Skip to main content
×
Home

Glycaemic index of Indian flatbreads (rotis) prepared using whole wheat flour and ‘atta mix’-added whole wheat flour

  • Ganesan Radhika (a1), Chandhrasekar Sumathi (a1), Anbazhagan Ganesan (a1), Vasudevan Sudha (a1), Christiani Jeya Kumar Henry (a2) and Viswanathan Mohan (a1)...
Abstract

To compare the glycaemic index (GI) of newly developed ‘atta mix’ roti with whole wheat flour roti. Eighteen healthy non-diabetic subjects consumed 50 g available carbohydrate portions of a reference food (glucose) and two test foods (whole wheat flour roti and atta mix roti) in random order after an overnight fast. The reference food was tested on three separate occasions, while the test foods were each tested once. Capillary blood samples were measured from finger-prick samples in fasted subjects ( − 5 and 0 min) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min from the start of each food. No significant difference was observed between roti prepared from whole wheat flour and atta mix in terms of appearance, texture, flavour, taste or acceptability. For each test food, the incremental area under the curve and GI values were determined. The GI of atta mix roti (27·3 (sem 2·2)) was considerably lower than the whole wheat flour roti (45·1 (sem 3·5), P < 0·001). Development of foods with lower dietary glycaemic load such as the atta mix roti could help in the prevention and control of diabetes in South Asian populations, which habitually consume very high glycaemic load diets.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Glycaemic index of Indian flatbreads (rotis) prepared using whole wheat flour and ‘atta mix’-added whole wheat flour
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Glycaemic index of Indian flatbreads (rotis) prepared using whole wheat flour and ‘atta mix’-added whole wheat flour
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Glycaemic index of Indian flatbreads (rotis) prepared using whole wheat flour and ‘atta mix’-added whole wheat flour
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr Viswanathan Mohan, fax +91 44 2835 0935, email drmohans@vsnl.net
References
Hide All
1Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, McKeown-Eyssen G, et al. (2008) Effect of a low-glycemic index or a high-cereal fiber diet on type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. JAMA 300, 27422753.
2Barclay AW, Petocz P, McMillan-Price J, et al. (2008) Glycemic index, glycemic load, and chronic disease risk – a meta-analysis of observational studies. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 627637.
3FAO/WHO (1998) Carbohydrates in human nutrition: Report of joint FAO/WHO expert consultation. FAO Food Nutr Pap 66, 1140.
4Unwin N, Whiting D, Gan D, et al. (editors) (2009) In Diabetes Atlas, 4th ed.Belgium: International Diabetes Federation pp. 12.
5Alberti KG, Zimmet P & Shaw J (2007) International Diabetes Federation: a consensus on type 2 diabetes prevention. Diabet Med 24, 451463.
6UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), Group (1998) Intensive blood-glucose control with sulfonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type-2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet 352, 837853.
7Brand-Miller J, Hayne S, Petocz P, et al. (2003) Low-glycemic index diets in the management of diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Care 26, 22612267.
8Rizkalla SW, Taghrid L, Laromiguiere M, et al. (2004) Improved plasma glucose control, whole-body glucose utilization, and lipid profile on a low glycemic index diet in type diabetic men: a randomized trial. Diabetes Care 27, 18661872.
9Kelly S, Frost G, Whittaker V, et al. (2004) Low glyacemic index diets for coronary heart disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, issue 4CD004467.
10Ebbeling CB, Leidig MM, Sinclair KB, et al. (2003) A reduced-glycemic load diet in the treatment of adolescent obesity. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 157, 773779.
11McMillan-Price J, Petocz P, Atkinson F, et al. (2006) Comparison of 4 diets of varying glycemic load on weight loss and cardiovascular risk reduction in overweight and obese young adults. Arch Intern Med 166, 14661475.
12Slabber M, Barnard HC & Kuyl JM (1994) Effects of low-insulin-response, energy-restricted diet on weight loss and plasma insulin concentrations in hyperinsulinemic obese females. Am J Clin Nutr 60, 4853.
13Salmerón J, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, et al. (1997) Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of NIDDM in men. Diabetes Care 20, 545550.
14Salmeron J, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. (1997) Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA 277, 472477.
15Liu S, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, et al. (2000) A prospective study of dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate intake, and risk of coronary heart disease in US women. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 14551461.
16The double burden of malnutrition (2006) Case studies from developing countries. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 84, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations Rome, 84, 99160.
17Radhika G, VanDam R, Sudha V, et al. (2009) Refined grain consumption and the metabolic syndrome in urban Asian Indians [CURES-57]. Metabolism 58, 675681.
18Chatterjee S, Rae A & Ray RFood Consumption and calorie intake in contemporary India, April 2007. https://editorialexpress.com/cgi-in/conference/download.cgi (accessed 10 January 2008).
19Mohan V, Sharp PS & Cloke HR (1986) Serum immunoreactive insulin responses to glucose load in Asian Indian and European type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients and control subjects. Diabetologia 29, 235237.
20Sharp PS, Mohan V, Levy JC, et al. (1986) Insulin resistance in patients of Asian Indian and European origin with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Horm Metab Res 29, 235237.
21Henry CJ, Lightowler HJ, Newens K, et al. (2008) Glycaemic index of common foods tested in the UK and India. Br J Nutr 99, 840845.
22Regional Office for the Western Pacific of the World health Organization (2000) World Health Organization, International Association for the Study of Obesity and International Obesity Task Force. The Asia Pacific Perspective; Redefining Obesity and its Treatment. Sydney: Health Communications Australia Pty Lts, pp. 1721.
23Brouns F, Bjorck I, Frayn KN, et al. (2005) Glycemic index methodology. Nutr Res Rev 18, 145171.
24The American Diabetes Association (2007) Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 30, Suppl. 1, S42S47.
25Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Jenkins AL, et al. (1991) The glycemic index: methodology and clinical implications. Am J Clin Nutr 54, 846854.
26Wolever TM, Brand-Miller JC, Abernethy J, et al. (2008) Measuring the glycemic index of foods: interlaboratory study. Am J Clin Nutr 87, Suppl. 1, 247S257S.
27Englyst HN & Cummings JH (1990) Non-starch polysachharides (dietary fiber) and resistant starch. In New Developments in Dietary Fiber. Physiological, Physiochemical, and Analytical Aspects, pp. 205225 [Furda I and Brine CJ, editors]. New York/London: Plenum Press.
28Holt SHA, Brand Miller JC, Petocz P, et al. (1995) A satiety index of common foods. Eur J Clin Nutr 49, 675690.
29Wolever TM, Vorster HH, Bjorck I, et al. (2003) Determination of the glycaemic index of foods: interlaboratory study. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 475482.
30Mohan V, Deepa M, Deepa R, et al. (2006) Secular trends in the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in urban South India – the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiological Study (CURES-17). Diabetologia 49, 11751178.
31Ramachandran A, Mary S, Yamuna A, et al. (2008) High prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors associated with urbanization in India. Diabetes Care 31, 893898.
32Mohan V, Radhika G, Sathya RM, et al. (2009) Dietary carbohydrates, glycaemic load, food groups and newly detected type 2 diabetes among urban Asian Indian population in Chennai, India (Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study 59). Br J Nutr 102, 14981506.
33Radhika G, Ganesan A, Sathya RM, et al. (2009) Dietary carbohydrates, glycemic load and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations among South Indian adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 413420.
34Chaturvedi A, Sarojini G, Nirmala G, et al. (1997) Glycemic Index of grain amaranth, wheat and rice in NIDDM subjects. J Plant Foods Hum Nutr 50, 171178.
35Urooj A & Puttaraj S (2000) Glycaemic responses to cereal-based Indian food preparations in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and normal subjects. Br J Nutr 83, 483488.
36Thorne MJ, Thompson L & Jenkins DJ (1983) Factors affecting starch digestibility and the glycaemic response with special reference to legumes. Am J Clin Nutr 38, 481488.
37Brand JC, Nicholson PL, Thorburn AW, et al. (1985) Food processing and glycemic index. Am J Clin Nutr 42, 11921196.
38Holm J, Hadander B, Bjorck I, et al. (1989) The effect of various thermal processes on the glycemic response to whole grain wheat products. J Nutr 119, 16311638.
39Urooj A & Puttaraj (1988) Glycemic index of foods – new concepts in carbohydrate bioavailability. Arogya J Health Sci 14, 723.
40Dilawari JB, Kamath PS & Batta RP (1981) Reduction of postprandial plasma glucose by Bengal gram dal (Cicer arietinum) and rajmah (Phaseolus vulgaris). Am J Clin Nutr 34, 24502453.
41Ziai SA, Larijani B & Akhoondzadeh S (2005) Psyllium decreased serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin significantly in diabetic outpatients. J Ethnopharmacol 102, 202207.
42Sierra M, García JJ, Fernández N, et al. (2002) Therapeutic effects of psyllium in type 2 diabetic patients. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, 830842.
43Madar Z, Abel R, Samish S, et al. (1988) Glucose lowering effect of fenugreek in non-insulin dependent diabetics. Eur J Clin Nutr 42, 5154.
44Broca C, Gross R, Petit P, et al. (1999) 4-Hydroxyisoleucine: experimental evidence of its insulinotropic and antidiabetic properties. Am J Physiol 277, 617623.
45Sharma RD & Raghuram TC (1990) Hypoglycemic effect of fenugreek seeds in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Nutr Res 10, 731739.
46Jenkins DJ, Jenkins MJ, Wolever TM, et al. (1986) Slow release carbohydrate: mechanism of action of viscous fibers. J Clin Nutr Gastroenterology 1, 237241.
47Gopalan C, Sastri BV & Balasubramanian S (1985) Revised and updated by Narasinga Rao BS, Deosthale YG & Pant KC (reprinted on 2007)Nutritive Value of Indian Foods. National Institute of Nutrition, Indian Council of Medical Research Hyderabad, pp. 9395.
48Hallfrish J & Behall KM (2000) Mechanism of the effects of grains on insulin and glucose responses. J Am Coll Nutr 19, Suppl. 3, 320S325S.
49Brennan CS, Blake DE, Ellis PR, et al. (1996) Effects of guar galactomannan on wheat bread microstructure and on the in vitro and in vivo digestibility of starch in bread. J Cereal Sci 24, 151160.
50Vega-Lopez S, Ausman L, Griffith J, et al. (2007) Inter-individual variability and intra-individual reproducibility of glycemic index values for commercial white bread. Diabetes Care 30, 14121417.
51Mohan V & Deepa R (2006) Adipocytokines and the expanding ‘Asian Indian phenotype’. J Assoc Physicians India 54, 685686.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 59
Total number of PDF views: 222 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 418 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.