Skip to main content Accessibility help

Adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-style diet in relation to glioma: a case–control study

  • Sanaz Benisi-Kohansal (a1) (a2), Mehdi Shayanfar (a3), Minoo Mohammad-Shirazi (a3), Hadi Tabibi (a3), Giuve Sharifi (a3), Parvane Saneei (a1) (a2) (a4) and Ahmad Esmaillzadeh (a1) (a2) (a5)...


Data on the association of adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-style and glioma are scarce. We aimed to examine the association between adherence to the DASH-style diet and glioma in Iranian adults. In this study, 128 pathologically confirmed cases of glioma were recruited from hospitals and 256 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled from other wards of the hospital. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 126-item validated FFQ. Adherence to the DASH-style diet was followed considering the healthy and non-healthy foods emphasised in the DASH dietary pattern. After controlling for potential confounders, individuals with the greatest adherence to the DASH diet were 72 % less likely to have glioma compared with those with the lowest adherence (OR 0·28; 95 % CI 0·13, 0·57). Individuals with the highest consumption of fruits had lower odds for having glioma compared with those with the lowest intake (OR 0·31; 95 % CI 0·14, 0·68). A protective association was also observed between consumption of legumes and nuts and risk of glioma (OR 0·23; 95 % CI 0·10, 0·53). We found a significant positive association between red and processed meat (OR 2·60; 95 % CI 1·16, 5·81) and salt intakes (OR 2·87; 95 % CI 1·30, 6·34) and risk of glioma, after taking all potential confounders into account. Adherence to the DASH-style dietary pattern was inversely associated with glioma. In addition, some components of the DASH diet, including red meats and salt intakes, were positively associated with glioma. Consumption of nuts and legumes as well as fruits was inversely associated with glioma. Prospective cohort studies are required to confirm our findings.


Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: A. Esmaillzadeh, fax +98 31 36681378, email


Hide All
1. Ohgaki, H & Kleihues, P (2005) Population-based studies on incidence, survival rates, and genetic alterations in astrocytic and oligodendroglial gliomas. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 64, 479489.
2. Alimohamadi, SM, Ghodsi, SM & Ketabchi, SE (2008) Epidemiologic patterns of primary brain tumors in Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 9, 361362.
3. Sheweita, SA & Sheikh, BY (2011) Can dietary antioxidants reduce the incidence of brain tumors? Curr Drug Metab 12, 587593.
4. Kyritsis, AP, Bondy, ML & Levin, VA (2011) Modulation of glioma risk and progression by dietary nutrients and antiinflammatory agents. Nutr Cancer 63, 174184.
5. Wei, Y, Zou, D, Cao, D, et al. (2015) Association between processed meat and red meat consumption and risk for glioma: a meta-analysis from 14 articles. Nutrition 31, 4550.
6. Boeing, H, Schlehofer, B, Blettner, M, et al. (1993) Dietary carcinogens and the risk for glioma and meningioma in Germany. Int J Cancer 53, 561565.
7. Li, Y (2014) Association between fruit and vegetable intake and risk for glioma: a meta-analysis. Nutrition 30, 12721278.
8. Hu, J, La Vecchia, C, Negri, E, et al. (1999) Diet and brain cancer in adults: a case-control study in northeast China. Int J Cancer 81, 2023.
9. Albuquerque, RCR, Monteiro, GTR, Pereira, RA, et al. (2012) Dietary patterns and brain cancer: a case-control study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Cad Saude Colet 20, 271279.
10. Hu, FB (2002) Dietary pattern analysis: a new direction in nutritional epidemiology. Curr Opin Lipidol 13, 39.
11. Vogt, TM, Appel, LJ, Obarzanek, E, et al. (1999) Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension: rationale, design, and methods. DASH Collaborative Research Group. J Am Diet Assoc 99, S12S18.
12. Appel, LJ, Brands, MW, Daniels, SR, et al. (2006) Dietary approaches to prevent and treat hypertension: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Hypertension 47, 296308.
13. Saneei, P, Salehi-Abargouei, A, Esmaillzadeh, A, et al. (2014) Influence of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 24, 12531261.
14. Barak, F, Falahi, E, Keshteli, AH, et al. (2015) Adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet in relation to obesity among Iranian female nurses. Public Health Nutr 18, 705712.
15. Saneei, P, Fallahi, E, Barak, F, et al. (2015) Adherence to the DASH diet and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Iranian women. Eur J Nutr 54, 421428.
16. Asemi, Z, Tabassi, Z, Samimi, M, et al. (2013) Favourable effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet on glucose tolerance and lipid profiles in gestational diabetes: a randomised clinical trial. Br J Nutr 109, 20242030.
17. Jones-McLean, E, Hu, J, Greene-Finestone, LS, et al. (2015) A DASH dietary pattern and the risk of colorectal cancer in Canadian adults. Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can 35, 1220.
18. Esmaillzadeh, A & Azadbakht, L (2008) Major dietary patterns in relation to general obesity and central adiposity among Iranian women. J Nutr 138, 358363.
19. Bahreynian, M & Esmaillzadeh, A (2012) Quantity and quality of carbohydrate intake in Iran: a target for nutritional intervention. Arch Iran Med 15, 648649.
20. Malekshah, AF, Kimiagar, M, Saadatian-Elahi, M, et al. (2006) Validity and reliability of a new food frequency questionnaire compared to 24 h recalls and biochemical measurements: pilot phase of Golestan cohort study of esophageal cancer. Eur J Clin Nutr 60, 971977.
21. Ghaffarpour, M, Houshiar-Rad, A & Kianfar, H (1999) The Manual for Household Measures, Cooking Yields Factors and Edible Portion of Foods. Tehran: Keshaverzi Press; in Farsi.
22. US Department of Agriculture. National nutrient database for standard reference release 17 (database on the Internet). USDA, Washington, DC. (accessed March 2015).
23. Fung, TT, Hu, FB, Wu, K, et al. (2010) The Mediterranean and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets and colorectal cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 14291435.
24. Willett, WC, Howe, GR & Kushi, LH (1997) Adjustment for total energy intake in epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr 65, 1220S1228S.
25. Ruder, AM, Carreón, T, Butler, MA, et al. (2009) Exposure to farm crops, livestock, and farm tasks and risk of glioma: the Upper Midwest Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 169, 14791491.
26. Morgan, LL, Miller, AB, Sasco, A, et al. (2015) Mobile phone radiation causes brain tumors and should be classified as a probable human carcinogen (2A) (review). Int J Oncol 46, 18651871.
27. Preston-Martin, S, Yu, MC, Henderson, BE, et al. (1983) Risk factors for meningiomas in men in Los Angeles County. J Natl Cancer Inst 70, 863866.
28. Preston-Martin, S & Mack, W (1991) Gliomas and meningiomas in men in Los Angeles County: investigation of exposures to N-nitroso compounds. IARC Sci Publ 105, 197203.
29. Chen, H, Ward, MH, Tucker, KL, et al. (2002) Diet and risk of adult glioma in eastern Nebraska, United States. Cancer Causes Control 13, 647655.
30. Burch, JD, Craib, KJ, Choi, BC, et al. (1987) An exploratory case-control study of brain tumors in adults. J Natl Cancer Inst 78, 601609.
31. Kaplan, S, Novikov, I & Modan, B (1997) Nutritional factors in the etiology of brain tumors: potential role of nitrosamines, fat, and cholesterol. Am J Epidemiol 146, 832841.
32. Terry, MB, Howe, G, Pogoda, JM, et al. (2009) An international case-control study of adult diet and brain tumor risk: a histology-specific analysis by food group. Ann Epidemiol 19, 161171.
33. Giles, GG, McNeil, JJ, Donnan, G, et al. (1994) Dietary factors and the risk of glioma in adults: results of a case-control study in Melbourne, Australia. Int J Cancer 59, 357362.
34. Karmakar, S, Banik, NL & Ray, SK (2007) Molecular mechanism of inositol hexaphosphate-mediated apoptosis in human malignant glioblastoma T98G cells. Neurochem Res 32, 20942102.
35. Lee, M, Wrensch, M & Miike, R (1997) Dietary and tobacco risk factors for adult onset glioma in the San Francisco Bay Area (California, USA). Cancer Causes Control 8, 1324.
36. Blowers, L, Preston-Martin, S & Mack, WJ (1997) Dietary and other lifestyle factors of women with brain gliomas in Los Angeles County (California, USA). Cancer Causes Control 8, 512.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed