Skip to main content

Berry flavonoids and phenolics: bioavailability and evidence of protective effects

  • Daniele Del Rio (a1), Gina Borges (a2) and Alan Crozier (a2)

Berries contain vitamin C and are also a rich source of phytochemicals, especially anthocyanins which occur along with other classes of phenolic compounds, including ellagitannins, flavan-3-ols, procyanidins, flavonols and hydroxybenzoate derivatives. This review examines studies with both human subjects and animals on the absorption of these compounds, and their glucuronide, sulphate and methylated metabolites, into the circulatory system from the gastrointestinal tract and the evidence for their localisation within the body in organs such as the brain and eyes. The involvement of the colonic microflora in catabolising dietary flavonoids that pass from the small to the large intestine is discussed along with the potential fate and role of the resultant phenolic acids that can be produced in substantial quantities. The in vitro and in vivo bioactivities of these polyphenol metabolites and catabolites are assessed, and the current evidence for their involvement in the protective effects of dietary polyphenols, within the gastrointestinal tract and other parts of the body to which they are transported by the circulatory system, is reviewed.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Berry flavonoids and phenolics: bioavailability and evidence of protective effects
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Berry flavonoids and phenolics: bioavailability and evidence of protective effects
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Berry flavonoids and phenolics: bioavailability and evidence of protective effects
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: A. Crozier, fax +44 141 3305394, email
Hide All
1 Boyles, MJ & Wrolstad, RE (1993) Anthocyanin composition of red raspberry juice: Influences of cultivar processing and environmental factors. J Food Sci 58, 11351141.
2 Hakkinen, SH, Karenlampi, SO, Mykkanen, HM, et al. (2000) Influence of domestic processing and storage on flavonol contents in berries. J Agric Food Chem 48, 29602965.
3 Hakkinen, SH & Torronen, AR (2000) Content of flavonols and selected phenolic acids in strawberries and Vaccinium species: influence of cultivar, cultivation site and technique. Food Res Int 33, 517524.
4 Mäattä, KR, Kamal-Eldin, A & Torronen, AR (2003) High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of phenolic compounds in berries with diode array and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometric (MS) detection: Ribes species. J Agric Food Chem 51, 67366744.
5 Wu, X, Gu, L, Prior, RL, et al. (2004) Characterisation of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in some cultivars of Ribes, Aronia, and Sambucus and their antioxidant capacity. J Agric Food Chem 52, 78467856.
6 Borges, G, Degénéve, A, Mullen, W, et al. (2010) Identification of flavonoid and phenolic antioxidants in blackcurrants, blueberries, raspberries, redcurrants and cranberries. J Agric Food Chem (In the Press).
7 Mullen, W, Edwards, CA, Serafini, M, et al. (2008) Bioavailability of pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside and its metabolites in humans following the ingestion of strawberries with and without cream. J Agric Food Chem 56, 713719.
8 Dégenéve, A (2004) Antioxidants in fruits and vegetables. MSc Thesis, University of Glasgow.
9 Cho, MJ, Howard, LR, Prior, RL, et al. (2004) Flavonoid glycosides and antioxidant capacity of various blackberry, blueberry and red grape genotypes determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. J Sci Food Agric 84, 17711782.
10 Hager, TJ, Howard, LR & Liyanage, R (2008) Ellagitannin composition of blackberry as determined by HPLC-ESI-MS and MALDI-TOF-MS. J Agric Food Chem 56, 661669.
11 Mullen, W, McGinn, J, Lean, MEJ, et al. (2002) Ellagitannins, flavonoids, and other phenolics in red raspberries and their contribution to antioxidant capacity and vasorelaxation properties. J Agric Food Chem 50, 69026909.
12 Mullen, W, Stewart, AJ, Lean, MEJ, et al. (2002) Effect of freezing and storage on the phenolics, ellagitannins, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity of red raspberries. J Agric Food Chem 50, 51975201.
13 Mullen, W, Yokota, T, Lean, MEJ, et al. (2003) Analysis of ellagitannins and conjugates of ellagic acid and quercetin in raspberry fruit by LC-MS. Phytochemistry 64, 617624.
14 Prior, RL, Lazarus, SA, Cao, G, et al. (2001) Identification of procyanidins and anthocyanins in blueberries and cranberries (Vaccinium spp.) using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 49, 12701276.
15 McGhie, TK, Aingie, GD, Barnet, LE, et al. (2003) Anthocyanin glycosides from berry fruit are absorbed and excreted unmetabolised by both human and rats. J Agric Food Chem 51, 45394548.
16 Rouanet, J-M, Décorde, K, Del Rio, D, et al. (2010) Berry juices, teas, antioxidants and the prevention of atherosclerosis in hamsters. Food Chem 118, 266271.
17 Hertog, MGL, Hollman, PCH & Katan, MB (1992) Content of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids of 28 vegetables and 9 fruits commonly consumed in The Netherlands. J Agric Food Chem 40, 23792383.
18 Hertog, MGL, Hollman, PCH & Venema, DP (1992) Optimization of quantitative HPLC determination of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids in fruit and vegetables. J Agric Food Chem 40, 15911598.
19 Hakkinen, SH, Karenlampi, SO, Heinonen, M, et al. (1999) Content of the flavonols quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol in 25 edible berries. J Agric Food Chem 47, 22742279.
20 Gu, L, Kelm, MA, Hammerstone, JF, et al. (2004) Concentrations of proanthocyanidins in common foods and estimations of normal consumption. J Nutr 134, 613617.
21 Amakura, Y, Okada, M, Tsuji, S, et al. (2000) High performance liquid chromatographic determination with photo diode array detection of ellagic acid in fresh and processed fruits. J Chromatogr A 896, 8793.
22 Hakkinen, SH, Karenlampi, SO, Mykkanen, HM, et al. (2000) Ellagic acid content in berries: influence of domestic processing and storage. Eur Food Res Technol 212, 7580.
23 Crozier, A, Jaganath, IB & Clifford, MN (2009) Dietary phenolics: chemistry, bioavailability and effects on health. Nat Prod Rep 26, 10011043.
24 Schuster, B & Herrmann, K (1985) Hydroxybenzoic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in soft fruits. Phytochemistry 24, 27612764.
25 Donovan, JL, Manach, C & Faulks, RM (2006) Absorption and metabolism of dietary secondary metabolites. In Plant Secondary Metabolites. Occurrence, Structure and Role in the Human Diet, pp. 303351 [Crozier, A, Clifford, MN and Ashihara, H, editors]. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
26 Day, AJ, Canada, FJ, Diaz, JC, et al. (2000) Dietary flavonoid and isoflavone glycosides are hydrolysed by the lactase site of lactase phlorizin hydrolase. FEBS Lett 468, 166170.
27 Gee, JM, DuPont, SM, Day, AJ, et al. (2000) Intestinal transport of quercetin glycosides in rats involves both deglycosylation and interaction with the hexose transport pathway. J Nutr 130, 27652771.
28 Kottra, G & Daniel, H (2007) Flavonoid glycosides are not transported by the human Na+/glucose transporter when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, but effectively inhibit electrogenic glucose uptake. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 322, 829835.
29 Jaganath, IB, Mullen, W, Edwards, CA, et al. (2006) The relative contribution of the small and large intestine to the absorption and metabolism of rutin in man. Free Radic Res 40, 10351046.
30 Roowi, S, Mullen, W, Edwards, CA, et al. (2009) Yoghurt impacts on the excretion of phenolic acids derived from colonic breakdown of orange juice flavanones in humans. Mol Nutr Food Res 53, S44S53.
31 Williamson, G & Clifford, MN (2010) Colon metabolites of berry polyphenolics: the missing link to biological activity. GlaxSmithKline Report.
32 Manach, C, Williamson, G, Morand, C, et al. (2005) Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. I. Review of 97 bioavailability studies. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 230S242S.
33 Mullen, W, Edwards, CA & Crozier, A (2006) Absorption, excretion and metabolic profiling of methyl-, glucuronyl-, glucosyl and sulpho-conjugates of quercetin in human plasma and urine after ingestion of onions. Br J Nutr 96, 107116.
34 Reeve, DR & Crozier, A (1980) Quantitative analysis of plant hormones. In Hormonal Regulation of Development 1. Molecular Aspects of Plant Hormones, vol. 9, pp. 203280 [MacMillan, J, editor]. Encyclopaedia of plant physiology new series. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.
35 Gu, L, Laly, M, Chang, HC, et al. (2005) Isoflavone conjugates are underestimated in tissues using enzymatic hydrolysis. J Agric Food Chem 53, 68586863.
36 Miyazawa, T, Nakagawa, K, Kudo, M, et al. (1999) Direct intestinal absorption of red fruit anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, into rats and humans. J Agric Food Chem 47, 10831091.
37 Milbury, P, Cao, G, Prior, RL, et al. (2002) Bioavailablility of elderberry anthocyanins. Mech Ageing Develop 2002, 9971006.
38 Cooney, JM, Jensen, JD & McGhie, TK (2004) LC-MS identification of anthocyanins in boysenberry extract and anthocyanin metabolites in human urine following dosing. J Sci Food Agric 84, 237245.
39 Ichiyanagi, T, Shida, Y, Rahman, MM, et al. (2005) Extended glucuronidation is another major path of cyanidin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside metabolism in rats. J Agric Food Chem 53, 73127319.
40 Borges, G, Roowi, S, Rouanet, J-M, et al. (2007) The bioavailability of raspberry anthocyanins and ellagitannins. Mol Nutr Food Res 51, 714725.
41 Sakakibara, H, Ogawa, T, Koyanagi, A, et al. (2009) Distribution and excretion of bilberry anthocyanins in mice. J Agric Food Chem 57, 76817686.
42 Wu, X, Pittman, HE, McKay, S, et al. (2005) Aglycones and sugar moieties alter anthocyanin absorption and metabolism after berry consumption in weanling pigs. J Nutr 135, 24172424.
43 Prior, RL & Wu, X (2006) Anthocyanins: structural characteristics that result in unique metabolic patterns and biological activities. Free Radic Res 40, 10141028.
44 Wu, X, Beecher, G, Holden, JM, et al. (2006) Concentrations of anthocyanins in common foods in the United States and estimation of normal consumption. J Agric Food Chem 54, 40694075.
45 Felgines, C, Talavéra, S, Gonthier, M-P, et al. (2003) Strawberry anthocyanins are recovered in urine as glucuro- and sulfoconjugates in humans. J Nutr 133, 12691301.
46 Carkeet, C, Clevidence, BA & Novotny, JA (2008) Anthocyanin excretion by humans increases linearly with increasing strawberry dose. J Nutr 2008, 897902.
47 Felgines, C, Talavéra, O, Texier, A, et al. (2005) Blackberry anthocyanins are mainly recovered from urine as methylated and glucuronidated conjugates in humans. J Agric Food Chem 53, 77217727.
48 Kay, CD & Holub, BJ (2002) The effect of wild blueberry consumption on postprandial serum antioxidant status in human subjects. Br J Nutr 88, 389397.
49 Mazza, G, Kay, CD, Cottrell, T, et al. (2002) Absorption of anthocyanins from blueberries and serum antioxidant status in human subjects. J Agric Food Chem 50, 77317737.
50 Wu, X, Cao, G & Prior, RL (2002) Absorption and metabolism of anthocyanins in elderly women after consumption of elderberry or blueberry. J Nutr 132, 18651871.
51 Clifford, MN (2000) Anthocyanins – nature, occurrence and dietary burden. J Sci Food Agric 80, 10631072.
52 Woodward, G, Kroon, P, Cassidy, A, et al. (2009) Anthocyanin stability and recovery: implications for the analysis of clinical and experimental samples. J Agric Food Chem 57, 52715278.
53 Määttä-Riihinen, KR, Kähkkönen, MP, Törrönen, RA, et al. (2005) Catechins and procyanidins in berries of vaccinium species and their antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem 53, 84858491.
54 Crozier, A, Yokota, T, Jaganath, IB, et al. (2006) Secondary metabolites as dietary components in plant-based foods and beverages. In Plant Secondary Metabolites. Occurrence, Structure and Role in the Human Diet, pp. 208302 [Crozier, A, Clifford, MN and Ashihara, H, editors]. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
55 Mullen, W, Borges, G, Donovan, JL, et al. (2009) Milk decreases urinary excretion but not plasma pharmacokinetics of cocoa flavan-3-ol metabolites in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 17841791.
56 Donovan, JL, Crespy, V, Oliveira, M, et al. (2006) (+)-Catechin is more bioavailable than ( − )-catechin: relevance to the bioavailability of catechin from cocoa. Free Radic Res 40, 10291034.
57 Stalmach, A, Troufflard, S, Serafini, M, et al. (2009) Absorption, metabolism and excretion of Choladi green tea flavan-3-ols by humans. Mol Nutr Food Res 53, S44S53.
58 Baba, S, Osakabe, N, Yasuda, A, et al. (2000) Bioavailability of ( − )-epicatechin upon intake of chocolate and cocoa in human volunteers. Free Radic Res 33, 635641.
59 Stalmach, A, Mullen, W, Steiling, H, et al. (2010) Absorption, metabolism, efflux and excretion of green tea flavan-3-ols in humans with an ileostomy. Mol Nutr Food Res (In the Press).
60 Kida, T, Suzuki, N, Matsumoto, F, et al. (2000) Identification of biliary metabolites of ( − )-epigallocatechin gallate in rats. J Agric Food Chem 48, 41514155.
61 Kohri, T, Nanjo, F, Suzuki, M, et al. (2001) Synthesis of ( − )-[4-3H]epigallocatechin gallate and its metabolic fate in rats after intravenous administration. J Agric Food Chem 49, 10421048.
62 Zhu, QY, Zhang, AQ, Tsang, D, et al. (1997) Stability of green tea catechins. J Agric Food Chem 45, 46244628.
63 Yoshino, K, Suzuki, M, Sasaki, K, et al. (1999) Formation of antioxidants from ( − )-epigallocatechin gallate in mild alkaline fluids, such as authentic intestinal juice and mouse plasma. J Nutr Biochem 10, 223229.
64 Record, R & Lane, JM (2001) Simulated intestinal digestion of green and black teas. Food Chem 73, 481486.
65 Green, RJ, Murphy, AS, Schulz, B, et al. (2007) Common tea formulations modulate in vitro digestive recovery of green tea catechins. Mol Nutr Food Res 51, 11521162.
66 Auger, C, Hara, Y & Crozier, A (2008) Bioavailability of polyphenon E flavan-3-ols in humans with an ileostomy. J Nutr 138, 1535S1542S.
67 Packer, L, Rimbach, G & Virgili, F (1999) Antioxidant activity and biologic properties of a procyanidin-rich extract from pine (Pinus maritima) bark, pycnogenol. Free Radic Biol Med 27, 704724.
68 Simonetti, P, Ciappellano, S, Gardana, C, et al. (2002) Procyanidins from Vitis vinifera seeds: in vivo effects on oxidative stress. J Agric Food Chem 50, 62176221.
69 Yamakoshi, J, Kataoka, S, Koga, T, et al. (1999) Proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds attenuates the development of aortic atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Atherosclerosis 142, 139149.
70 Bomser, JA, Sinletary, KW, Wallig, MA, et al. (1999) Inhibition of TPA-induced tumor promotion in CD-1 mouse epidermis by a polyphenolic fraction from grape seeds. Cancer Lett 135, 151157.
71 Williamson, G & Manach, C (2005) Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. II. Review of 93 intervention studies. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 243S255S.
72 Espín, JC, García-Conesa, MT & Tomás-Barberán, FA (2007) Nutraceuticals: facts and fiction. Phytochemistry 68, 29863008.
73 Déprez, S, Brezillon, C, Rabot, S, et al. (2000) Polymeric proanthocyanidins are catabolized by human colonic microflora into low-molecular-weight phenolic acids. J Nutr 130, 27332738.
74 Gonthier, M-P, Donovan, JL, Texier, O, et al. (2003) Metabolism of dietary procyanidins in rats. Free Radic Biol Med 35, 837844.
75 Appeldoorn, MM, Vincken, VP, Aura, AM, et al. (2009) Procyanidin dimers are metabolized by human microbiota with 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acetic acid and 5-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone as the major metabolites. J Agric Food Chem 57, 10841092.
76 Ward, NC, Croft, KD, Pudley, IB, et al. (2004) Supplementation with grape seed polyphenols results in increased urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid, an important metabolite of proanthocyanidins in humans. J Agric Food Chem 52, 55455549.
77 Spencer, JPE, Chaudry, F, Pannala, AS, et al. (2000) Decomposition of cocoa procyanidins in the gastric milieu. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 272, 236241.
78 Donovan, JL, Manach, C, Rios, L, et al. (2002) Procyanidins are not bioavailable in rats fed a single meal containing a grapeseed extract or the procyanidin dimer B3. Br J Nutr 87, 299306.
79 Rios, L, Bennett, RN, Lazarus, SA, et al. (2002) Cocoa procyanidins are stable during gastric transit in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 11061110.
80 Tsang, C, Auger, C, Bornet, A, et al. (2005) The absorption, metabolism and excretion of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins following the ingestion of a grape seed extract by rats. Br J Nutr 94, 170181.
81 Sano, A, Yamakoshi, J, Tokutake, S, et al. (2003) Procyanidin B1 is detected in human serum after intake of proanthocyanidin-rich grape seed extract. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 77, 11401143.
82 Holt, RR, Lazarus, SA, Sullards, MC, et al. (2002) Procyanidin dimer B2 [epicatechin-(4β-8)-epicatechin] in human plasma after the consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 798804.
83 Corder, R (2008) Red wine, chocolate and vascular health: developing the evidence base. Heart 94, 821823.
84 Shoji, T, Masumoto, S, Moriichi, N, et al. (2006) Apple procyanidin oligomers absorption in rats after oral administration: analysis of procyanidins in plasma using the Porter method and high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 54, 884892.
85 Cerdá, B, Espín, JC, Parra, S, et al. (2004) The potent in vitro antioxidant ellagitannins from pomegranate juice are metabolised into bioavailable but poor antioxidant hydroxy-6H-dibenzopyran-6-one derivatives by the colonic microflora of healthy humans. Eur J Nutr 43, 205220.
86 Seeram, NP, Henning, SM, Zhang, Y, et al. (2006) Pomegranate juice ellagitannin metabolites are present in human plasma and some persist in urine for up to 48 hours. J Nutr 136, 24812485.
87 Mertens-Talcott, SU, Jilma-Stohlawetz, P, Rios, J, et al. (2006) Absorption, metabolism, and antioxidant effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) polyphenols after ingestion of a standardized extract in healthy human volunteers. J Agric Food Chem 54, 89568961.
88 Cerdá, B, Tomás-Barberán, FA & Espín, JC (2005) Metabolism of antioxidant and chemopreventive ellagitannins from strawberries, raspberries, walnuts, and oak-aged wine in humans: identification of biomarkers and individual variability. J Agric Food Chem 53, 227235.
89 Espin, JC, González-Barrio, R, Cerdá, B, et al. (2007) Iberian pig as a model to clarify obscure points in the bioavailability and metabolism of ellagitannins in humans. J Agric Food Chem 55, 1047610485.
90 Mullen, W, Archeveque, M-A, Edwards, CA, et al. (2008) Bioavailability and metabolism of orange juice flavanones in humans: impact of a full fat yogurt. J Agric Food Chem 56, 1115711164.
91 Dendougui, F & Schwedt, G (2004) In vitro analysis of binding capacities of calcium to phytic acid in different food samples. Eur Food Res Tech 219, 409415.
92 Matsumoto, H, Ito, K, Yonekura, K, et al. (2007) Enhanced absorption of anthocyanins after oral administration of phytic acid in rats and humans. J Agric Food Chem 55, 24892496.
93 Walton, MC, Lentle, RG, Reynolds, GW, et al. (2006) Anthocyanin absorption and antioxidant status of pigs. J Agric Food Chem 54, 79407946.
94 Walton, MC, Hendriks, WH, Broomfield, AM, et al. (2009) Viscous food matrix influences absorption and excretion but not metabolism of blackcurrant anthocyanins in rats. J Food Sci 74, H22H229.
95 Neilsen, ILF, Dargste, LO, Rav-Haren, G, et al. (2003) Absorption and excretion of blackcurrant anthocyanins in humans and Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits. J Agric Food Chem 51, 28132820.
96 Serafini, M, Testa, MF, Villaño, D, et al. (2009) Antioxidant activity of blueberry fruit is impaired by association with milk. Free Radic Biol Med 46, 769774.
97 Serafini, M, Bugianesi, R, Maiaini, G, et al. (2003) Plasma antioxidants from chocolate. Nature 424, 1013.
98 Halliwell, B (2003) Health benefits of eating chocolate? Nature 426, 787.
99 Schroeter, H, Holt, RR, Orozco, TJ, et al. (2003) Milk and the absorption of flavanols. Nature 426, 787788.
100 Serafini, M & Crozier, A (2003) Milk and the absorption of flavanols – reply. Nature 426, 788.
101 Keogh, JB, McInerney, J & Clifton, PM (2007) The effect of milk protein on the bioavailability of cocoa polyphenols. J Food Sci 72, S230S233.
102 Roura, E, Andrès-Lacueva, C, Estruch, R, et al. (2007) Milk does not affect the bioavailability of cocoa powder flavonoid in healthy human. Ann Nutr Metab 51, 493498.
103 Roura, E, Andrès-Lacueva, C, Estruch, R, et al. (2008) The effect of milk as a food matrix for polyphenols on the excretion profile of cocoa ( − )-epicatechin metabolites in healthy human subjects. Br J Nutr 100, 846851.
104 Miller, KB, Hurst, WJ, Payne, MJ, et al. (2008) Impact of alkalization on the antioxidant and flavanol content of commercial cocoa powders. J Agric Food Chem 56, 85278533.
105 Serafini, M, Ghiselli, A & Ferro-Luzzi, A (1996) In vivo antioxidant effect of green and black tea in man. Eur J Clin Nutr 50, 2832.
106 van het Hof, KK, Kivits, GA, Weststrate, JA, et al. (1998) Bioavailability of catechins from tea: the effect of milk. Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 356359.
107 Langley-Evans, SC (2000) Consumption of black tea elicits an increase in plasma antioxidant potential in humans. Int J Food Sci Nutr 51, 309315.
108 Leenen, R, Roodenburg, AJ, Tijburg, LB, et al. (2000) A single dose of tea with or without milk increases plasma antioxidant activity in humans. Eur J Clin Nutr 54, 8792.
109 Willis, LM, Shukitt-Hale, B & Joseph, JA (2009) Recent advances in berry supplementation and age-related cognitve decline. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 12, 9194.
110 Andres-Lacueva, C, Shukitt-Hale, B, Galli, RL, et al. (2005) Anthocyanins in aged blueberry-fed rats are found centrally and may enhance memeory. Nutr Neurosci 8, 111120.
111 El Mohsen, MA, Marks, J, Kuhnle, G, et al. (2006) Absorption, tissue distribution and excretion of pelargonidin and its metabolites following oral administration to rats. Br J Nutr 95, 5158.
112 Borges, G, Roowi, S, Rouanet, J-M, et al. (2007) The bioavailability of raspberry anthocyanins and ellagitannins in rats. Mol Nutr Food Res 51, 714725.
113 Kalt, W, Blumber, JB, McDonald, JE, et al. (2008) Identification of anthocyanins in the liver, eye, and brain of blueberry-fed pigs. J Agric Food Chem 56, 705712.
114 Matsumoto, H, Nakamura, Y, Iida, H, et al. (2006) Comparative assessment of distribution of blackcurrant anthocyanins in rabbit and rat ocular tissues. Exp Eye Res 83, 348356.
115 Mullen, W, Larcombe, S, Arnold, K, et al. (2010) Use of accurate mass full scan mass spectrometry for the analysis of anthocyanins in berries and berry-fed tissues. J Agric Food Chem (In the Press).
116 Mullen, W, Rouanet, J-M, Auger, C, et al. (2008) Bioavailability of [2-14C]quercetin-4′-glucoside in rats. J Agric Food Chem 56, 1212712137.
117 Zini, A, Del Rio, D, Stewart, AJ, et al. (2006) Do flavan-3-ols from green tea reach the human brain. Nutr Neurosci 9, 5761.
118 Kawa, Y, Nishikawa, T, Shiba, Y, et al. (2008) Macrophage as a target of quercetin glucuronides in human atherosclerotic arteries. Implication in the anti-atherosclerotic mechanism of dietary flavonoids. J Biol Chem 283, 94249434.
119 Kawa, Y, Tanaka, H, Murota, K, et al. (2008) ( − )-Epicatechin gallate accumulates in foamy macrophages in human atherosclertic aorta: implication in the anti-atherosclerotic actions of tea catechins. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 374, 527532.
120 Del Rio, D, Costa, LG, Lean, ME, et al. (2009) Polyphenols and health: what compounds are involved? Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 20, 16.
121 Hsu, HY, Tsang, SF, Lin, KW, et al. (2008) Cell death induced by flavonoid glycosides with and without copper. Food Chem Toxicol 46, 23942401.
122 Bellion, P, Hofmann, T, Pool-Zobel, BL, et al. (2008) Antioxidant effectiveness of phenolic apple juice extracts and their gut fermentation products in the human colon carcinoma cell line caco-2. J Agric Food Chem 56, 63106317.
123 Jaganath, IB, Mullen, W, Lean, MEJ, et al. (2009) In vitro catabolism of rutin by human fecal bacteria and the antioxidant capacity of its catabolites. Free Radic Biol Med 47, 11801189.
124 Pellegrini, N, Del Rio, D, Colombi, B, et al. (2003) Application of the 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation assay to a flow injection system for the evaluation of antioxidant activity of some pure compounds and beverages. J Agric Food Chem 51, 260264.
125 González-Sarrías, A, Azorín-Ortuño, M, Yáñez-Gascón, MJ, et al. (2009) Dissimilar in vitro and in vivo effects of ellagic acid and its microbiota-derived metabolites, urolithins, on the cytochrome P450 1A1. J Agric Food Chem 57, 56235632.
126 González-Sarrías, A, Espín, JC, Tomás-Barberán, FA, et al. (2009) Gene expression, cell cycle arrest and MAPK signalling regulation in Caco-2 cells exposed to ellagic acid and its metabolites, urolithins. Mol Nutr Food Res 53, 686698.
127 Larrosa, M, González-Sarrías, A, Yáñez-Gascón, MJ, et al. (2009) Anti-inflammatory properties of a pomegranate extract and its metabolite urolithin-A in a colitis rat model and the effect of colon inflammation on phenolic metabolism. J Nutr Biochem 21, 717725.
128 Pellacani, C, Calani, L, Caglieri, A, et al. (2009) Mild and intense oxidative stress of human neurons: protection exerted by colon-derived phenolic catabolites. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Polyphenols and Health, Harrowgate, UK.
129 Youdim, KA, Shukitt-Hale, B & Joseph, JA (2004) Flavonoids and the brain: Interactions at the blood–brain barrier and their physiological effects on the central nervous system. Free Radic Biol Med 37, 16831693.
130 Larrosa, M, Luceri, C, Vivoli, E, et al. (2009) Polyphenol metabolites from colonic microbiota exert anti-inflammatory activity on different inflammation models. Mol Nutr Food Res 53, 10441054.
131 Aura, AM, Martin-Lopez, P, O'Leary, KA, et al. (2005) In vitro metabolism of anthocyanins by human gut microflora. Eur J Nutr 44, 133142.
132 Vitaglione, P, Donnarumma, G, Napolitano, A, et al. (2007) Protocatechuic acid is the major human metabolite of cyanidin-glucosides. J Nutr 137, 20432048.
133 Galvano, F, Vitaglione, P, Li Volti, G, et al. (2008) Protocatechuic acid: the missing human cyanidins’ metabolite. Mol Nutr Food Res 52, 386387.
134 Guan, S, Ge, D, Liu, TQ, et al. (2009) Protocatechuic acid promotes cell proliferation and reduces basal apoptosis in cultured neural stem cells. Toxicol In vitro 23, 201208.
135 Guan, S, Jiang, B, Bao, YM, et al. (2006) Protocatechuic acid suppresses MPP+-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death in PC12 cells. Food Chem Toxicol 44, 16591666.
136 Lin, HH, Chen, JH, Huang, CC, et al. (2007) Apoptotic effect of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid on human gastric carcinoma cells involving JNK/p38 MAPK signalling activation. Int J Cancer 120, 23062316.
137 Lala, G, Malik, M, Zhao, C, et al. (2006) Anthocyanin-rich extracts inhibit multiple biomarkers of colon cancer in rats. Nutr Cancer 54, 8493.
138 Stoner, GD, Chen, T, Kresty, LA, et al. (2006) Protection against oesophageal cancer in rodents with lyophilized berries: potential mechanisms. Nutr Cancer 54, 3346.
139 Chen, T, Hwang, H, Rose, ME, et al. (2006) Chemopreventive properties of black raspberries in N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine-induced rat esophageal tumorigenesis: down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and c-Jun. Cancer Res 66, 28532859.
140 Wang, LS, Hecht, SS, Carmella, SG, et al. (2009) Anthocyanins in black raspberries prevent esophageal tumors in rats. Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa) 2, 8493.
141 Gordillo, G, Fang, H, Khanna, S, et al. (2009) Oral administration of blueberry inhibits angiogenic tumor growth and enhances survival of mice with endothelial cell neoplasm. Antioxid Redox Signal 11, 4758.
142 Prasain, JK, Jones, K, Moore, R, et al. (2008) Effect of cranberry juice concentrate on chemically-induced urinary bladder cancers. Oncol Rep 19, 15651570.
143 Aiyer, HS, Srinivasan, C & Gupta, RC (2008) Dietary berries and ellagic acid diminish estrogen-mediated mammary tumorigenesis in ACI rats. Nutr Cancer 60, 227234.
144 Ahmet, I, Spangler, E, Shukitt-Hale, B, et al. (2009) Blueberry-enriched diet protects rat heart from ischemic damage. PLoS One 4, e5954.
145 Toufektsian, MC, de Lorgeril, M, Nagy, N, et al. (2008) Chronic dietary intake of plant-derived anthocyanins protects the rat heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Nutr 138, 747752.
146 Shin, WH, Park, SJ & Kim, EJ (2006) Protective effect of anthocyanins in middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion model of cerebral ischemia in rats. Life Sci 79, 130137.
147 Yamanouchi, J, Nishida, E, Itagaki, S, et al. (2000) Aortic atheromatous lesions developed in APA hamsters with streptozotocin induced diabetes: a new animal model for diabetic atherosclerosis. 1 Histopathological studies. Exp Anim 49, 259266.
148 Chambless, LE, Folsom, AR, Clegg, LX, et al. (2000) Carotid wall thickness is predictive of incident clinical stroke: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Am J Epidemiol 151, 478487.
149 DeFuria, J, Bennett, G, Strissel, KJ, et al. (2009) Dietary blueberry attenuates whole-body insulin resistance in high fat-fed mice by reducing adipocyte death and its inflammatory sequelae. J Nutr 139, 15101516.
150 Roy, M, Sen, S & Chakraborti, AS (2008) Action of pelargonidin on hyperglycemia and oxidative damage in diabetic rats: implication for glycation-induced haemoglobin modification. Life Sci 82, 11021110.
151 Sasaki, R, Nishimura, N, Hoshino, H, et al. (2007) Cyanidin 3-glucoside ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity due to downregulation of retinol binding protein 4 expression in diabetic mice. Biochem Pharmacol 74, 16191627.
152 Tsuda, T (2008) Regulation of adipocyte function by anthocyanins; possibility of preventing the metabolic syndrome. J Agric Food Chem 56, 642646.
153 Shukitt-Hale, B, Carey, A, Simon, L, et al. (2006) Effects of Concord grape juice on cognitive and motor deficits in aging. Nutrition 22, 295302.
154 Shukitt-Hale, B, Cheng, V & Joseph, JA (2009) Effects of blackberries on motor and cognitive function in aged rats. Nutr Neurosci 12, 135140.
155 Duffy, KB, Spangler, EL, Devan, BD, et al. (2008) A blueberry-enriched diet provides cellular protection against oxidative stress and reduces a kainate-induced learning impairment in rats. Neurobiol Aging 29, 16801689.
156 Shukitt-Hale, B, Lau, FC, Carey, AN, et al. (2008) Blueberry polyphenols attenuate kainic acid-induced decrements in cognition and alter inflammatory gene expression in rat hippocampus. Nutr Neurosci 11, 172182.
157 Varadinova, MG, Docheva-Drenska, DI & Boyadjieva, NI (2009) Effects of anthocyanins on learning and memory of ovariectomized rats. Menopause 16, 345349.
158 Shih, PH, Chan, YC, Liao, JW, et al. (2009) Antioxidant and cognitive promotion effects of anthocyanin-rich mulberry (Morus atropurpurea L.) on senescence-accelerated mice and prevention of Alzheimer's disease. J Nutr Biochem 21, 598605.
159 Shukitt-Hale, B, Carey, AN, Jenkins, D, et al. (2007) Beneficial effects of fruit extracts on neuronal function and behavior in a rodent model of accelerated aging. Neurobiol Aging 28, 11871194.
160 Hooper, L, Kroon, PA, Rimm, EB, et al. (2008) Flavonoids, flavonoid-rich foods, and cardiovascular risk: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 3850.
161 Rossi, M, Negri, E, Lagiou, P, et al. (2008) Flavonoids and ovarian cancer risk: a case–control study in Italy. Int J Cancer 123, 895898.
162 Mursu, J, Nurmi, T, Tuomainen, TP, et al. (2007) The intake of flavonoids and carotid atherosclerosis: the Kuopio Ischaemic heart disease Risk Factor Study. Br J Nutr 98, 814818.
163 Mursu, J, Nurmi, T, Tuomainen, TP, et al. (2008) Intake of flavonoids and risk of cancer in Finnish men: The Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Int J Cancer 123, 660663.
164 Mursu, J, Voutilainen, S, Nurmi, T, et al. (2008) Flavonoid intake and the risk of ischaemic stroke and CVD mortality in middle-aged Finnish men: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Br J Nutr 100, 890895.
165 Hernández-Ramírez, RU, Galván-Portillo, MV, Ward, MH, et al. (2009) Dietary intake of polyphenols, nitrate and nitrite and gastric cancer risk in Mexico City. Int J Cancer 125, 14241430.
166 Frankenfeld, CL, Cerhan, JR, Cozen, W, et al. (2008) Dietary flavonoid intake and non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 14391445.
167 Møller, P, Loft, S, Alfthan, G, et al. (2004) Oxidative DNA damage in circulating mononuclear blood cells after ingestion of blackcurrant juice or anthocyanin-rich drink. Mutat Res 551, 119126.
168 Spormann, TM, Albert, FW, Rath, T, et al. (2008) Anthocyanin/polyphenolic-rich fruit juice reduces oxidative cell damage in an intervention study with patients on haemodialysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17, 33723380.
169 Zern, TL, Wood, RJ, Greene, C, et al. (2005) Grape polyphenols exert a cardioprotective effect in pre- and postmenopausal women by lowering plasma lipids and reducing oxidative stress. J Nutr 135, 19111917.
170 Traustadóttir, T, Davies, SS, Stock, AA, et al. (2009) Tart cherry juice decreases oxidative stress in healthy older men and women. J Nutr 139, 18961900.
171 Castilla, P, Echarri, R, Dávalos, A, et al. (2006) Concentrated red grape juice exerts antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antiinflammatory effects in both hemodialysis patients and healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 252262.
172 Matsumoto, H, Takenami, E, Iwasaki-Kurashige, K, et al. (2005) Effects of blackcurrant anthocyanin intake on peripheral muscle circulation during typing work in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 94, 3645.
173 Sumner, MD, Elliott-Eller, M, Weidner, G, et al. (2005) Effects of pomegranate juice consumption on myocardial perfusion in patients with coronary heart disease. Am J Cardiol 96, 810814.
174 Garcia-Alonso, M, Minihane, AM, Rimbach, G, et al. (2009) Red wine anthocyanins are rapidly absorbed in humans and affect monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 levels and antioxidant capacity of plasma. J Nutr Biochem 20, 521529.
175 Kar, P, Laight, D, Rooprai, HK, et al. (2009) Effects of grape seed extract in type 2 diabetic subjects at high cardiovascular risk: a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial examining metabolic markers, vascular tone, inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity. Diabet Med 26, 526531.
176 Jepson, RG & Craig, JC (2008) Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, issue 1, CD001321.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed