Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 11
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Buonaccorsi, John P. Dalen, Ingvild Laake, Petter Hjartåker, Anette Engeset, Dagrun and Thoresen, Magne 2015. Sensitivity of regression calibration to non-perfect validation data with application to the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 34, Issue. 8, p. 1389.

    Xu, Ming Fang, Yu-Jing Chen, Yu-Ming Lu, Min-Shan Pan, Zhi-Zhong Yan, Bo Zhong, Xiao and Zhang, Cai-Xia 2015. Higher freshwater fish and sea fish intake is inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk among Chinese population: a case-control study. Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, p. 12976.

    Wu, Shengjun Feng, Bin Li, Kai Zhu, Xia Liang, Shuhui Liu, Xufeng Han, Shuang Wang, Biaoluo Wu, Kaichun Miao, Danmin Liang, Jie and Fan, Daiming 2012. Fish Consumption and Colorectal Cancer Risk in Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. The American Journal of Medicine, Vol. 125, Issue. 6, p. 551.

    Hansen, Solrunn Nieboer, Evert Sandanger, Torkjel M. Wilsgaard, Tom Thomassen, Yngvar Veyhe, Anna Sofia and Odland, Jon Øyvind 2011. Changes in maternal blood concentrations of selected essential and toxic elements during and after pregnancy. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, Vol. 13, Issue. 8, p. 2143.

    Mullie, P and Autier, P 2011. Fatty fish and the relation between 25(OH) vitamin D and triacylglycerol. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 65, Issue. 5, p. 661.

    Sirot, Véronique Dumas, Céline Leblanc, Jean-Charles and Margaritis, Irène 2011. Food and nutrient intakes of French frequent seafood consumers with regard to fish consumption recommendations: results from the CALIPSO study. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 105, Issue. 09, p. 1369.

    Ahmed, Farid 2009. Nutrition and Exercise Concerns of Middle Age.

    Dalen, Ingvild Buonaccorsi, John P. Sexton, Joseph A. Laake, Petter and Thoresen, Magne 2009. Correction for misclassification of a categorized exposure in binary regression using replication data. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 28, Issue. 27, p. 3386.

    Huxley, Rachel R. Ansary-Moghaddam, Alireza Clifton, Peter Czernichow, Sebastien Parr, Christine L. and Woodward, Mark 2009. The impact of dietary and lifestyle risk factors on risk of colorectal cancer: A quantitative overview of the epidemiological evidence. International Journal of Cancer, Vol. 125, Issue. 1, p. 171.

    Sugawara, Y Kuriyama, S Kakizaki, M Nagai, M Ohmori-Matsuda, K Sone, T Hozawa, A Nishino, Y and Tsuji, I 2009. Fish consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer: the Ohsaki Cohort Study. British Journal of Cancer, Vol. 101, Issue. 5, p. 849.

    Dórea, José G. 2008. Persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic substances in fish: Human health considerations. Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 400, Issue. 1-3, p. 93.


Consumption of fish and risk of colon cancer in the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) study

  • Dagrun Engeset (a1), Vegard Andersen (a1), Anette Hjartåker (a2) and Eiliv Lund (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 September 2007

Recent studies have shown a decreased risk of colon cancer with consumption of fish. However, most studies on fish consumption do not distinguish between lean and fatty fish, or between poached and fried fish. The aim of this study was to investigate any association between fish consumption and colon cancer in The Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) study. We focused mainly on lean fish, which was further divided into poached and fried fish. A total of 63 914 women were included in the analysis, 254 of whom were found to have colon cancer during follow-up. Since fish consumption was one of the main topics of interest in the NOWAC study, there is a predominance of women from northern Norway due to higher fish intake in this area; hence the study is not representative of the whole of Norway. The participants completed a semi-quantitative FFQ between 1996 and 1999, and were followed-up for incidence of colon cancer until 2004. No association between fish consumption and risk of colon cancer was seen, except for the third tertile of poached lean fish consumption (relative risk (RR) 1·46, 95 % CI 1·04, 2·06). This association disappeared when excluding women with less than 1 year of follow-up. In conclusion, the present study does not support the hypothesis of a protective effect of fish against colon cancer risk.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Consumption of fish and risk of colon cancer in the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) study
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Consumption of fish and risk of colon cancer in the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) study
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Consumption of fish and risk of colon cancer in the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) study
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr D. Engeset, fax +47-22-85-13-13, email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

P Marques-Vidal , P Ravasco & CM Ermelinda (2006) Foodstuffs and colorectal cancer risk: a review. Clin Nutr 25, 1436.

T Norat , S Bingham , P Ferrari , M Slimani , M Jenab , M Mazuir , (2005) Meat, fish, and colorectal cancer risk: The European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. J Natl Cancer Inst 97, 906916.

T Sugimura , K Wakabayashi , H Nakagama & M Nagao (2004) Heterocyclic amines: mutagens/carcinogens produced during cooking of meat and fish. Cancer Sci 95, 290299.

D Engeset , E Alsaker , A Ciampi & E Lund (2005) Dietary patterns and lifestyle factors in the Norwegian EPIC cohort: the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) study. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 675684.

CL Parr , MB Veierod , P Laake , E Lund & A Hjartaker (2006) Test–retest reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and estimated effects on disease risk in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study (NOWAC). Nutr J 5, 4.

A Hjartaker , E Lund & KS Bjerve (1997) Serum phospholipid fatty acid composition and habitual intake of marine foods registered by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Eur J Clin Nutr 51, 736742.

T Trondsen , J Scholderer , E Lund , (2003) Perceived barriers to consumption of fish among Norwegian women. Appetite 41, 301–314.

P Andersen & R Gill (1982) Cox's regression model for counting processes, a large sample study. Ann Statistics 10, 11001120.

PM Grambsch & TM Therneau (1994) Proportional hazards tests and diagnostics based on weighted residuals. Biometrika 81, 515–526.

S Franceschi , A Favero , C La Vecchia , E Negri , E Conti , M Montella , (1997) Food groups and risk of colorectal cancer in Italy. Int J Cancer 72, 56–61.

M Brink , MP Weijenberg , AF de Goeij , GM Roemen , MH Lentjes , AP de Bruine , (2005) Meat consumption and K-ras mutations in sporadic colon and rectal cancer in The Netherlands Cohort Study. Br J Cancer 92, 13101320.

M Kobayashi , Y Tsubono , T Otani , T Hanaoka , T Sobue & S Tsugane JPHC Study Group (2004) Fish, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and risk of colorectal cancer in middle-aged Japanese: the JPHC study. Nutr Cancer 49, 32–40.

SC Larsson , J Rafter , L Holmberg , L Bergkvist & A Wolk (2005) Red meat consumption and risk of cancers of the proximal colon, distal colon and rectum: the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Int J Cancer 113, 829834.

LJ Vatten , K Solvoll & EB Loken (1990) Frequency of meat and fish intake and risk of breast cancer in a prospective study of 14,500 Norwegian women. Int J Cancer 46, 12–15.

P Knekt , R Jarvinen , J Dich & T Hakulinen (1999) Risk of colorectal and other gastro-intestinal cancers after exposure to nitrate, nitrite and N-nitroso compounds: a follow-up study. Int J Cancer 80, 852856.

CX Yang , T Takezaki , K Hirose , M Inoue , XE Huang & K Tajima (2003) Fish consumption and colorectal cancer: a case–reference study in Japan. Eur J Cancer Prev 12, 109–115.

A Sjodin , L Hagmar , E Klasson-Wehler , J Bjorg & A Berman (2000) Influence of the consumption of fatty Baltic Sea fish on plasma levels of halogenated environmental contaminants in Latvian and Swedish men. Environ Health Perspect 108, 10351041.

CM Oomen , EJ Feskens , L Rasanen , F Fidanza , AM Nissinen , A Menotti , (2000) Fish consumption and coronary heart disease mortality in Finland, Italy, and The Netherlands. Am J Epidemiol 151, 999–1006.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *