Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Bioavailability and nutritional effects of carotenoids from organically and conventionally produced carrots in healthy men

  • Berenike A. Stracke (a1), Corinna E. Rüfer (a1), Achim Bub (a1), Karlis Briviba (a1), Stephanie Seifert (a1), Clemens Kunz (a2) and Bernhard Watzl (a1)...
Abstract

It has been hypothesised that organically grown vegetables are healthier than conventionally produced ones due to a higher content of phytochemicals. However, few data from controlled human studies exist. The aim of the present study was to compare the carotenoid content and antioxidant capacity of organically and conventionally produced carrots under defined conditions. Furthermore, a human intervention study was conducted to compare bioavailability, plasma antioxidant capacity, endogenous DNA strand breaks and immune parameters in healthy men ingesting carrots from different agricultural systems. Thirty-six volunteers consumed either organically or conventionally produced blanched carrots (200 g/d; 2 weeks) or no carrots in a double-blind, randomised intervention study. No statistically significant differences were observed in the total carotenoid contents (121 (sd 7) μg/g organic v. 116 (sd 13) μg/g conventional) and the antioxidant capacities (0·43 (sd 0·08) μmol Trolox equivalents/g organic v. 0·32 (sd 0·07) μmol Trolox equivalents/g conventional) of the carrots administered to the volunteers. Intake of organically or conventionally produced carrots significantly increased (P < 0·001) plasma α- and β-carotene concentrations in both intervention groups without differences in plasma carotenoid concentrations. Consumption of carrots did not lead to significant changes in the plasma antioxidant status, endogenous DNA strand breaks and parameters of the immune system in all groups. Therefore, these results indicate that the agricultural system has neither an effect on the carotenoid content, the antioxidant capacity of carrots, nor on the bioavailability of carotenoids and on antioxidant, antigenotoxic and immunological effects as assessed in a human intervention study.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Bioavailability and nutritional effects of carotenoids from organically and conventionally produced carrots in healthy men
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Bioavailability and nutritional effects of carotenoids from organically and conventionally produced carrots in healthy men
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Bioavailability and nutritional effects of carotenoids from organically and conventionally produced carrots in healthy men
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr Bernhard Watzl, fax +49 721 6625 404, email bernhard.watzl@mri.bund.de
References
Hide All
1Oberholtz L, Dimitri C & Greene C (2005) Price Premiums Hold on as U.S. Organic Produce Market Expands; outlook report VGS-308-01. Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/vgs/may05/vgs30801/vgs30801.pdf.
2Chassy AW, Bui L, Renaud ENC, et al. (2006) Three-year comparison of the content of antioxidant microconstituents and several quality characteristics in organic and conventionally managed tomatoes and bell peppers. J Agric Food Chem 54, 82448252.
3Zhao X, Carey EE & Wang W (2006) Does organic production enhance phytochemical content of fruit and vegetables? Current knowledge and prospect for research. Hort Technol 16, 449456.
4Perrez-Lopez AJ, Lopez-Nicolas JM, Nunez-Delicado E, et al. (2007) Effects of agriculture practices on color, carotenoids composition, and minerals contents of sweet peppers, cv Almuden. J Agric Food Chem 55, 81588164.
5Caris-Veyrat C, Amiot MJ, Tyssandier V, et al. (2004) Influence of organic versus conventional agricultural practice on the antioxidant microconstituent content of tomatoes and derived purees; consequences on antioxidant plasma status in humans. J Agric Food Chem 52, 65036509.
6Lombardi-Boccia G, Lucarini M, Lanzi S, et al. (2004) Nutrients and antioxidant molecules in yellow plums (Prunus domestica L.) from conventional and organic productions: a comparative study. J Agric Food Chem 52, 9094.
7Leclerc J, Miller ML, Joliet E, et al. (1991) Vitamin and mineral contents of carrot and celeriac grown under mineral or organic fertilization. Biol Agric Hortic 7, 339348.
8Mercadante AZ & Rodriguez-Amaya DB (1991) Carotenoid composition of a leafy vegetable in relation to some agriculture variables. J Agric Food Chem 39, 10941097.
9Warman PR & Havard KA (1997) Yield, vitamin and mineral contents of organically and conventionally grown carrots and cabbage. Agric Ecosyst Environ 61, 155162.
10Clarke RP & Merrow SB (1979) Nutrient composition of tomatoes homegrown under different cultural procedures. Ecol Food Nutr 1, 3746.
11Lester GE & Eischen F (1996) β-Carotene content of postharvest orange-fleshed muskmelon fruit: effect of cultivar, growing location and fruit size. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 49, 191197.
12Schuphan W (1974) Nutritional value of crops as influenced by organic and inorganic fertilizer treatments – results of 12 years experiments with vegetables (1960–1972). Plant Foods Hum Nutr 23, 333358.
13Bourn D & Prescott J (2002) A comparison of the nutritional value, sensory qualities, and food safety of organically and conventionally produced foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 42, 134.
14Haker FR (2004) Organic food claims cannot be substantiated through testing of samples in the marketplace: a horticulturalist's opinion. Food Qual Pref 15, 9195.
15Grinder-Pedersen L, Rasmussen SE, Bugel S, et al. (2003) Effect of diets based on foods from conventional versus organic production on intake and excretion of flavonoids and markers of antioxidative defense in humans. J Agric Food Chem 51, 56715676.
16Di Renzo L, Di Pierro D, Bigioni M, et al. (2007) Is antioxidant plasma status in humans a consequence of the antioxidant food content influence? Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 11, 185192.
17Akcay YD, Yildirim HK, Guvenc U, et al. (2004) The effects of consumption of organic and nonorganic red wine on low-density lipoprotein oxidation and antioxidant capacity in humans. Nutr Res 24, 541554.
18Briviba K, Stracke BA, Rüfer CE, et al. (2007) Effect of consumption of organically and conventionally produced apples on antioxidant activity and DNA damage in humans. J Agric Food Chem 55, 77167721.
19Hughes DA (2001) Dietary carotenoids and human immune function. Nutrition 17, 823827.
20Fjelkner-Modig S, Bengtsson H, Stegmark R, et al. (2000) The influence of organic and integrated production on nutritional, sensory and agricultural aspects of vegetable raw materials for food production. Acta Agric Scand 50, 13.
21Beckmann EO & Pestemer W (1975) The influence of herbicide treatment on yield and composition of carrots with different organic manuring. Landwirtsch Forsch 28, 4151.
22Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, et al. (1999) Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radical Biol Med 26, 12311237.
23Briviba K, Schnäbele K, Rechkemmer G, et al. (2004) Supplementation of a diet low in carotenoids with tomato or carrot juice does not affect lipid peroxidation in plasma and feces of healthy men. J Nutr 134, 10811083.
24Watzl B, Kulling SE, Möseneder J, et al. (2005) A 4-wk intervention with high intake of carotenoid-rich vegetables and fruit reduces plasma C-reactive protein in healthy, nonsmoking men. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 10521058.
25Benzie IFF & Strain JJ (1999) Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay: direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and modified version for simultaneous measurement of total antioxidant power and ascorbic acid concentration. Methods Enzymol 299, 1527.
26Cao G & Prior RL (1999) Anthocyanins are detected in human plasma after oral administration of an elderberry extract. Clin Chem 45, 574576.
27Kleinveld HA, Hak-Lemmers HL, Stalenhoef AF, et al. (1992) Improved measurement of low-density-lipoprotein susceptibility to copper-induced oxidation: application of a short procedure for isolating low-density lipoprotein. Clin Chem 38, 20662072.
28Esterbauer H, Striegl G, Puhl H, et al. (1989) Continuous monitoring of in vitro oxidation of human low density lipoprotein. Free Radic Res Commun 6, 6775.
29Watzl B, Bub A, Brandstetter BR, et al. (1999) Modulation of human T-lymphocyte functions by the consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables. Br J Nutr 82, 383389.
30Woese K, Lange D, Boess C, et al. (1997) A comparison of organically and conventionally grown foods – results of a review of the relevant literature. J Sci Food Agric 74, 281293.
31Ziegler RG (1991) Vegetables, fruits, and carotenoids and the risk of cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 53, 251259.
32Miller NJ, Sampson J, Candeias LP, et al. (1996) Antioxidant activities of carotenes and xanthophylls. FEBS Lett 384, 240242.
33Müller H, Bub A, Watzl B, et al. (1999) Plasma concentrations of carotenoids in healthy volunteers after intervention with carotenoid-rich foods. Eur J Nutr 38, 3544.
34Briviba K, Kulling SE, Möseneder J, et al. (2004) Effects of supplementing a low-carotenoid diet with a tomato extract for 2 weeks on endogenous levels of DNA single strand breaks and immune functions in healthy non-smokers and smokers. Carcinogenesis 25, 23732378.
35Diaz MN, Frei B, Vita JA, et al. (1997) Antioxidants and atherosclerotic heart disease. N Engl J Med 337, 408416.
36Krinsky NI (2001) Carotenoids as antioxidants. Nutrition 17, 815817.
37Pool-Zobel BL, Bub A, Muller H, et al. (1997) Consumption of vegetables reduces genetic damage in humans: first results of a human intervention trial with carotenoid-rich foods. Carcinogenesis 18, 18471850.
38Bub A, Watzl B, Abrahamse L, et al. (2000) Moderate intervention with carotenoid-rich vegetable products reduces lipid peroxidation in men. J Nutr 130, 22002206.
39Bendich A (1991) β-Carotene and the immune response. Proc Nutr Soc 50, 263274.
40Chew BP & Park JS (2004) Carotenoid action on the immune response. J Nutr 134, 257261.
41Porrini M & Riso P (2000) Lymphocyte lycopene concentration and DNA protection from oxidative damage is increased in women after a short period of tomato consumption. J Nutr 130, 189192.
42Santos MS, Meydani SN, Leka L, et al. (1996) Natural killer cell activity in elderly men is enhanced by β-carotene supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr 64, 772777.
43Fotouhi N, Meydani M, Santos MS, et al. (1996) Carotenoid and tocopherol concentrations in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and red blood cells after long-term β-carotene supplementation in men. Am J Clin Nutr 63, 553558.
44Murata T, Tamai H, Morinobu T, et al. (1992) Determination of β-carotene in plasma, blood cells and buccal mucosa by electrochemical detection. Lipids 27, 840843.
45Bryant JD, McCord JD, Unlu LK, et al. (1992) Isolation and partial characterization of α- and β-carotene-containing carotenoprotein from carrots (Daucus carota L.) root chromoplasts. J Agric Food Chem 40, 545549.
46Hedren E, Diaz V & Svanberg U (2002) Estimation of carotenoid accessibility from carrots determined by an in vitro digestion method. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, 425430.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 10
Total number of PDF views: 286 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 388 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.