & Kaniasty, K. (1996) Received and perceived social support in times of stress: A test of the social support deterioration deterrence model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 71:498511.
Norris, F. H., Tracy, M. & Galea, S. (2009) Looking for resilience: Understanding the longitudinal trajectories of responses to stress. Social Science and Medicine 68:2190–98.
Ochsner, K. N. & Gross, J. J. (2005) The cognitive control of emotion. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9:242–49.
Olesen, J., Gustavsson, A., Svensson, M., Wittchen, H.-U., Jönsson, B., CDBE2010 study group & European Brain Council (2012) The economic cost of brain disorders in Europe. European Journal of Neurology 19:155–62.
Pearl, J. (2009) Causality: Models, reasoning, and inference, second edition. Cambridge University Press.
Petrowski, K., Paul, S., Albani, C. & Brähler, E. (2012) Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress (TICS) in a representative German sample. BMC Medical Research Methodology 12:42.
Phelps, E. A., Delgado, M. R., Nearing, K. I. & LeDoux, J. E. (2004) Extinction learning in humans: Role of the amygdala and vmPFC. Neuron 43:897905.
Pickens, C. L., Saddoris, M. P., Setlow, B., Gallagher, M., Holland, P. C. & Schoenbaum, G. (2003) Different roles for orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala in a reinforcer devaluation task. Journal of Neuroscience 23:11078–84.
Popoli, M., Yan, Z., McEwen, B. S. & Sanacora, G. (2012) The stressed synapse: The impact of stress and glucocorticoids on glutamate transmission. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 13:2237.
Raczka, K. A., Mechias, M. L., Gartmann, N., Reif, A., Deckert, J., Pessiglione, M. & Kalisch, R. (2011) Empirical support for an involvement of the mesostriatal dopamine system in human fear extinction. Translational Psychiatry 1:e12; doi: 10.1038/tp.2011.10.
Reiss, S., Peterson, R. A., Gursky, D. M. & McNally, R. J. (1986) Anxiety sensitivity, anxiety frequency and the prediction of fearfulness. Behaviour Research and Therapy 24:18.
Reiss, S. & McNally, R. J. (1985) The expectancy model of fear. In: Theoretical issues in behavior therapy, ed . Reiss, S. & Bootzin, R. R., pp . 107–22. Academic Press.
Reissman, D. B., Kowalski-Trakofler, K. M. & Katz, C. L. (2011) Public health practice and disaster resilience: A framework integrating resilience as a worker protection strategy. In: Resilience and mental health: Challenges across the lifespan, ed . Southwick, S. M., Litz, B. T., Charney, D. & Friedman, M. J., pp . 340–58. Cambridge University Press.
Rescorla, R. A. (1974) Effect of inflation of the unconditioned stimulus value following conditioning. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 86:101106.
Rescorla, R. A., Wagner, A. R., Black, A. H. & Prokasy, W. F. (1972) A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and nonreinforcement. In: Classical conditioning II: Current research and theory, ed . Black, A. H. & Prokasy, W. F., pp . 6499. Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Robinson, M. D. (1998) Running from William James' bear: A review of preattentive mechanisms and their contributions to emotional experience. Cognition and Emotion 12:667–96.
Roseman, I. J. & Smith, C. A. (2001) Appraisal theory: Overview, assumptions, varieties, controversies. In: Appraisal processes in emotion: Theory, methods, research, ed . Scherer, K. R., Schorr, A. & Johnstone, T., pp . 319. Oxford University Press.
Rubin, D. B. (2005) Causal inference using potential outcomes. Journal of the American Statistical Association 100:322–31.
Russo, S. J., Murrough, J. W., Han, M.-H., Charney, D. S. & Nestler, E. J. (2012) Neurobiology of resilience. Nature Neuroscience 15(11):1475–84. doi: 10.1038/nn.3234.
Sander, D., Grafman, J. & Zalla, T. (2003) The human amygdala: An evolved system for relevance detection. Reviews in the Neurosciences 14:303–16.
Sander, D., Grandjean, D. & Scherer, K. R. (2005) A systems approach to appraisal mechanisms in emotion. Neural Networks 18:317–52.
Sapienza, J. K. & Masten, A. S. (2011) Understanding and promoting resilience in children and youth. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 24:267–73.
Scharf, S. H. & Schmidt, M. V. (2012) Animal models of stress vulnerability and resilience in translational research. Current Psychiatry Reports 14:159–65.
Scherer, K. R. (2001) Appraisal considered as a process of multilevel sequential checking. In: Appraisal processes in emotion: Theory, methods, research, ed . Scherer, K. R., Schorr, A. & Johnstone, T., pp . 92120. Oxford University Press.
Schiller, D., Levy, I., Niv, Y., LeDoux, J. E. & Phelps, E. A. (2008) From fear to safety and back: Reversal of fear in the human brain. Journal of Neuroscience 28:11517–25.
Schumann, G., Binder, E. B., Holtec, A., de Kloet, E. R., Oedegaarde, K. J., Robbins, T. W., Walker-Tilleya, T. R., Bitterao, I., Brown, V. J., Buitelaar, J., Ciccocioppo, R., Cools, R., Escera, C., Fleischhacker, W., Flor, H., Frith, C. D., Heinz, A., Johnsen, E., Kirschbaum, C., Klingberg, T., Lesch, K.-P., Lewis, S., Maier, W., Mann, K., Martinot, J.-L., Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Müller, C. P. & Müller, W.E. (2013) Stratified medicine for mental disorders. European Neuropsychopharmacology 24:550.
Schwager, S. & Rothermund, K. (2014b) The automatic basis of resilience: Adaptive regulation of affect and cognition. In: The resilience handbook: Approaches to stress and trauma, ed . Kent, M., Davis, M. C. & Reich, J. W., pp . 5572. Routledge.
Seligman, M. E. P. (1972) Learned helplessness. Annual Review of Medicine 23:407–12.
Selye, H. (1976) Stress in health and disease. Butterworth.
Serido, J., Almeida, D. M. & Wethington, E. (2004) Chronic stressors and daily hassles: Unique and interactive relationships with psychological distress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 45:1733.
Solomon, R. L. & Corbit, J. D. (1974) An opponent-process theory of motivation. I. Temporal dynamics of affect. Psychological Review 81:119–45.
Southwick, S. M. & Charney, D. S. (2012) The science of resilience: Implications for the prevention and treatment of depression. Science 338(6103):7982.
Southwick, S. M., Litz, B. T., Charney, D. & Friedman, M. J., eds. ( 2011a) Resilience and mental health: Challenges across the lifespan. Cambridge University Press.
Southwick, S. M., Pietrzak, R. H. & White, G. (2011b) Interventions to enhance resilience and resilience-related constructs in adults. In: Resilience and mental health: Challenges across the lifespan, ed . Southwick, S. M., Litz, B. T., Charney, D. & Friedman, M. J., pp . 289306. Cambridge University Press.
Stahl, C., Voss, A., Schmitz, F., Nuszbaum, M., Tüscher, O., Lieb, K. & Klauer, K. C. (2014) Behavioral components of impulsivity. Journal of Experimental Psychology – General 143:850–86.
Sterling, P. & Eyer, J. (1988) Allostasis: A new paradigm to explain arousal pathways. In: Handbook of life stress, cognition and health, ed . Fischer, S. & Reason, J. T., pp . 629–49. Wiley.
Stewart, D. E. & Yuen, T. (2011) A systematic review of resilience in the physically ill. Psychosomatics 52:199209.
Sullivan, M. J. L., Bishop, S. R. & Pivik, J. (1995) The pain catastrophizing scale: Development and validation. Psychological Assessment 7:524–32.
Troy, A. S. & Mauss, I. B. (2011) Resilience in the face of stress: Emotion regulation as a protective factor. In: Resilience and mental health: Challenges across the lifespan, ed . Southwick, S. M., Litz, B. T., Charney, D. & Friedman, M. J., pp . 3044. Cambridge University Press.
Verduyn, P., Van Mechelen, I., Kross, E., Chezzi, C. & Van Bever, F. (2012) The relationship between self-distanciing and the duration of negative and positive emotional experiences in daily life. Emotion 12:1248–63.
Vervliet, B., Vansteenwegen, D. & Eelen, P. (2006) Generalization gradients for acquisition and extinction in human contingency learning. Experimental Psychology 53:132–42.
Weiner, H. (1992) Perturbing the organism: The biology of stressful experience. University of Chicago Press.
Werner, E. E. (1993) Risk, resilience, and recovery: Perspectives from the Kauai Longitudinal Study. Development and Psychopathology 5(4):503–15.
White, K. & Davey, G. C. L. (1989) Sensory preconditioning and UCS inflation in human “fear” conditioning. Behaviour Research and Therapy 27:161–66.
Wittchen, H. U., Jacobi, F., Rehm, J., Gustavsson, A., Svensson, M., Jönsson, B., Olesen, J., Allgulander, C., Alonso, J., Faravelli, C., Fratiglioni, L., Jennum, P., Lieb, R., Maercker, A., van Os, J., Preisig, M., Salvador-Carulla, L., Simon, R. & Steinhausen, H.-C. (2011) The size and burden of mental disorders and other disorders of the brain in Europe 2010. European Neuropsychopharmacology 21:655–79.
Xu, W. & Südhof, T. C. (2013) A neural circuit for memory specificity and generalization. Science 339:1290–95.
Zautra, A. J. (2000) The role of stressful events in the relationship between positive and negative affects: Evidence from field and experimental studies. Journal of Personality 68:927–51.
Zautra, A. J. (2014) Resilience is social, after all. In: The resilience handbook, ed . Kent, M., Davis, M. C. & Reich, J. W., pp . 185–96. Routledge.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

A conceptual framework for the neurobiological study of resilience

  • Raffael Kalisch (a1), Marianne B. Müller (a2) and Oliver Tüscher (a3)


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.