This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
A. M. Ahmed (2009) Are religious people more prosocial? A quasi-experimental study with madrasah pupils in a rural community in India. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 48:368–74.
Q. D. Atkinson & P. Bourrat (2011) Beliefs about God, the afterlife and morality support the role of supernatural policing in human cooperation. Evolution and Human Behavior 32:41–49.
Q. D. Atkinson & H. Whitehouse (2011) The cultural morphospace of ritual form: Examining modes of religiosity cross-culturally. Evolution and Human Behavior 32:50–62.
S. Atran & J. Ginges (2012) Religious and sacred imperatives in human conflict. Science 336:855–57.
S. Atran & J. Henrich (2010) The evolution of religion: How cognitive by-products, adaptive learning heuristics, ritual displays, and group competition generate deep commitments to prosocial religions. Biological Theory: Integrating Development, Evolution, and Cognition 5:18–30.
S. Atran & A. Norenzayan (2004) Religion's evolutionary landscape: Counterintuition, commitment, compassion, communion. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27:713–70.
K. Banerjee & P. Bloom (2013) Would Tarzan believe in God? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17:7–8.
J. L. Barrett (2000) Exploring the natural foundations of religion. Trends in Cognitive Science 4:29–34.
J. L. Barrett (2008) Why Santa Claus is not a god. Journal of Cognition and Culture 8:149–61.
J. L. Barrett & F. C. Keil (1996) Conceptualizing a nonnatural entity: Anthropomorphism in god concepts. Cognitive Psychology 31:219–47.
R. J. Barro & R. M. McCleary (2003) Religion and economic growth across countries. American Sociological Review 68:760–81.
M. Bateson , D. Nettle & G. Roberts (2006) Cues of being watched enhance cooperation in a real-world setting. Biology Letters 2:412–14.
N. Baumard & P. Boyer (2013) Explaining moral religions. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17:272–80.
W. Beck (1992) Aboriginal preparation of cycads seeds in Australia. Economic Botany 46:133–47.
A. V. Bell , P. Richerson & R. McElreath (2009) Culture rather than genes provides greater scope for the evolution of large-scale human prosociality. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106:17671–74.
R. N. Bellah (2011) Religion in human evolution: From the Paleolithic to the Axial Age. Harvard University Press.
J. M. Bering (2006) The folk psychology of souls. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29:453–98.
J. M. Bering & D. D. P. Johnson (2005) “O lord you perceive my thoughts from afar”: Recursiveness and the evolution of supernatural agency. Journal of Cognition and Culture 5:118–42.
P. Bloom (2007) Religion is natural. Developmental Science 10:147–51.
P. Bloom (2012) Religion, morality, evolution. Annual Review of Psychology 63:179–99. doi: 10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100334.
P. Bloom & D. S. Weisberg (2007) Childhood origins of adult resistance to science. Science 316:996–97.
M. Blume (2009) The reproductive benefits of religious affiliation. In: The biological evolution of religious mind and behavior, ed. E. Voland & W. Schiefenhövel , pp. 117–26. Springer-Verlag.
C. A. Botero , B. Gardner , K. R. Kirby , J. Bulbulia , M. C. Gavin & R. D. Gray (2014) The ecology of religious beliefs. PNAS 111(47):16784–89.
S. Bowles (2006) Group competition, reproductive leveling, and the evolution of human altruism. Science 314:1569–72.
D. Boyd (2001) Life without pigs: Recent subsistence changes among the Irakia Awa, Papua New Guinea. Human Ecology 29:259–81.
R. Boyd , H. Gintis & P. J. Richerson (2003) The evolution of altruistic punishment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100:3531–35.
R. Boyd & P. J. Richerson (1988) The evolution of reciprocity in sizable groups. Journal of Theoretical Biology 132:337–56.
R. Boyd & P. J. Richerson (2009) Voting with your feet: Payoff biased migration and the evolution of group beneficial behavior. Journal of Theoretical Biology 257:331–39.
R. Boyd , P. J. Richerson & J. Henrich (2011a) Rapid cultural adaptation can facilitate the evolution of large-scale cooperation. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 65:431–44.
R. Boyd , P. J. Richerson & J. Henrich (2011b) The cultural niche: Why social learning is essential for human adaptation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108:10918–25.
P. Boyer & C. Ramble (2001) Cognitive templates for religious concepts: Cross-cultural evidence for recall of counter-intuitive representations. Cognitive Science 25:535–64.
J. Broesch , J. Henrich & H. C. Barrett (2014) Adaptive content biases in learning about animals across the lifecourse. Human Nature 25:181–99.
T. Burnham & D. D. P. Johnson (2005) The evolutionary and biological logic of human cooperation. Analyse & Kritik 27:113–35.
R. L. Carneiro (1970) A theory of the origin of the state. Science 169:733–38.
E. C. Carter , M. E. McCullough , J. Kim-Spoon , C. Corrales & A. Blake (2012) Religious people discount the future less. Evolution and Human Behavior 33:224–31.
J. K. Choi & S. Bowles (2007) The coevolution of parochial altruism and war. Science 318:636–40.
M. Chudek & J. Henrich (2011) Culture-gene coevolution, norm-psychology and the emergence of human prosociality. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15:218–26.
K. J. Clark & J. T. Winslett (2011) The evolutionary psychology of Chinese religion: Pre-qin high gods as punishers and rewarders. Journal of the American Academy of Religion 79:928–60.
E. E. A. Cohen , R. Ejsmond-Frey , N. Knight & R. I. M. Dunbar (2010) Rowers' high: Behavioural synchrony is correlated with elevated pain thresholds. Biology Letters 6:106–108.
B. J. Crespi & C. Badcock (2008) Psychosis and autism as diametrical disorders of the social brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31:284–320.
L. Cronk (1994) Evolutionary theories of morality and the manipulative use of signals. Zygon 29:81–101.
T. E. Currie & R. Mace (2009) Political complexity predicts the spread of ethnolinguistic groups. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106:7339–44.
L. Damisch , B. Stoberock & T. Mussweiler (2010) Keep your fingers crossed! How superstition improves performance. Psychological Science 21:1014–20.
F. de Waal (2008) Putting the altruism back into altruism: The evolution of empathy. Annual Review of Psychology 59:279–300.
N. Epley , A. Waytz & J. T. Cacioppo (2007) On seeing human: A three-factor theory of anthropomorphism. Psychological Review 114:864–86.
E. Fehr & U. Fischbacher (2003) The nature of human altruism. Nature 425:785–91.
E. Fehr , U. Fischbacher & S. Gächter (2002) Strong reciprocity, human cooperation and the enforcement of social norms. Human Nature 13:1–25.
E. Fehr & F. Schneider (2010) Eyes are on us, but nobody cares: Are eye cues relevant for strong reciprocity? Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 277:1315–23.
K. V. Flannery & J. Marcus (2000) Formative Mexican chiefdoms and the myth of the “Mother Culture.” Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 19:1–37.
U. Frith & C. D. Frith (2003) Development and neurophysiology of mentalizing. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 358:459–73. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2002.1218.
A. W. Geertz & G. I. Markusson (2010) Religion is natural, atheism is not: On why everybody is both right and wrong. Religion 40:152–65.
W. M. Gervais (2013) Perceiving minds and gods: How mind perception enables, constrains, and is triggered by belief in gods. Perspectives on Psychological Science 8:380–94.
W. M. Gervais & J. Henrich (2010) The Zeus problem: Why representational content biases cannot explain faith in gods. Journal of Cognition and Culture 10:383–89.
W. M. Gervais & A. Norenzayan (2012a) Like a camera in the sky? Thinking about god increases public self-awareness and socially desirable responding. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 48:298–302. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2011.09.006.
W. M. Gervais & A. Norenzayan (2012b) Reminders of secular authority reduce believers' distrust of atheists. Psychological Science 23:483–91.
W. M. Gervais & A. Norenzayan (2013) Religion and the origins of anti-atheist prejudice. In: Intolerance and conflict: A scientific and conceptual investigation, ed. S. Clarke , R. Powell & J. Savulescu , pp. 126–45. Oxford University Press.
W. M. Gervais , A. F. Shariff & A. Norenzayan (2011a) Do you believe in atheists? Distrust is central to anti-atheist prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 101:1189–206.
W. M. Gervais , A. K. Willard , A. Norenzayan & J. Henrich (2011b) The cultural transmission of faith: Why innate intuitions are necessary, but insufficient, to explain religious belief. Religion 41:389–410.
J. Ginges , S. Atran , D. Medin & K. Shikaki (2007) Sacred bounds on rational resolution of violent political conflict. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104:7357–60.
J. Ginges , I. Hansen & A. Norenzayan (2009) Religion and support for suicide attacks. Psychological Science 20:224–30.
J. Graham & J. Haidt (2010) Beyond beliefs: Religions bind individuals into moral communities. Personality and Social Psychology Review 14:140–50.
A. Greif (2006) Institutions and the path to the modern economy: Lessons from medieval trade. Cambridge University Press.
Ö. Gürerk , B. Irlenbusch & B. Rockenbach (2006) The competitive advantage of sanctioning institutions. Science 312:108–11.
K. J. Haley & D. M. T. Fessler (2005) Nobody's watching? Subtle cues affects generosity in an anonymous economic game. Evolution and Human Behavior 26:245–56.
J. K. Hamlin , K. Wynn & P. Bloom (2007) Social evaluation by preverbal infants. Nature 450:557–59.
P. L. Harris (2012) Trusting what we're told: How children learn from others. Harvard University Press.
C. Heath , C. Bell & E. Sternberg (2001) Emotional selection in memes: The case of urban legends. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81:1028–41.
J. Henrich (2004) Cultural group selection, coevolutionary processes and large-scale cooperation. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 53:3–25.
J. Henrich (2009) The evolution of costly displays, cooperation and religion: Credibility enhancing displays and their implications for cultural evolution. Evolution and Human Behavior 30:244–60.
J. Henrich (2012) Hunter-gatherer cooperation. Nature 481:449–50.
J. Henrich & R. Boyd (2001) Why people punish defectors: Weak conformist transmission can stabilize costly enforcement of norms in cooperative dilemmas. Journal of Theoretical Biology 208:78–79.
J. Henrich , R. Boyd & P. J. Richerson (2012) The puzzle of monogamous marriage. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 367:657–66.
J. Henrich , J. Ensimger , R. McElreath , A. Barr , C. Barrett , A. Bolyanatz , J. Cardenas , M. Gurven , E. Gwako , N. Henrich , C. Lesorogol , F. Marlowe , D. Tracer & J. Ziker (2010a) Markets, religion, community size, and the evolution of fairness and punishment. Science 327:1480–84.
J. Henrich & F. Gil-White (2001) The evolution of prestige: Freely conferred deference as a mechanism for enhancing the benefits of cultural transmission. Evolution and Human Behavior 22(3):1–32, 165–96.
J. Henrich , S. J. Heine & A. Norenzayan (2010b) The weirdest people in the world? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33(2–3):61–135.
B. Herrmann , C. Thoni & S. Gächter (2008) Antisocial punishment across societies. Science 319(5868):1362–67.
P. A. Herrmann , C. H. Legare , P. L. Harris & H. Whitehouse (2013) Stick to the script: The effect of witnessing multiple actors on children's imitation. Cognition 129:536–43.
K. R. Hill , R. S. Walker , M. Božičević , J. Eder , T. Headland , B. Hewlett , A. M. Hurtado , F. Marlowe , P. Wiessner & B. Wood (2011) Co-residence patterns in Hunter-Gatherer societies show unique human social structure. Science 331:1286–89.
M. J. Hove & J. L. Risen (2009) It's all in the timing: Interpersonal synchrony increases affiliation. Social Cognition 27:949–60.
D. Hruschka , C. Efferson , T. Jiang , A. Falletta-Cowden , S. Sigurdsson , R. McNamara , M. Sands , S. Munira , E. Slingerland & J. Henrich (2014) Impartial institutions, pathogen stress, and the expanding social network. Human Nature 25:567–79.
B. Huebner , J. L. Lee & M. D. Hauser (2010) The moral conventional distinction in mature moral competence. Journal of Cognition and Culture 10:1–26.
L. R. Iannaccone (1994) Why strict churches are strong. American Journal of Sociology 99: 1180–11.
M. Inzlicht & A. M. Tullett (2010) Reflecting on god: Religious primes can reduce neuropsychological response to errors. Psychological Science 21:1181–90.
D. D. P. Johnson (2005) God's punishment and public goods – a test of the supernatural punishment hypothesis in 186 world cultures. Human Nature 16(4):410–46. doi: 10.1007/s12110-005-1017-0.
D. D. P. Johnson (2009) The error of god: Error management theory, Religion and the evolution of cooperation. In: Games, groups and the global good, ed. S. A. Levin , pp. 169–80. Springer-Verlag.
D. D. P. Johnson & J. M. Bering (2006) Hand of god, mind of man: Punishment and cognition in the evolution of cooperation. Evolutionary Psychology 4:219–33.
D. Kapogiannis , A. K. Barbey , M. Su , G. Zamboni , F. Krueger & J. Grafman (2009) Cognitive and neural foundations of religious belief. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106:4876–81.
A. C. Kay , D. Gaucher , J. L. Napier , M. J. Callan & K. Laurin (2008) God and the government: Testing a compensatory control mechanism for the support of external systems. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 95:18–35.
D. Kelemen (2004) Are children “Intuitive Theists”? Reasoning about purpose and design in nature. Psychological Science 15:295–301.
B. Kenward , M. Karlsson & J. Persson (2010) Over-imitation is better explained by norm learning than by distorted causal learning. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 278:1239–46.
L. A. Kirkpatrick (1999) Toward an evolutionary psychology of religion and personality. Journal of Personality 67:921–52. doi: 10.1111/1467-6494.00078.
S. Kirschner & M. Tomasello (2010) Joint music making promotes prosocial behavior in 4-year-old children. Evolution and Human Behavior 31:354–64.
I. Konvalinka , D. Xygalatas , J. Bulbulia , U. Schjoedt , E. M. Jegindo & S. Wallot (2011) Synchronized arousal between performers and related spectators in a fire-walking ritual. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108:8514–19.
J. Lanman (2012) The importance of religious displays for belief acquisition and secularization. Journal of Contemporary Religion 27:49–65.
K. Laurin , A. C. Kay & G. M. Fitzsimons (2012a) Divergent effects of activating thoughts of god on self-regulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 102:4–21.
K. Laurin , A. F. Shariff , J. Henrich & A. C. Kay (2012b) Outsourcing punishment to God: Beliefs in divine control reduce earthly punishment. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 279:3272–81.
C. H. Legare , E. M. Evans , K. S. Rosengren & P. L. Harris (2012) The coexistence of natural and supernatural explanations across cultures and development. Child Development 83:779–93.
C. H. Legare & A. L. Souza (2012) Evaluating ritual efficacy: Evidence from the supernatural. Cognition: 124:1–15.
C. H. Legare & A. L. Souza (2014) Searching for control: Priming randomness increases the evaluation of ritual efficacy. Cognitive science 38:152–61.
D. E. Lyons , A. G. Young & F. C. Keil (2007) The hidden structure of overimitation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104:19751–56.
J. Marcus & K. V. Flannery (2004) The coevolution of ritual and society: New C-14 dates from ancient Mexico. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101:18257–61.
F. Marlowe , J. C. Berbesque , A. Barr , C. Barrett , A. Bolyanatz , J. C. Cardenas , J. Ensminger , M. Gurven , E. Gwako , J. Henrich , N. Henrich , C. Lesorogol , R. McElreath & D. Tracer (2008) More “altruistic” punishment in larger societies. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 275:587–90.
F. W. Marlowe (2004) Dictators and ultimatums in an egalitarian society of hunter-gatherers, the Hadza of Tanzania. In: Foundations of human sociality: Economic experiments and ethnographic evidence from fifteen small-scale societies, ed. J. Henrich , R. Boyd , S. Bowles , C. Camerer , E. Fehr & H. Gintis , pp. 168–93. Oxford University Press.
L. Marshall (1962) !Kung Bushman religious beliefs. Africa: Journal of the International African Institute 32:221–52.
R. M. McCleary & R. J. Barro (2006) Religion and economy. The Journal of Economic Perspectives 20:49–72.
M. E. McCullough & B. L. B. Willoughby (2009) Religion, self-regulation, and self-control: Associations, explanations, and implications. Psychological Bulletin 135:69–93. doi: 10.1037/a0014213.
R. A. McNamara , A. Norenzayan & J. Henrich (2016) Supernatural punishment, in-group biases, and material insecurity: Experiments and ethnography from Yasawa, Fiji. Religion, Brain, and Behavior 6(1):34–55.
S. L. Neuberg , C. Mistler Warner , S. A. Berlin , E. Hill , J. Johnson , G. Filip-Crawford , R. Millsap , G. M. Thomas , M. Winkelman , B. Broome , T. Taylor & Schober. J. (2014) Religion and intergroup conflict: Findings from the Global Group Relations Project. Psychological Science 25:198–206.
M. Nielsen & K. Tomaselli (2010) Overimitation in the Kalahari Bushman children and the origins of human cultural cognition. Psychological Science 21:729–36.
A. Norenzayan (2014) Does religion make people moral? Behaviour 151:365–84.
A. Norenzayan & W. M. Gervais (2013) The origins of religious disbelief. Trends in Cognitive Science 17:20–25.
A. Norenzayan & W. M. Gervais (2015) Secular rule of law erodes believers' political intolerance of atheists. Religion, Brain and Behavior 5:3–14.
A. Norenzayan , W. M. Gervais & K. H. Trzesniewski (2012) Mentalizing deficits constrain belief in a personal God. PLOS ONE 7:e36880. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036880.
P. Norris & R. Inglehart (2004) Sacred and secular: Religion and politics worldwide. Cambridge University Press.
B. Paciotti & C. Hadley (2003) The ultimatum game in Southwestern Tanzania: Ethnic variation and institutional scope1. Current Anthropology 44:427–32.
M. P. Paladino , M. Mazzurega , F. Pavani & T. W. Schubert (2010) Synchronous multisensory stimulation blurs self-other boundaries. Psychological Science 21:1202–207.
K. Panchanathan & R. Boyd (2003) A tale of two defectors: The importance of standing for the evolution of indirect reciprocity. Journal of Theoretical Biology 224:115–26.
H. C. Peoples & F. W. Marlowe (2012) Subsistence and the evolution of religion. Human Nature 23:253–69. doi:10.1007/s12110-012-9148-6.
C. Perreault , C. Moya & R. Boyd (2012) A Bayesian approach to the evolution of social learning. Evolution and Human Behavior 33:449–59.
M. C. Poo (2009) Rethinking ghosts in world religions. Brill.
B. G. Purzycki (2011) Tyvan Cher Eezi and the sociological constraints of supernatural agents' minds. Religion, Brain and Behavior 1:31–45.
B. G. Purzycki (2013) The minds of gods: A comparative study of supernatural agency. Cognition 129:163–79.
B. G. Purzycki , D. N. Finkel , J. Shaver , N. Wales , A. B. Cohen & R. Sosis (2012) What does God know? Supernatural agents' access to socially strategic and non-strategic information. Cognitive Science 36:846–69.
B. Randolph-Seng & M. E. Nielsen (2007) Honesty: One effect of primed religious representations. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 17:303–15.
R. A. Rappaport (1999) Ritual and religion in the making of humanity. Cambridge University Press.
L. Rendell , L. Fogarty , W. J. Hoppitt , T. J. Morgan , M. M. Webster & K. N. Laland (2011) Cognitive culture: Theoretical and empirical insights into social learning strategies. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15:68–76.
P. J. Richerson & R. Boyd (1999) Complex societies – the evolutionary origins of a crude superorganism. Human Nature 10:253–89.
P. J. Richerson , R. Boyd & R. L. Bettinger (2001) Was agriculture impossible during the Pleistocene but mandatory during the Holocene? A climate change hypothesis. American Antiquity 66:387–411.
M. Rigdon , K. Ishii , M. Watabe & S. Kitayama (2009) Minimal social cues in the dictator game. Journal of Economic Psychology 30:358–67.
F. L. Roes & M. Raymond (2003) Belief in moralizing gods. Evolution and Human Behavior 24(2):126–35. doi:10.1016/S1090-5138(02)00134-4.
F. L. Roes & M. Raymond (2009) Moralizing gods and the arms-race hypothesis of human society growth. Open Social Science Journal 2:70–73.
K. Rounding , A. Lee , J. Jacobson & L.-J. Ji (2012) Religion replenishes self-control. Psychological Science 23:635–42.
L. Saaksvuori , T. Mappes & M. Puurtinen (2011) Costly punishment prevails in intergroup conflict. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 278:3428–36.
B. Saler (2009) Reduction, integrated theory, and the study of religion. Religion 39:348–51.
S. K. Sanderson & W. W. Roberts (2008) The evolutionary forms of the religious life: A cross-cultural, quantitative analysis. American Anthropologist 110:454–66.
H. Sarkissian (2015) Supernatural, social, and self-monitoring in the scaling-up of Chinese civilization. Religion, Brain and Behavior 5:323–27.
U. Schjoedt , H. Stødkilde-Jørgensen , A. W. Geertz & A. Roepstorff (2009) Highly religious participants recruit areas of social cognition in personal prayer. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 4:199–207.
J. P. Schloss & M. J. Murray (2011) Evolutionary accounts of belief in supernatural punishment: A critical review. Religion, Brain and Behavior 1:46–99.
A. F. Shariff & A. Norenzayan (2007) God is watching you: Priming god concepts increases prosocial behavior in an anonymous economic game. Psychological Science 18:803–809.
A. F. Shariff & A. Norenzayan (2011) Mean gods make good people: Different views of god predict cheating behavior. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 21:85–96.
A. F. Shariff & M. Rhemtulla (2012) Divergent effects of belief in heaven and hell on national crime rates. PLOS ONE 7:e39048.
C. G. Sibley & J. Bulbulia (2012) Faith after an earthquake: A longitudinal study of religion and perceived health before and after the 2011 Christchurch, New Zealand earthquake. PLOS ONE 7:e49648. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049648.
E. Slingerland (2013) Body and mind in early China: An integrated humanities-science approach. Journal of the American Academy of Religion 81:6–55.
P. E. Smaldino (2014) The cultural evolution of emergent group-level traits. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37:243–95.
J. Snarey (1996) The natural environment's impact upon religious ethics: A cross-cultural study. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 35(2):85–96.
M. Soler (2012) Costly signaling, ritual and cooperation: Evidence from Candomblé, an Afro-Brazilian religion. Evolution and Human Behavior 33(4):346–56.
J. Soltis , R. Boyd & P. J. Richerson (1995) Can group-functional behaviors evolve by cultural group selection? An empirical test. Current Anthropology 36(3):473–94.
R. Sosis (2000) Religion and intragroup cooperation: Preliminary results of a comparative analysis of utopian communities. Cross-Cultural Research 34:70–87.
R. Sosis (2009) The adaptationist-byproduct debate on the evolution of religion: Five misunderstandings of the adaptationist program. Journal of Cognition and Culture 9:315–32.
R. Sosis & C. Alcorta (2003) Signaling, solidarity, and the sacred: The evolution of religious behavior. Evolutionary Anthropology 12:264–74.
R. Sosis & E. Bressler (2003) Cooperation and commune longevity: A test of the costly signaling theory of religion. Cross-Cultural Research 37:211–39.
R. Sosis & J. Bulbulia (2011) The behavioral ecology of religion: The benefits and costs of one evolutionary approach. Religion 41:341–62.
R. Sosis , H. Kress & J. Boster (2007) Scars for war: Evaluating alternative signaling explanations for cross-cultural variance in ritual costs. Evolution and Human Behavior 28:234–47.
R. Sosis & B. J. Ruffle (2003) Religious ritual and cooperation: Testing for a relationship on Israeli religious and secular kibbutzim. Current Anthropology 44:713–22.
C. Spencer & E. Redmond (2001) Multilevel selection and political evolution in the valley of Oaxaca. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 20:195–229.
D. Sperber , F. Clément , C. Heintz , O. Mascaro , H. Mercier , G. Origgi & D. Wilson (2010) Epistemic vigilance. Mind & Language 25:359–93.
R. Stark (2001) Gods, rituals, and the moral order. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 40:619–36.
M. Stausberg (2010) Prospects in theories of religion. Method and Theory in the Study of Religion 22:223–28.
J. M. Stubbersfield , J. J. Tehrani & E. G. Flynn (2015) Serial killers, spiders and cybersex: Social and survival information bias in the transmission of urban legends. British Journal of Psychology 106(2):288–307.
W. B. Swann , A. Gomez , D. C. Seyle , J. F. Morales & C. Huici (2009) Identity fusion: The interplay of personal and social identities in extreme group behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 96:995–1011.
G. E. Swanson (1960) The birth of the gods. University of Michigan Press.
P. Turchin , T. E. Currie , E. A. L. Turner & S. Gavrilets (2013) War, space, and the evolution of Old World complex societies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110:16384–89.
R. Underhill (1975) Economic and political antecedents of monotheism: A cross-cultural study. American Journal of Sociology 80:841–61.
P. Valdesolo , J. Ouyang & D. DeSteno (2010) The rhythm of joint action: Synchrony promotes cooperative ability. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 46:693–95.
A. Waytz , K. Gray , N. Epley & D. M. Wegner (2010) Causes and consequences of mind perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14:383–88. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2010.05.006.
S. C. Wheeler , K. G. DeMarree , & R. E. Petty (2007) Understanding the role of the self in prime to behavior effects: The active-self account. Personality and Social Psychology Review 11:234–61.
H. Whitehouse & I. Hodder (2010) Modes of religiosity at Çatalhöyük. In: Religion in the emergence of civilization: Çatalhöyük as a case study, ed. I. Hodder , pp. 122–45. Cambridge University Press.
W. J. Wildman & R. Sosis (2011) Stability of groups with costly beliefs and practices. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 14:6.
A. K. Willard & A. Norenzayan (2013) Cognitive biases explain religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in life's purpose. Cognition 129:379–91. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2013.07.016.
S. S. Wiltermuth & C. Heath (2009) Synchrony and cooperation. Psychological Science 20:1–5.
R. Wright (2009) The evolution of god. Little, Brown.
D. Xygalatas (2013) Effects of religious setting on cooperative behaviour: A case study from Mauritius. Religion, Brain and Behavior 3:91–102.
D. Xygalatas , P. Mitkidis , R. Fischer , P. Reddish , J. Skewes , A. W. Geertz , A. Roepstorff & J. Bulbulia (2013) Extreme rituals promote prosociality. Psychological Science 24:1602–605.
C. B. Zhong , V. B. Bohns & F. Gino (2010) A good lamp is the best police: Darkness increases dishonesty and self-interested behavior. Psychological Science 21:311–14.