Kumanyika, SK, Obarzanek, E, Stettler, N, et al. (2008) Population-based prevention of obesity: the need for comprehensive promotion of healthful eating, physical activity, and energy balance: a scientific statement from American Heart Association. Circulation
US Department of Health and Human Services (2001) Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health. Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Vartiainen, E, Laatikainen, T, Peltonen, M, et al. (2010) Thirty-five-year trends in cardiovascular risk factors in Finland. Int J Epidemiol
World Health Organization (2005) Risk Factor Projects. Overweight and Obesity. Geneva: World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/ (accessed accessed 11 September 2007).
Karelis, AD, St-Pierre, DH, Conus, F, et al. (2004) Metabolic and body composition factors in subgroups of obesity: what do we know?
J Clin Endocrinol Metab
Hayes, L, Pearce, MS, Firbank, MJ, et al. (2010) Do obese but metabolically normal women differ in intra-abdominal fat and physical activity levels from those with the expected metabolic abnormalities? A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health
De Lorenzo, A, Del Gobbo, V, Premrov, MG, et al. (2007) Normal-weight obese syndrome: early inflammation. Am J Clin Nutr
Di Renzo, L, Del Gobbo, V, Bigioni, M, et al. (2006) Body composition analyses in normal weight obese women. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Marques-Vidal, P, Pécoud, A, Hayoz, D, et al. (2008) Prevalence of normal weight obesity in Switzerland: effect of various definitions. Eur J Nutr
Marques-Vidal, P, Pécoud, A, Hayoz, D, et al. (2010) Normal weight obesity: relationship with lipids, glycaemic status, liver enzymes and inflammation. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis
Tolonen, H, Koponen, P, Aromaa, A, et al. (2008) Recommendations for the Health Examination Surveys in Europe. Helsinki: National Public Health Institute (no. B21/2008).
Jebb, SA, Cole, TJ, Doman, D, et al. (2000) Evaluation of the novel Tanita body-fat analyzer to measure body composition by comparison with a four-compartment model. Br J Nutr
World Health Organization (2004) Obesity: Prevention and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series no. 894
. Geneva: WHO.
Männistö, S, Virtanen, M, Mikkonen, T, et al. (1996) Reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire in a case–control study on breast cancer. J Clin Epidemiol
Kaartinen, NE, Tapanainen, H, Valsta, LM, et al. (2012) Relative validity of a FFQ in measuring carbohydrate fractions, dietary glycaemic index and load: exploring the effects of subject characteristics. Br J Nutr
Reinivuo, H, Hirvonen, T, Ovaskainen, ML, et al. (2010) Dietary survey methodology of FINDIET 2007 with a risk assessment perspective. Public Health Nutr
Willett, W (2013) Nutritional Epidemiology, 3rd ed.
New York: Oxford University Press.
FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) Report of a Joint Expert Consultation. Energy and Protein Requirements. WHO Technical Report Series no. 724
. Geneva: WHO.
Goldberg, GR, Black, AE, Jebb, SA, et al. (1991) Critical evaluation of energy intake data using fundamental principles of energy physiology: 1. Derivation of cut-off limits to identify under-recording. Eur J Clin Nutr
Black, AE (2000) Critical evaluation of energy intake using the Goldberg cut-off for energy intake:basal metabolic rate. A practical guide to its calculation, use and limitations. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord
Haapanen, N, Miilunpalo, S, Pasanen, M, et al. (1997) Association between leisure time physical activity and 10-year body mass change among working-aged men and women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord
Wagner, A, Simon, C, Ducimetière, P, et al. (2001) Leisure-time physical activity and regular walking or cycling to work are associated with adiposity and 5 y weight gain in middle-aged men: the PRIME Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord
Gordon-Larsen, P, Hou, N, Sidney, S, et al. (2009) Fifteen-year longitudinal trends in walking patterns and their impact on weight change. Am J Clin Nutr
Lee, IM, Djoussé, L, Sesso, HD, et al. (2010) Physical activity and weight gain prevention. JAMA
Office on Smoking and Health National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (2011) Women and Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Willi, C, Bodenmann, P, Ghali, WA, et al. (2007) Active smoking and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA
Mozaffarian, D, Hao, T, Rimm, EB, et al. (2011) Changes in diet and lifestyle and long-term weight gain in women and men. N Engl J Med
Fogelholm, M, Anderssen, S, Gunnarsdottir, I, et al. (2012) Dietary macronutrients and food consumption as determinants of long-term weight change in adult populations: a systematic literature review. Food Nutr Res
Ello-Martin, JA, Ledikwe, JH & Rolls, BJ (2005) The influence of food portion size and energy density on energy intake: implications for weight management. Am J Clin Nutr
82, Suppl. 1, 236S–241S.
van Dam, RM & Seidell, JC (2007) Carbohydrate intake and obesity. Eur J Clin Nutr
61, Suppl. 1, S75–S99.
Rosenheck, R (2008) Fast food intake and increased caloric intake: a systematic review of a trajectory towards weight gain and obesity risk. Obes Rev
Wolff, E & Dansinger, ML (2008) Soft drinks and weight gain: how strong is the link?
Medscape J Med
Micha, R & Mozaffarian, D (2009) Trans fatty acids: effects on metabolic syndrome, heart disease and diabetes. Nat Rev Endocrinol
Liu, S, Willett, WC, Manson, JE, et al. (2003) Relation between changes in intakes of dietary fiber and grain products and changes in weight and development of obesity among middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr
Buijsse, B, Feskens, EJ, Schulze, MB, et al. (2009) Fruit and vegetable intakes and subsequent changes in body weight in European populations: results from the project on Diet, Obesity, and Genes (DiOGenes). Am J Clin Nutr
Nissinen, K, Mikkilä, V, Männistö, S, et al. (2009) Sweets and sugar-sweetened soft drink intake in childhood in relation to adult BMI and overweight. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Public Health Nutr
Paturi, M, Tapanainen, H, Reinivuo, H, et al. (2008) The National FINDIET 2007 Survey (Summary in English). Helsinki: National Public Health Institute (no. B23/2008).
Colditz, GA (2010) Overview of the epidemiology methods and applications: strengths and limitations of observational study designs. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
50, Suppl. 1, 10–12.
Hirvonen, T, Männistö, S, Roos, E, et al. (1997) Increasing prevalence of underreporting does not necessarily distort dietary surveys. Eur J Clin Nutr