Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

The influence of creatine supplementation on the cognitive functioning of vegetarians and omnivores

  • David Benton (a1) and Rachel Donohoe (a2)
Abstract

Creatine when combined with P forms phosphocreatine that acts as a reserve of high-energy phosphate. Creatine is found mostly in meat, fish and other animal products, and the levels of muscle creatine are known to be lower in vegetarians. Creatine supplementation influences brain functioning as indicated by imaging studies and the measurement of oxygenated Hb. Given the key role played by creatine in the provision of energy, the influence of its supplementation on cognitive functioning was examined, contrasting the effect in omnivores and vegetarians. Young adult females (n 128) were separated into those who were and were not vegetarian. Randomly and under a double-blind procedure, subjects consumed either a placebo or 20 g of creatine supplement for 5 d. Creatine supplementation did not influence measures of verbal fluency and vigilance. However, in vegetarians rather than in those who consume meat, creatine supplementation resulted in better memory. Irrespective of dietary style, the supplementation of creatine decreased the variability in the responses to a choice reaction-time task.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The influence of creatine supplementation on the cognitive functioning of vegetarians and omnivores
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The influence of creatine supplementation on the cognitive functioning of vegetarians and omnivores
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The influence of creatine supplementation on the cognitive functioning of vegetarians and omnivores
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: D. Benton, fax +44 1792 295679, email d.benton@swansea.ac.uk
References
Hide All
1 Andres RH, Ducray AD, Schlattner U, et al. (2008) Functions and effects of creatine in the central nervous system. Brain Res Bull 76, 329343.
2 Benton D (2005) Diet, cerebral energy metabolism and psychological functioning. In Nutrition, Brain and Behavior, vol. 3, Nutritional Neuroscience: Overview of an Emerging Field, pp. 5771 [Prasad C, Lieberman H and Kanarek R, editors]. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor and Francis.
3 Burke DG, Chilibeck PD, Parise G, et al. (2003) Effect of creatine and weight training on muscle creatine and performance in vegetarians. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35, 19461955.
4 Rawson ES, Lieberman HR, Walsh TM, et al. (2008) Creatine supplementation does not improve cognitive function in young adults. Physiol Behav 95, 130134.
5 McMorris T, Mielcarz G, Harris RC, et al. (2007) Creatine supplementation and cognitive performance in elderly individuals. Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 14, 517528.
6 Laakso MP, Hiltunen Y, Kononen M, et al. (2003) Decreased brain creatine levels in elderly apolipoprotein E ɛ4 carriers. J Neural Transm 110, 267275.
7 McMorris T, Harris RC, Swain J, et al. (2006) Effect of creatine supplementation and sleep deprivation, with mild exercise, on cognitive and psychomotor performance, mood state, and plasma concentrations of catecholamines and cortisol. Psychopharmacology 185, 93103.
8 Adhihetty PJ & Beal MF (2008) Creatine and its potential therapeutic value for targeting cellular energy impairment in neurodegenerative diseases. Neuromolecular Med 10, 275290.
9 Wyss M & Schulze A (2002) Health implication of creatine: can oral creatine supplementation protect against neurological and atherosclerotic disease? Neuroscience 112, 243260.
10 Dechent P, Pouwels PJ, Wilken B, et al. (1999) Increase of total creatine in human brain after oral supplementation of creatine-monohydrate. Am J Physiol 277, R698R704.
11 Watanabe A, Kato N & Kato T (2002) Effects of creatine on mental fatigue and cerebral hemoglobin oxygenation. Neurosci Res 42, 279285.
12 Barr SI & Rideout CA (2004) Nutritional considerations for vegetarian athletes. Nutrition 20, 696703.
13 Rae C, Digney AL, McEwan SR, et al. (2003) Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Proc Biol Sci 270, 21472150.
14 Benton D & Parker PY (1998) Breakfast, blood glucose and cognition. Am J Clin Nutr 67, 772S778S.
15 Quinlan PT (1992) The Oxford Psycholinguistic Database. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
16 Jensen AR (1987) Individual differences in the Hick paradigm. In Speed of Information-processing and Intelligence, pp. 101175 [Vernon PA, editor]. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
17 Benton A & Hamsher K (1976) Multilingual Aphasic Examination. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa.
18 MacDonald SW, Li SC & Bäckman L (2009) Neural underpinnings of within-person variability in cognitive functioning. Psychol Aging 24, 792808.
19 MacDonald SW, Nyberg L & Bäckman L (2006) Intra-individual variability in behavior: links to brain structure, neurotransmission and neuronal activity. Trends Neurosci 29, 474480.
20 Casey A & Greenhaff PL (2000) Does dietary creatine supplementation play a role in skeletal muscle metabolism and performance? Am J Clin Nutr 72, 607S617S.
21 Friedman DL & Roberts R (1994) Compartmentation of brain-type creatine kinase and ubiquitous mitochondiral creatine kinase in neurons: evidence for a creatine phosphate energy shuttle in adult rat brain. J Comp Neurol 343, 500511.
22 Rooney KB, Bryson JM, Digney AL, et al. (2003) Creatine supplementation affects glucose homeostasis but not insulin secretion in humans. Ann Nutr Metab 47, 1115.
23 Benton D & Owens D (1993) Blood glucose and human memory. Psychopharmacology 113, 8388.
24 Donohoe RT & Benton D (2000) Glucose tolerance predicts performance on tests of memory and cognition. Physiol Behav 71, 395401.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 325
Total number of PDF views: 558 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 4966 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.