Bingham SA, Gill C, Welch A, Cassidy A, Runswick SA, Oakes S, Lubin R, Thurnham DI, Key TJA, Roe DA, Khaw KT & Day NE (1997) Validation of dietary assessment methods in the UK arm of EPIC using weighed records, and 24-hour urinary nitrogen and potassium and serum vitamin C and carotenoids as biomarkers. International Journal of Epidemiology 26(Suppl. 1), S137–S151.
Block G, Patterson B & Subar A (1992) Fruit, vegetables, and cancer prevention, A review of epidemiological evidence. Nutrition Cancer 18, 1–30.
Bone RA & Landrum JT (1985) Preliminary identification of the human macular pigment. Vision Research 25, 1531–1535.
Burlingame B, CEWest EJ Poortvliet (1993) Carotenoid content of New Zealand foods In The carotenoid content of foods with special reference to developing countries.[CE West & EJ Poortvliet, editors]. Arlington, VA: Vitamin A Field Support Project (VITAL).
Carroll YL, Corridan BM & Morrissey PA (1999) Carotenoids in young and elderly healthy humans: dietary intakes, biochemical status and diet-plasma relationships. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 644–653.
Collins AR, Olmedilla B, Southon S, Granado F & Duthie SJ (1998) Serum carotenoids and oxidative damage in human lymphocytes. Carcinogenesis 19, 2159–2162.
Crawley H (1992) Food Portion Sizes.Ministry of Agriculture,Fisheries and Food, London: HMSO.
Department of Health (1994) Nutritional aspects of cardiovascular disease. Report of the cardiovascular review group,Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy. Report on Health and Social Subjects 46. London: HMSO.
Diet & Health (1989) Implications for reducing chronic disease.Committee on Diet and Health, Food and Nutrition Board Washington: National Academy Press.
Enger S, Longnecker M, Shikany J, Swenseid M, Chen M, Harper J & Haile R (1995) Questionnaire assessment of intake of specific carotenoids. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 4, 201–205.
Forman MR, Lanza E, Yong L-C, Holden JM, Graubard BI, Beecher GR, Melitz M, Brown ED & Smith JC (1993) The correlation between two dietary assessments of carotenoid intake and plasma carotenoid concentrations: application of a carotenoid food-composition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 58, 518–524.
Friis S, Kjaer K, Stripp C & Overvad K (1997) Reproducibility and relative validity of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire applied to younger women. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 50, 303–311.
Gaziano JM, Manson JE, Branch LG, Colditz GA, Willett WC & Buring JE (1995) A prospective study of consumption of carotenoids in fruits and vegetables and decreased cardiovascular mortality in the elderly. Annals of Epidemiology 5, 255–260.
Gebhardt SE, Cutrufelli R & Matthews RH (1982) Composition of foods: fruits and fruit juices – raw, processed, prepared.Washington DC: US Dept of Agriculture. Handbook No. 8–11.
Goldbohm RA, Brants HAM, Hulshof KFAM & van den Brandt PA (1998) The contribution of various foods to intake of vitamin A and carotenoids in the Netherlands. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 68, 378–383.
Granado F, Olmedilla B, Blanco I Rojas-Hidalgo E (1992) Carotenoid composition of raw and cooked Spanish vegetables. Journal of Agricultural Chemistry 40, 2135–2140.
Granado F, Olmedilla B, Blanco I & Rojas-Hidalgo E (1996) Major fruit and vegetable contributors to the main serum carotenoids in the Spanish diet. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 246–250.
Granado F, Olmedilla B, Gil-Martinez E & Blanco I (1998) Lutein ester in serum after lutein supplementation in human subjects British Journal of Nutrition 80, 445–449.
Haraldsdottir J (1993) Minimizing error in the field: quality control in dietary surveys. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 47, S19–S24.
Hart DJ & Scott KJ (1995) Development and evaluation of an HPLC method for the analysis of carotenes in vegetables and fruits in the UK. Food Chemistry 54, 101–111.
Hennekens CH (1986) Micronutrients and cancer prevention. New England Journal of Medicine 315, 1288–1289.
Heinonen MI, Ollilainen V, Linkola E, Varo P & Koivistoinen P (1988) Carotenoids and retinoids in Finnish foods: Dietary fats. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 1, 334–340.
Heinonen MI, Ollilainen V, Linkola EK, Varo PT & Koivistoinen PE (1989) Carotenoids in Finnish foods: Vegetables, fruits, and berries. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 37, 655–659.
Hininger I, Chopra M, Thurnham DI, Laporte F, Richard M-J, Favier A & Roussel A-M (1997) Effect of increased fruit and vegetable intake on the susceptibility of lipoprotein oxidation in smokers. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51, 601–606.
Holland B, Unwin ID & Buss DH (1991) Vegetables, herbs and spices First supplement to McCance & Widdowson's The Composition of Foods.Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.
Howard AN, Williams NR, Palmer CR, Cambou JP, Evans AE, Foote JW, Marques-Vidal P, McCrum EE, Ruidavets JB, Nigdikar SV, Rajput-Williams J & Thurnham DI (1996) Do hydroxy-carotenoids prevent coronary heart disease? A comparison between Belfast and Toulouse. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 66, 113–118.
Hulshof K, Van der Heijden LJM & Donders-Engelen M (1992) Maten, geivieliten en code nummers (Measurements, weights and code numbers). TNO report 92.003. Zeist, The Netherlands: TNO Nutrition and Food Research Institute.
IARC Working Group (1998) Carotenoids. Lyon: WHO InternationalAgency for Research on Cancer.
Jost JP, Simon C, Nuttens MC, Bingham A, Ruidavets JB, Cambou JP, Arveiler D, Lecerf JM, Schlienger JL & Douste-Blazy P (1990) Comparison of dietary patterns between populations samples in the three French MONICA nutritional surveys. Revue D Epidemiologie et de Sante Publique 38, 517–523.
Mangels AR, Holden JM, Beecher GR, Forman MR & Lanza E (1993) Carotenoid content of fruits and vegetables: an evaluation of analytical data. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 93, 284–296.
Margetts BM & Jackson AA (1996) The determinants of plasma β-carotene: interaction between smoking and other lifestyle factors. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 236–238.
McClean R, McCrum E, Scally G, McMaster D, Patterson C, Jackson N & Evans A (1990) Dietary patterns in the Belfast MONICA project. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 49, 297–305.
Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food (1993) Food Portion Sizes. London: HMSO.
Ocke MC, Bueno de Mesquita HB, Goddijn HE, Jansen A, Pols MA, van Staveren WA & Kromhout D (1997) The Dutch EPIC food frequency questionnaire. 1. Description of the questionnaire, and relative validity and reproducibility for food groups. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 26, S37–S48.
Ollilainen V, Heinonen MI, Linkola EK, Varo PT & Koivistoinen PE (1988) Carotenoids and retinoids in Finnish foods: meat and meat products. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 1, 178–188.
Ollilainen V, Heinonen MI, Linkola EK, Varo PT & Koivistoinen PE (1989) Carotenoids and retinoids in Finnish foods: dairy products and eggs. Journal of Dairy Science 72, 2257–2265.
Olmedilla B, Granado F, Blanco I, Rojas-Hidalgo E, KW Waldron, IT Johnson & GR Fenwick (1993) Quantitation of pro-vitamin A and non-provitamin A carotenoids in the fruits most commonly consumed in Spain In Food and Cancer Prevention 141–145. [KW Waldron, IT Johnson & GR Fenwick, editors]. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.
Olmedilla B, Granado F, Gil-Martinez E & Blanco I (1995) Freezing effect on carotenoid content in raw and cooked vegetables and fruits. The second international food database conference. Food composition Research: The Broader Context, Lahti, Finland.
Olmedilla B, Granado F, Blanco I, Gil-Martinez E & Rojas-Hidalgo E (1996) Contenido de carotenoides en verduras y frutas de may or consumo en Espana (Carotenoid content in fruit and vegetables most frequently consumed in Spain).Madrid: Secetaria General del Instituto Nacional de la Salud.
O'Neill ME (1997) Factors affecting carotenoid absorption and a comparative assessment of carotenoid intakes in five European countries. University of Ulster, D.Phil thesis.
O'Neill ME & Thurnham DI (1998) Intestinal absorption of β-carotene, lycopene and lutein in men and women following a standard meal; response curves in the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fraction. British Journal of Nutrition 79, 149–159.
Paul AA & Southgate DAT (1994) In McCance & Widdowson's The Composition of Foods, 5th Edition. Royal Society of Chemistry: Cambridge, UK.
Renaud S & de Lorgeril M (1993) The French paradox: dietary factors and cigarette smoking-related health risks. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 686, 299–309.
Scott KJ, Thurnham DI, Hart DJ, Bingham SA & Day K (1996) The correlation between the intake of lutein, lycopene and β-carotene from vegetables and fruits, and blood plasma concentrations in a group of women aged 50⌓65 years in the UK British Journal of Nutrition 75, 409–418.
Seddon JM, Ajani UA, Sperduto RD, Hiller R, Blair N, Burton TC, Farber MD, Gragoudas ES, Hailer J, Miller DT, Yannuzzi LA & Willett W (1994) Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C and E and advanced age-related macular degeneration. JAMA 272, 1413–1420.
Tonucci LH, Holden JM, Beecher GR, Khackik F, Davis CS & Mulokozi G (1995) Carotenoid content of thermally processed tomato-based products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 43, 579–586.
van het Hof KH, Tijburg LBM, Pietrzik K & Westrate JA (1999) Influence of feeding different vegetables on plasma levels of carotenoids, folate and vitamin C. Effect of disruption of the vegetable matrix. British Journal of Nutrition 82, 203–212.
Van #Rossum CTM, van de Mheen H, Witterman JCM, Grobbee E & Machenback JP (2000) Education and nutrient intake in Dutch elderly people. The Rotterdam study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, 159–165.
Vollebregt YCJ & Feskens EJM (1993) Samenstelling van voedingsmiddelentabellen met gehalten aan retinol en b-caroteen, vitamin E en pectine ten behove van oa de Zutphen-studie RIVM (Collection of food composition tables with content of retinol, beta-carotene, vitamin E and pectin and other uses in the Zutphen study). Report no. 441111–441002.
World Health Organization (1990) Diet nutrition and prevention of chronic diseases WHO Technical Report Series 797. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Willett WC, Sampson L, Brown ML, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Hennekens CH & Speizer FE (1988) The use of a self-administered questionnaire to assess diet four years in the past. American Journal of Epidemiology 127, 188–199.
Ziegler RG (1989) A review of epidemiological evidence that carotenoids reduce the risk of cancer. Journal of Nutrition 119, 116-122.