Skip to main content
×
×
Home

On the deep structure of social affect: Attitudes, emotions, sentiments, and the case of “contempt”

  • Matthew M. Gervais (a1) and Daniel M. T. Fessler (a2)
Abstract

Contempt is typically studied as a uniquely human moral emotion. However, this approach has yielded inconclusive results. We argue this is because the folk affect concept “contempt” has been inaccurately mapped onto basic affect systems. “Contempt” has features that are inconsistent with a basic emotion, especially its protracted duration and frequently cold phenomenology. Yet other features are inconsistent with a basic attitude. Nonetheless, the features of “contempt” functionally cohere. To account for this, we revive and reconfigure the sentiment construct using the notion of evolved functional specialization. We develop the Attitude–Scenario–Emotion (ASE) model of sentiments, in which enduring attitudes represent others' social-relational value and moderate discrete emotions across scenarios. Sentiments are functional networks of attitudes and emotions. Distinct sentiments, including love, respect, like, hate, and fear, track distinct relational affordances, and each is emotionally pluripotent, thereby serving both bookkeeping and commitment functions within relationships. The sentiment contempt is an absence of respect; from cues to others' low efficacy, it represents them as worthless and small, muting compassion, guilt, and shame and potentiating anger, disgust, and mirth. This sentiment is ancient yet implicated in the ratcheting evolution of human ultrasocialty. The manifolds of the contempt network, differentially engaged across individuals and populations, explain the features of “contempt,” its translatability, and its variable experience as “hot” or “cold,” occurrent or enduring, and anger-like or disgust-like. This rapprochement between psychological anthropology and evolutionary psychology contributes both methodological and empirical insights, with broad implications for understanding the functional and cultural organization of social affect.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Abu-Lughod, L. (1986) Veiled sentiments. University of California Press.
Allport, G. W. (1935) Attitudes. In: Handbook of social psychology, ed. Murchison, C., pp. 798844. Clark University Press.
Alvarado, N. & Jameson, K. A. (1996) New findings on the contempt expression. Cognition and Emotion 10:379407.
Alvarado, N. & Jameson, K. A. (2002) Varieties of anger: The relation between emotion terms and components of anger expressions. Motivation and Emotion 26(2):153–82.
Anderson, N. E. & Kiehl, K. A. (2012) The psychopath magnetized: Insights from brain imaging. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16:5260.
Arbuckle, N. L. & Cunningham, W. A. (2012) Understanding everyday psychopathy: Shared group identity leads to increased concern for others among undergraduates higher in psychopathy. Social Cognition 30:564–83.
Archer, W. G. (1984) Tribal law and justice: A report on the Santal. Concept.
Asprem, E. (2010) A nice arrangement of heterodoxies: William McDougall and the professionalization of psychical research. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 46(2):123–43.
Aureli, F. & Schaffner, C. M. (2002) Relationship assessment through emotional mediation. Behaviour 139(2):393420.
Averill, J. R. (1991) Emotions as episodic dispositions, cognitive schemas, and transitory social roles: Steps toward an integrated theory of emotion. In: Perspectives in personality, vol. 3, ed. Ozer, D., Healy, M. Jr. & Stewart, A. J., pp. 139–67. Jessica Kingsley.
Barrett, H. C. (2012) A hierarchical model of the evolution of human brain specializations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 109:10733–40.
Barrett, H. C. & Kurzban, R. (2006) Modularity in cognition: Framing the debate. Psychological Review 113:628–47.
Barrett, L. F. (2006a) Are emotions natural kinds? Perspectives on Psychological Science 1(1):2858.
Barrett, L. F. (2006b) Solving the emotion paradox: Categorization and the experience of emotion. Personality and Social Psychology Review 10:2046.
Barrett, L. F. (2013) Psychological construction: The Darwinian approach to the science of emotion. Emotion Review 5:379–89.
Batson, C. D., Hakansson, E., Chermok, V. L., Hoyt, J. L. & Ortiz, B. G. (2007) An additional antecedent of empathic concern: Valuing the welfare of the person in need. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 93:6574.
Baumeister, R., Stillwell, A. & Heatherton, T. (1994) Guilt: An interpersonal approach. Psychological Bulletin 115:243–67.
Baumeister, R., Vohs, K. & DeWall, C. N. (2007) How emotion shapes behavior: Feedback, anticipation, and reflection, rather than direct causation. Personality and Social Psychology Review 11:167203.
Besnier, N. (1990) Language and affect. Annual Review of Anthropology 19:419–51.
Blair, R. J. R., Jones, L., Clark, F. & Smith, M. (1997) The psychopathic individual: A lack of responsiveness to distress cues? Psychophysiology 34:192–98.
Blair, R. J. R., Mitchell, D. & Blair, K. (2005) The psychopath: Emotion and the brain. Blackwell.
Boehm, C. (1999) Hierarchy in the forest: The evolution of egalitarian behavior. Harvard University Press.
Boehm, C. (2012) Moral origins: The evolution of virtue, altruism, and shame. Basic Books.
Breckler, S. (1984) Empirical validation of affect, behavior, and cognition as distinct components of attitude. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47(6):1191–205.
Breugelmans, S. & Poortinga, Y. (2006) Emotion without a word: Shame and guilt among Rarámuri Indians and rural Javanese. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91(6):1111–22.
Brewer, M. B. (1999) The psychology of prejudice: Ingroup love or outgroup hate? Journal of Social Issues 55(3):429–44.
Bugental, D. (2000) Acquisition of the algorithms of social life: A domain-based approach. Psychological Bulletin 126(2):187219.
Cacioppo, J., Gardner, W. & Berntson, G. (1999) The affect system has parallel and integrative processing components: Form follows function. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76(5):839–55.
Campbell, J. K. (1964) Honour, family and patronage: A study of institutions and moral values in a Greek mountain community. Clarendon Press.
Cantor, C. & Price, J. (2007) Traumatic entrapment, appeasement and complex PTSD: Evolutionary perspectives of hostage reactions, domestic abuse and the Stockholm syndrome. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 41:377–84.
Caprariello, P. A., Cuddy, A. J. C. & Fiske, S. T. (2009) Social structure shapes cultural stereotypes and emotions: A causal test of the stereotype content model. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 12(2):147–55.
Cattell, R. B. (1940) Sentiment or attitude? The core of a terminology problem in personality research. Journal of Personality 9(1):617.
Chapais, B. (2014) Complex kinship patterns as evolutionary constructions, and the origins of sociocultural universals. Current Anthropology 55(6):751–83.
Chapais, B. (2015) Competence, and the evolutionary origins of status and power in humans. Human Nature 26(2):123, 161–83. doi: 10.1007/s12110-015-9227-6.
Cikara, M. & Fiske, S. T. (2011) Bounded empathy: Neural responses to outgroup targets' (mis)fortunes. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 23(12):3791–803.
Cikara, M. & Fiske, S. T. (2012) Stereotypes and Schadenfreude: Affective and physiological markers of pleasure at outgroup misfortunes. Social Psychological and Personality Science 3(1):6371.
Clore, G. L. & Ortony, A. (2008) Appraisal theories: How cognition shapes affect into emotion. In: Handbook of emotions, 3rd edition, ed. Lewis, M., Haviland-Jones, J. H. & Barrett, L. F., pp. 628–42. Guilford Press.
Clore, G. L. & Schnall, S. (2005) The influence of affect on attitudes. In: The handbook of attitudes, ed. Albarracin, D., Johnson, B. T. & Zanna, M. P., pp. 437–89. Erlbaum.
Colombetti, G. (2009) From affect programs to dynamical discrete emotions. Philosophical Psychology 22(4):407–25.
Cosmides, L. & Tooby, J. (2000) Evolutionary psychology and the emotions. In: Handbook of emotions, 2nd edition, ed. Lewis, M. & Haviland-Jones, J. M., pp. 91115. Guilford Press.
Cottrell, C. A. & Neuberg, S. L. (2005) Different emotional reactions to different groups: A sociofunctional threat-based approach to “prejudice”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 88(5):770–89.
Cottrell, C. A., Neuberg, S. L. & Li, N. P. (2007) What do people desire in others? A sociofunctional perspective on the importance of different valued characteristics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 92:208–31.
Crockford, C., Wittig, R. M., Langergraber, K., Ziegler, T. E., Zuberbühler, K. & Deschner, T. (2013) Urinary oxytocin and social bonding in related and unrelated wild chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 280(1755):e20122765.
Cuddy, A. J. C., Fiske, S. T. & Glick, P. (2007) The BIAS map: Behaviors from intergroup affect and stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 92(4):631–48.
Cunningham, W. A., Zelazo, P. D., Packer, D. J. & Van Bavel, J. J. (2007) The iterative reprocessing model: A multilevel framework for attitudes and evaluation. Social Cognition 25(5):736–60.
Darwin, C. (1872/1955) Expression of the emotions in man and animals. Philosophical Library. (Original work published in 1872).
De Dreu, C. K. (2012) Oxytocin modulates cooperation within and competition between groups: An integrative review and research agenda. Hormones and Behavior 61(3):419–28.
De Dreu, C. K., Greer, L. L., Van Kleef, G. A., Shalvi, S. & Handgraaf, M. J. (2011) Oxytocin promotes human ethnocentrism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 108(4):1262–66. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21220339.
DeSteno, D., Dasgupta, N., Bartlett, M. & Cajdric, A. (2004) Prejudice from thin air. Psychological Science 15(5):319–24.
Doi, T. (1973) The anatomy of dependence, trans. Bester, J.. Kodansha International.
Dubreuil, B. (2010) Punitive emotions and norm violations. Philosophical Explorations 13(1):3550.
Eagly, A. H. & Chaiken, S. (1993) The psychology of attitudes. Harcourt Brace.
Ekman, P. (1992a) An argument for basic emotions. Cognition and Emotion 6(3):169200.
Ekman, P. & Friesen, W. V. (1986) A new pan-cultural facial expression of emotion. Motivation and Emotion 10(2):159–68. doi: 10.1007/BF00992253.
Ekman, P. & Friesen, W. V. (1988) Who knows what about contempt: A reply to Izard and Haynes. Motivation and Emotion 12:1722.
Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., O'Sullivan, M., Chan, A., Diacoyanni-Tarlatzis, I., Heider, K., Krause, R., LeCompte, W. A., Pitcairn, T., Ricci-Bitti, P. E., Scherer, K., Tomita, M. & Tzavaras, A. (1987) Universals and cultural-differences in the judgments of facial expressions of emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 53(4):712–17.
Ekman, P., O'Sullivan, M. & Matsumoto, D. (1991) Contradictions in the study of contempt: What's it all about? Reply to Russell. Motivation and Emotion 15:293–96.
Evers, E., de Vries, H., Spruijt, B. M. & Sterck, E. H. (2014) The EMO-model: An agent-based model of primate social behavior regulated by two emotional dimensions, anxiety-FEAR and satisfaction-LIKE. PLoS ONE 9(2):e87955.
Fazio, R. (2007) Attitudes as object-evaluation associations of varying strength. Social Cognition 25:603–37.
Fehr, B. & Russell, J. A. (1984) Concept of emotion viewed from a prototype perspective. Journal of Experimental Psychology–General 113(3):464–86.
Fessler, D. M. T. (1999) Toward an understanding of the universality of second order emotions. In: Biocultural approaches to the emotions, ed. Hinton, A. L., pp. 75116. Cambridge University Press.
Fessler, D. M. T. (2004) Shame in two cultures: Implications for evolutionary approaches. Journal of Cognition and Culture 4:207–62.
Fessler, D. M. T. (2007) Steps toward an evolutionary psychology of a culture-dependent species. In The innate mindvol. II, ed. Carruthers, S., Laurence, S. & Stich, S., pp. 91117. Oxford University Press.
Fessler, D. M. T. & Gervais, M. (2010) From whence the captains of our lives: Ultimate and phylogenetic perspectives on emotions in humans and other primates. In: Mind the gap: The origins of human universals, ed. Kappeler, P. M. & Silk, J. B., pp. 261–80. Springer.
Fessler, D. M. T. & Haley, K. J. (2003) The strategy of affect: Emotions in human cooperation. In: The genetic and cultural evolution of cooperation, ed. Hammerstein, P., pp. 736. MIT Press.
Fessler, D. M. T. & Quintelier, K. (2013) Suicide bombings, weddings, and prison tattoos: An evolutionary perspective on subjective commitment and objective commitment. In: Cooperation and its evolution: Vol. 2. Agents and mechanisms, ed. Sterelny, K., Joyce, R., Calcott, B. & Fraser, B., pp. 459–83. MIT Press.
Filippi, M., Agosta, F., Scola, E., Canu, E., Magnani, G., Marcone, A., Valsasina, P., Caso, F., Copetti, M., Comi, G., Cappa, S. F. & Falini, A. (2013) Functional network connectivity in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia. Cortex 49(9):2389–401.
Fischer, A. (2011) Contempt: A hot feeling hidden under a cold jacket. In: Re-constructing emotional spaces: From experience to regulation, ed. Trnka, R., Balcar, K. & Kuska, M., pp. 7787. Prague College of Psychosocial Studies Press.
Fischer, A. H. & Manstead, A. S. R. (2008) Social functions of emotion. In: Handbook of emotions, 3rd edition, ed. Lewis, M., Haviland-Jones, J. H. & Barrett, L. F., pp. 456–68. Guilford Press.
Fischer, A. H. & Roseman, I. J. (2007) Beat them or ban them: The characteristics and social functions of anger and contempt. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 93(1):103–15. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.93.1.103.
Fiske, A. P. (1991) Structures of social life. The Free Press.
Fiske, A. P. (2002) Socio-moral emotions motivate action to sustain relationships. Self and Identity 1:169–75.
Fiske, A. P. & Fiske, S. T. (2007) Social relationships in our species and cultures. In: Handbook of cultural psychology, ed. Kitayama, S. & Cohen, D., pp. 283306. Guilford Press.
Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. & Glick, P. (2007) Universal dimensions of social cognition: Warmth and competence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11(2):7783.
Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. C. Glick, P. & Xu, J. (2002) A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 82(6):878902. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.82.6.878.
Frank, R. H. (1988) Passions within reason: The strategic role of the emotions. W. W. Norton.
Fridhandler, B. M. & Averill, J. R. (1982) Temporal dimensions of anger: An exploration of time and emotion. In: Anger and aggression, ed. Averill, J. R., pp. 253–80. Springer-Verlag.
Frijda, N. H. (1986) The emotions. Cambridge University Press.
Frijda, N. H. (1994) Varieties of affect: Emotions and episodes, moods, and sentiments. In: The nature of emotion: Fundamental questions, ed. Ekman, P. & Davidson, R. J., pp. 5967. Oxford University Press.
Frijda, N. H., Mesquita, B., Sonnemans, J. & Van Goozen, S. (1991) The duration of affective phenomena or emotions, sentiments and passions. In: International review of studies on emotion, vol. 1, ed. Strongman, K. T., pp. 187225. Wiley.
Frijda, N. H., Kuipers, P. & Ter Schure, E. (1989) Relations among emotion, appraisal, and emotional action readiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57(2):212–28.
Gawronski, B. (2007) Editorial: Attitudes can be measured! But what is an attitude? Social Cognition 25(5):573–81.
Gervais, M. & Wilson, D. (2005) The evolution and functions of laughter and humor: A synthetic approach. The Quarterly Review of Biology 80(4):395430.
Gervais, M. M., Kline, M., Ludmer, M., George, R. & Manson, J. H. (2013) The strategy of psychopathy: Primary psychopathic traits predict defection on low-value relationships. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 280(1757):e20122773.
Goldfarb, R. (1961) The history of the contempt power. Washinton University Law Quarterly 1:129.
Gonzaga, G., Keltner, D., Londahl, E. & Smith, M. (2001) Love and the commitment problem in romantic relations and friendship. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81(2):247–62.
Gottman, J. M. & Levenson, R. W. (1992) Marital processes predictive of later dissolution: Behavior, physiology, and health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 63(2):221–33.
Haidt, J. (2003) The moral emotions. In: Handbook of affective science, ed. Davidson, R., Scherer, K. & Goldsmith, H., pp. 852–70. Oxford University Press.
Haidt, J. & Keltner, D. (1999) Culture and facial expression: Open-ended methods find more faces and a gradient of recognition. Cognition and Emotion 13(3):225–66.
Handy, E. S. C. & Pukui, M. K. (1953) The Polynesian family system in Ka-‘u, Hawai'I, VII. Traditional manners and customs, and the social order. The Journal of the Polynesian Society 62(4):295341.
Hare, R. D. (1996) Psychopathy: A clinical construct whose time has come. Criminal Justice and Behavior 23:2554.
Hareli, S. & Weiner, B. (2002) Dislike and envy as antecedents of pleasure at another's misfortune. Motivation and Emotion 26(4):257–77.
Haselton, M. & Nettle, D. (2006) The paranoid optimist: An integrative evolutionary model of cognitive biases. Personality and Social Psychology Review 10(1):4766.
Haslam, N. (2006) Dehumanization: An integrative review. Personality and Social Psychology Review 10(3):252–64.
Haslam, N. & Bornstein, B. (1996) Envy and jealousy as discrete emotions: A taxometric analysis. Motivation and Emotion 20(3):255–72.
Heider, F. (1958) The psychology of interpersonal relations. Psychology Press.
Hein, G., Silani, G., Preuschoff, K., Batson, C. D. & Singer, T. (2010) Neural responses to ingroup and outgroup members’ suffering predict individual differences in costly helping. Neuron 68(1):149–60.
Henrich, J. & Gil-White, F. J. (2001) The evolution of prestige: Freely conferred deference as a mechanism for enhancing the benefits of cultural transmission. Evolution and Human Behavior 22(3):165–96.
Hill, K. R., Walker, R. S., Božičević, M., Eder, J., Headland, T., Hewlett, B., Magdalena Hurtado, A., Marlowe, F., Wiessner, P. & Wood, B. (2011) Co-residence patterns in hunter–gatherer societies show unique human social structure. Science 331(6022):1286–89.
Hirshleifer, J. (1987) On the emotions as guarantors of threats and punishments. In: The latest on the best: Essays in evolution and optimality, ed. Dupre, J., pp. 307–26. MIT Press.
Holbrook, C., Fessler, D. M. T. & Navarrete, C. D. (2016) Looming large in others' eyes: Racial stereotypes illuminate dual adaptations for representing threat versus prestige as physical size. Evolution and Human Behavior 37:6778. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2015.08.004.
Holt-Lunstad, J., Birmingham, W. C. & Light, K. C. (2014) Relationship quality and oxytocin: Influence of stable and modifiable aspects of relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 32(4):472–90.
Hruschka, D. J. & Henrich, J. (2006) Friendship, cliquishness, and the emergence of cooperation. Journal of Theoretical Biology 239(1):115.
Hutcherson, C. A. & Gross, J. J. (2011) The moral emotions: A social-functionalist account of anger, disgust, and contempt. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 100(4):719–37. doi: 10.1037/a0022408.
Insel, T. R. (1992) Oxytocin – A neuropeptide for affiliation: Evidence from behavioral, receptor autoradiographic, and comparative studies. Psychoneuroendocrinology 17(1):335.
Izard, C. E. (1977) Human emotions. Plenum Press.
Izard, C. E. & Haynes, O. M. (1988) On the form and universality of the contempt expression: A challenge to Ekman and Friesen's claim of discovery. Motivation and Emotion 12(1):116.
Keller, M. C. & Nesse, R. M. (2006) The evolutionary significance of depressive symptoms: Different adverse situations lead to different depressive symptom patterns. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91(2):316–30.
Keltner, D., Haidt, J. & Shiota, M. N. (2006) Social functionalism and the evolution of emotions. In: Evolution and social psychology, ed. Schaller, M., Simpson, J. A. & Kenrick, D. T., pp. 115–42. Psychology Press.
Kenrick, D. T., Griskevicius, V., Neuberg, S. L. & Schaller, M. (2010) Renovating the pyramid of needs: Contemporary extensions built upon ancient foundations. Perspectives on Psychological Science 5(3):292314.
King, A. J., Johnson, D. D. P. & Van Vugt, M. (2009) The origins and evolution of leadership. Current Biology 19:R911–16.
Kitayama, S., Mesquita, B. & Karasawa, M. (2006) Cultural affordances and emotional experience: Socially engaging and disengaging emotions in Japan and the United States. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91(5):890903.
Kosfeld, M., Heinrichs, M., Zak, P. J., Fischbacher, U. & Fehr, E. (2005) Oxytocin increases trust in humans. Nature 435(7042):673–76.
Kövecses, Z. (2003) Metaphor and emotion: Language, culture, and body in human feeling. Cambridge University Press.
Kragel, P. A. & LaBar, K. S. (2013) Multivariate pattern classification reveals autonomic and experiential representations of discrete emotions. Emotion 13(4):681–90.
Kurzban, R. & Leary, M. R. (2001) Evolutionary origins of stigmatization: The functions of social exclusion. Psychological Bulletin 127(2):187208.
Laham, S. M., Chopra, S., Lalljee, M. & Parkinson, B. (2010) Emotional and behavioural reactions to moral transgressions: Cross-cultural and individual variations in India and Britain. International Journal of Psychology 45:6471. doi: 10.1080/00207590902913434.
Lakoff, G. (1995). Metaphor, morality, and politics, or why conservatives have left liberals in the dust. Social Research 62:177213.
Lammers, J. & Stapel, D. A. (2011) Power increases dehumanization. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 14:113–26.
Langdon, S. W. (2007) Conceptualizations of respect: Qualitative and quantitative evidence of four (five) themes. The Journal of Psychology 141:469–84.
Lazarus, R. S. (1991)Emotion and adaptation. Oxford University Press.
LeDoux, J. (2012) Rethinking the emotional brain. Neuron 73(4):653–76.
Leng, G. & Ludwig, M. (2016) Intranasal oxytocin: Myths and delusions. Biological Psychiatry 79:243–50. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.05.003.
Leung, A. K. Y. & Cohen, D. (2011) Within- and between-culture variation: Individual differences and the cultural logics of honor, face, and dignity cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 100(3):507–26.
Levy, R. I. (1973) Tahitians: Mind and experience in the Society Islands. University of Chicago Press.
Levy, R. L. (1984) Emotion, knowing, and culture. In: Culture theory, ed. Shweder, R. A. & LeVine, R. A., pp. 214–37. Cambridge University Press.
Leyens, J. P., Demoulin, S., Vaes, J., Gaunt, R. & Paladino, M. P. (2007) Infra-humanization: The wall of group differences. Social Issues and Policy Review 1:139–72.
Lindquist, K. A. (2013) Emotions emerge from more basic psychological ingredients: A modern psychological constructionist model. Emotion Review 5(4):356–68.
Lutz, C. (1988) Unnatural emotions: Everyday sentiments on a Micronesian atoll and their challenge to Western theory. University of Chicago Press.
Lutz, C. & Abu-Lughod, L., eds. (1990) Language and the politics of emotion. Cambridge University Press.
Lutz, C. & White, G. M. (1986) The anthropology of emotions. Annual Review of Anthropology 15:405–36.
Lyon, M. L. (1996) Missing emotion: The limitations of cultural constructionism in the study of emotion. Cultural Anthropology 10:244–63.
Mackie, D. M., Devos, T. & Smith, E. R. (2000) Intergroup emotions: Explaining offensive action tendencies in an intergroup context. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 79(4):602–16. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.79.4.602.
Markus, H. R. & Kitayama, S. (1991) Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review 98:224–53.
Markus, H. R. & Kitayama, S. (1994) The cultural shaping of emotion: A conceptual framework. In: Emotion and culture: Empirical studies of mutual influence, ed. Kitayama, S. & Markus, H. R., pp. 339–51. American Psychological Association.
Marzillier, S. & Davey, G. (2004) The emotional profiling of disgust-eliciting stimuli: Evidence for primary and complex disgusts. Cognition and Emotion 18(3):313–36.
Mason, M. N. (2003) Contempt as a moral attitude. Ethics 113(2):234–72.
Matsumoto, D. (2005) Scalar ratings of contempt expressions. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 29:91104.
Matsumoto, D. & Ekman, P. (2004) The relationship among expressions, labels, and descriptions of contempt. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 87(4):529–40. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.87.4.529.
McClelland, R. T. (2011) A naturalistic view of human dignity. The Journal of Mind and Behavior 32:548.
McDougall, W. (1933) The energies of men. Charles Scribner's.
McDougall, W. (1937) Organization of the affective life: A critical survey. Acta Psychologica 2:233346.
Meffert, H., Gazzola, V., den Boer, J. A., Bartels, A. A. & Keysers, C. (2013) Reduced spontaneous but relatively normal deliberate vicarious representations in psychopathy. Brain 136 (Part 8):2550–62. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23884812.
Mesquita, B. & Frijda, N. H. (1992) Cultural variations in emotions: A review. Psychological Bulletin 112:179204.
Michel, J.-B., Shen, Y. K., Aiden, A. P., Veres, A., Gray, M. K., Brockman, W., The Google Books Team Pickett, J. P., Hoiberg, D., Clancy, D., Norvig, P., Orwant, J., Pinker, S., Nowak, M. A. & Aiden, E. L. (2011) Quantitative analysis of culture using millions of digitized books. Science 331(6014):176–82. Available at: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/331/6014/176
Miller, J. G. & Bersoff, D. M. (1998) The role of liking in perceptions of the moral responsibility to help: A cultural perspective. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 34:443–69.
Miller, J. G., Das, R. & Chakravarthy, S. (2011) Culture and the role of choice in agency. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 101:4661.
Miller, W. I. (1997) The anatomy of disgust. Harvard University Press.
Molenberghs, P., Bosworth, R., Nott, Z., Louis, W. R., Smith, J. R., Amiot, C. E., Vohs, K. & Decety, J. (2014) The influence of group membership and individual differences in psychopathy and perspective taking on neural responses when punishing and rewarding others. Human Brain Mapping 35(10):4989–99.
Nesse, R. M. (1990) Evolutionary explanations of emotions. Human Nature 1(3):261–89.
Nesse, R. M. (2007) Runaway social selection for displays of partner value and altruism. Biological Theory 2:143–55.
Nesse, R. M. & Ellsworth, P. (2009) Evolution, emotions, and emotional disorders. American Psychologist 64(2):129–39.
Neuberg, S. L. & Cottrell, C. A. (2008) Managing the threats and opportunities afforded by human sociality. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice 12:6372.
Neuberg, S. L., Smith, D. M., Hoffman, J. C. & Russell, F. J. (1994) When we observe stigmatized and “normal” individuals interacting: Stigma by association. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 20:196209.
Niedenthal, P. M. (2008) Emotion concepts. In Handbook of emotions, 3rd edition., ed. Lewis, M., Haviland-Jones, J. M. & Barrett, L. F., pp. 587600. Guilford Press.
Nummenmaa, L., Glerean, E., Hari, R. & Hietanen, J. K. (2014) Bodily maps of emotions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 111(2):646–51. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1321664111.
Öhman, A. & Mineka, S. (2001) Fears, phobias, and preparedness: Toward an evolved module of fear and fear learning. Psychological Review 108(3):483.
Ortony, A., Clore, G. & Collins, A. (1988) The cognitive structure of emotions. Cambridge University Press. (Original hardcover edition).
Panchanathan, K. & Boyd, R. (2004) Indirect reciprocity can stabilize cooperation without the second-order free rider problem. Nature 432:499502.
Panksepp, J. (1998) Affective neuroscience: The foundations of human and animal emotions. Oxford University Press.
Parr, L. A., Waller, B. M., Vick, S. J. & Bard, K. A. (2007) Classifying chimpanzee facial expressions using muscle action. Emotion 7(1):172.
Peets, K., Hodges, E. V. E. & Salmivalli, C. (2008) Affect-congruent social-cognitive evaluations and behaviors. Child Development 79:170–85.
Pierson, D. (1967) Negroes in Brazil. Southern Illinois University Press.
Piff, P. K., Stancato, D. M., Côté, S., Mendoza-Denton, R. & Keltner, D. (2012) Higher social class predicts increased unethical behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 109(11):4086–91.
Price, M. E. & Van Vugt, M. (2014) The evolution of leader–follower reciprocity: The theory of service-for-prestige. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8: article 363. (Online journal).
Prinz, J. J. (2007) The emotional construction of morals. Oxford University Press.
Rai, T. S. & Fiske, A. P. (2011) Moral psychology is relationship regulation: Moral motives for unity, hierarchy, equality, and proportionality. Psychological Review 118(1):5775.
Reidy, D. E., Shelley-Tremblay, J. F. & Lilienfeld, S. O. (2011) Psychopathy, reactive aggression, and precarious proclamations: A review of behavioral, cognitive, and biological research. Aggression and Violent Behavior 16:512–24.
Roberts, G. (2005) Cooperation through interdependence. Animal Behaviour 70(4):901908.
Roseman, I. J. (2001) A model of appraisal in the emotion system. In: Appraisal processes in emotion: Theory, methods, research, ed. Scherer, K. R., Schorr, A. & Johnstone, T., pp. 6891. Oxford University Press.
Roseman, I. J., Wiest, C. & Swartz, T. S. (1994) Phenomenology, behaviors, and goals differentiate discrete emotions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67(2):206–21.
Rosenberg, E. L. & Ekman, P. (1995) Conceptual and methodological issues in the judgment of facial expressions of emotion. Motivation and Emotion 19(2):111–38.
Rosenberg, M. J. & Hovland, C. I. (1960) Cognitive, affective, and behavioral components of attitudes. In: Attitude organization and change, ed. Hovland, C. I. & Rosenberg, M. J., pp. 114. Yale University Press.
Royzman, E., McCauley, C. R. & Rozin, P. (2005) From Plato to Putnam: Four ways to think about hate. In: The psychology of hate, ed. Sternberg, R. J., pp. 335. American Psychological Association.
Rozin, P., Lowery, L. & Ebert, R. (1994) Varieties of disgust faces and the structure of disgust. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 66(5):870–81.
Rozin, P., Lowery, L., Imada, S. & Haidt, J. (1999) The CAD triad hypothesis: A mapping between three moral emotions (contempt, anger, disgust) and three moral codes (community, autonomy, divinity). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76(4):574–86.
Russell, J. A. (1991a) Culture and the categorization of emotions. Psychological Bulletin 110(3):426–50.
Russell, J. A. (1991c) Negative results on a reported facial expression of contempt. Motivation and Emotion 15(4):281–91.
Russell, J. A. (1991d) The contempt expression and the relativity thesis. Motivation and Emotion 15:149–68.
Russell, J. A. (2003) Core affect and the psychological construction of emotion. Psychological Review 110(1):145–72. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.110.1.145.
Russell, J. A. & Barrett, L. F. (1999) Core affect, prototypical emotional episodes, and other things called emotion: Dissecting the elephant. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76(5):805–19.
Sabini, J. & Silver, M. (2005) Why emotion names and experiences don't neatly pair. Psychological Inquiry 16:110.
Scarantino, A. (2009) Core affect and natural affective kinds. Philosophy of Science 76:940–57.
Scherer, K. R. (1999) Appraisal theory. In: Handbook of cognition and emotion, ed. Dalgleish, T. & Power, M. J., pp. 637–63. John Wiley.
Scherer, K. R. (2005) What are emotions? And how can they be measured? Social Science Information 44(4):695.
Scherer, K. R. (2009) The dynamic architecture of emotion: Evidence for the component process model. Cognition and Emotion 23:1307–51.
Schimmack, U., Oishi, S., Diener, E. & Suh, E. (2000) Facets of affective experiences: A framework for investigations of trait affect. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 26(6):655.
Schino, G. & Aureli, F. (2009) Reciprocal altruism in primates: Partner choice, cognition, and emotions. Advances in the Study of Behavior 39:4569.
Seeley, W. W., Menon, V., Schatzberg, A. F., Keller, J., Glover, G. H., Kenna, H., Reiss, A. L. & Greicius, M. D. (2007) Dissociable intrinsic connectivity networks for salience processing and executive control. The Journal of Neuroscience 27(9):2349–56. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5587-06.2007.
Sell, A., Tooby, J. & Cosmides, L. (2009) Formidability and the logic of human anger. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106(35):15073–78. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0904312106.
Shand, A. F. (1920) The foundations of character: Being a study of the tendencies of the emotions and sentiments, 2nd edition. Macmillan.
Shaver, P. R., Morgan, H. J. & Wu, S. (1996) Is love a “basic” emotion? Personal Relationships 3(1):8196.
Shaver, P. R., Schwartz, J., Kirson, D. & Oconnor, C. (1987) Emotion knowledge – further exploration of a prototype approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52(6):1061–86.
Silk, J. B. (2003) Cooperation without counting. In: Genetic and cultural evolution of cooperation, ed. Hammerstein, P., pp. 3754. MIT Press.
Smith, C. A. & Ellsworth, P. C. (1985) Patterns of cognitive appraisal in emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 48(4):813–38.
Smith, C. A. & Kirby, L. D. (2009) Putting appraisal in context: Toward a relational model of appraisal and emotion. Cognition and Emotion 23:1352–72.
Smith, R. H. (2000) Assimilative and contrastive emotional reactions to upward and downward social comparisons. In:Handbook of social comparison: Theory and research, ed. Suls, J. & Wheeler, L., pp. 173200. Kluwer Academic.
Smuts, B. B. & Watanabe, J. M. (1990) Social relationships and ritualized greetings in adult male baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis). International Journal of Primatology 11(2):147–72.
Sperber, D. (1996) Explaining culture. Blackwell.
Stanton, E. C. (1848/1997) Declaration of sentiments. In: The selected papers of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony: Vol. 1. In the School of Anti-Slavery, 1840–1866, ed. Gordon, A. D., p. 75. Rutgers University Press. (Original paper published in 1848).
Sternberg, R. J. (2003a) A duplex theory of hate: Development and application to terrorism, massacres, and genocide. Review of General Psychology 7(3):299328.
Storm, C. & Storm, T. (1987) A taxonomic study of the vocabulary of emotions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 53(4):805–16.
Storm, C. & Storm, T. (2005) The English lexicon of interpersonal affect: Love, etc. Cognition and Emotion 19(3):333–56.
Stout, G. F. (1903) The groundwork of psychology. Hinds & Noble.
Sugiyama, L. S. & Sugiyama, M. S. (2003) Social roles, prestige, and health risk: Social niche specialization as a risk-buffering strategy. Human Nature 14(2):165–90.
Tapias, M. P., Glaser, J., Keltner, D., Vasquez, K. & Wickens, T. (2007) Emotion and prejudice: Specific emotions toward outgroups. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations 10(1):2739.
Thomas, N. W. (1914) Anthropological report on the Ibo-speaking peoples of Nigeria: Part IV. Law and custom of the Ibo of the Asaba District, S. Nigeria. Harrison and Sons.
Tomasello, M., Melis, A. P., Tennie, C., Wyman, E. & Herrmann, E. (2012) Two key steps in the evolution of human cooperation. Current Anthropology 53(6):673–92.
Tooby, J. & Cosmides, L. (1990) The past explains the present: Emotional adaptations and the structure of ancestral environments. Ethology and Sociobiology 11(4/5):375424.
Tooby, J. & Cosmides, L. (1996) Friendship and the banker's paradox: Other pathways to the evolution of adaptations for altruism. In: Evolution of social behaviour patterns in primates and man: Proceedings of the British Academy, vol. 88, ed. Runciman, W. G., Smith, J. Maynard & Dunbar, R. I. M., pp. 119–43. Oxford University Press.
Tooby, J., Cosmides, L., Sell, A., Lieberman, D. & Sznycer, D. (2008) Internal regulatory variables and the design of human motivation: A computational evolutionary approach. In: Handbook of approach and avoidance motivation, ed. Elliot, A. J., pp. 251–71. Erlbaum.
Tran, A. L. (2015) Rich sentiments and the cultural politics of emotion in postreform Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. American Anthropologist 117(3):480–92.
Trivers, R. L. (1971) Evolution of reciprocal altruism. Quarterly Review of Biology 46(1):3557.
Trumble, B. C., Jaeggi, A. V & Gurven, M. (2015) Evolving the neuroendocrine physiology of human and primate cooperation and collective action. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B: Biological Sciences 370:e20150014. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2015.0014.
Turnbull, C. M. (1962) The forest people. Simon and Schuster.
van Dijk, W. W., Ouwerkerk, J. W., Goslinga, S., Nieweg, M. & Gallucci, M. (2006) When people fall from grace: Reconsidering the role of envy in schadenfreude . Emotion 6:156–60.
van Kleef, G. A., Oveis, C., van der Lowe, I., LuoKogan, A., Goetz, J. & Keltner, D. (2008) Power, distress, and compassion: Turning a blind eye to the suffering of others. Psychological Science 19:1315–22.
Van Vugt, M. (2006) Evolutionary origins of leadership and followership. Personality and Social Psychology Review 10(4):354.
Wagner, H. L. (2000) The accessibility of the term ‘contempt’ and the meaning of the unilateral lip curl. Cognition and Emotion 14(5):689710.
Waytz, A. & Epley, N. (2012) Social connection enables dehumanization. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 48(1):7076. doi: 10.1016/j/jesp.2011.07.012.
Wheatley, T & Haidt, J. (2005) Hypnotic disgust makes moral judgments more severe. Psychological Science 16:780–84.
White, G. M. (1980) Conceptual universals in interpersonal language. American Anthropologist 82:759–81.
White, G. M. (2000) Representing emotional meaning: Category, metaphor, schema, discourse. In: Handbook of emotions, 2nd edition, ed. Lewis, M. & Haviland-Jones, J. M., pp. 3044. Guilford Press.
White, G. M. & Kirkpatrick, J., eds. (1985) Person, self, and experience. University of California Press.
Wilson, D. S. (2002) Darwin's Cathedral: Evolution, religion and the nature of society. University of Chicago Press.
Wittig, R. M., Crockford, C., Deschner, T., Langergraber, K. E., Ziegler, T. E. & Zuberbühler, K. (2014) Food sharing is linked to urinary oxytocin levels and bonding in related and unrelated wild chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 281(1778):e20133096.
Wojciszke, B., Abele, A. & Baryla, W. (2009) Two dimensions of interpersonal attitudes: Liking depends on communion, respect depends on agency. European Journal of Social Psychology 39(6):973–90.
Yoder, K. J., Harenski, C., Kiehl, K. A. & Decety, J. (2015) Neural networks underlying implicit and explicit moral evaluations in psychopathy. Translational Psychiatry 5(8):e625.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 31
Total number of PDF views: 367 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 2317 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 26th September 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.