Gut hormones play key roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis. However, little is known about the long- and short-term effects of changing dietary fat content on gut hormones. We aim to examine the effects of changing dietary fat content on plasma gut hormone concentrations in diet-induced obese (DIO) and diet-resistant (DR) rats. After inducing obesity with a high-fat (HF) diet, male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into three groups according to their body-weight gain: DIO; DR; control (CON). The DIO and DR rats were further divided in random into two groups. One continued on a HF diet and the other switched to a low-fat (LF) diet for an additional 4 weeks. Finally, each group was randomly divided into three subgroups (n 8): fasted; fasted-refed HF; fasted-refed LF diet groups. Replacing a HF diet with a LF diet for 4 weeks resulted in less fat mass, higher fasting and post-HF plasma ghrelin concentration and lower postprandial plasma cholecystokinin concentration in the DIO and DR rats. Acute switching dietary fat resulted in significantly higher post-HF plasma ghrelin concentrations than post-LF ghrelin concentrations in the DR rats on LF diet (DRLF) and DIO rats on LF diet (DIOLF) rats, and significantly higher post-HF obestatin concentrations than post-LF obestatin concentrations in the CON, DR rats on HF diet (DRHF) and DRLF rats. Dietary fat content appears to play a role in the gut hormone profile, which may consequently influence fat mass.
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