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Vision, development, and bilingualism are fundamental in the quest for a universal model of visual word recognition and reading

Abstract

We agree with many of the principles proposed by Frost but highlight crucial caveats and report research findings that challenge several assertions made in the target article. We discuss the roles that visual processing, development, and bilingualism play in visual word recognition and reading. These are overlooked in all current models, but are fundamental to any universal model of reading.

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Vision, development, and bilingualism are fundamental in the quest for a universal model of visual word recognition and reading

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