Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Skin bioavailability of dietary vitamin E, carotenoids, polyphenols, vitamin C, zinc and selenium

  • Myriam Myriam (a1), Magalie Sabatier (a1), Heike Steiling (a1) and Gary Williamson (a1)
Abstract

Dietary bioactive compounds (vitamin E, carotenoids, polyphenols, vitamin C, Se and Zn) have beneficial effects on skin health. The classical route of administration of active compounds is by topical application direct to the skin, and manufacturers have substantial experience of formulating ingredients in this field. However, the use of functional foods and oral supplements for improving skin condition is increasing. For oral consumption, some dietary components could have an indirect effect on the skin via, for example, secondary messengers. However, in the case of the dietary bioactive compounds considered here, we assume that they must pass down the gastrointestinal tract, cross the intestinal barrier, reach the blood circulation, and then be distributed to the different tissues of the body including the skin. The advantages of this route of administration are that the dietary bioactive compounds are metabolized and then presented to the entire tissue, potentially in an active form. Also, the blood continuously replenishes the skin with these bioactive compounds, which can then be distributed to all skin compartments (i.e. epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous fat and also to sebum). Where known, the distribution and mechanisms of transport of dietary bioactive compounds in skin are presented. Even for compounds that have been studied well in other organs, information on skin is relatively sparse. Gaps in knowledge are identified and suggestions made for future research.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Skin bioavailability of dietary vitamin E, carotenoids, polyphenols, vitamin C, zinc and selenium
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Skin bioavailability of dietary vitamin E, carotenoids, polyphenols, vitamin C, zinc and selenium
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Skin bioavailability of dietary vitamin E, carotenoids, polyphenols, vitamin C, zinc and selenium
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr M. Richelle, fax +41 21 785 85 44, email: myriam.richelle@rdls.nestle.com
References
Hide All
Ackland ML, Danks DM & McArdle HJStudies on the mechanism of zinc uptake by human fibroblasts. J Cell Physiol (1988) 135, 521526.
Alaluf S, Heinrich U, Stahl W, Tronnier H & Wiseman SDietary carotenoids contribute to normal human skin color and UV photosensitivity. J Nutr (2002) 132, 399403.
Baer MT & King JCTissue zinc levels and zinc excretion during experimental zinc depletion in young men. Am J Clin Nutr (1984) 39, 556570.
Baer MT, King JC, Tamura T, Margen S, Bradfield RB, Weston WL & Daugherty NANitrogen utilization, enzyme activity, glucose intolerance and leukocyte chemotaxis in human experimental zinc depletion. Am J Clin Nutr (1985) 41, 12201235.
Beehler BC, Przybyszewski J, Box HB & Kulesz-Martin MFFormation of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine within DNA of mouse keratinocytes exposed in culture to UVB and H2O2. Carcinogenesis (1992) 13, 20032007.
Behne D, Hilmert H, Scheid S, Gessner H & Elger WEvidence for specific selenium target tissues and new biologically important selenoproteins. Biochim Biophys Acta (1988) 966, 1221.
Boileau TW, Boileau AC & Erdman JW Jr Bioavailability of all-trans and cis-isomers of lycopene. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) (2002) 227, 914919.
Bone RA, Landrum JT, Fernandez L & Tarsis SLAnalysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci (1988) 29, 843849.
Bone RA, Landrum JT, Friedes LM, Gomez CM, Kilburn MD, Menendez E, Vidal I & Wang WDistribution of lutein and zeaxanthin stereoisomers in the human retina. Exp Eye Res (1997) 64, 211218.
Brown LAS & Jones DP The biology of ascorbic acid. In Handbook of Antioxidants, pp. 117154. [E Cadenas & L Packer editors.] New York: Marcel Dekker Inc. (1996)
Burk RF & Hill KESelenoprotein P. A selenium-rich extracellular glycoprotein. J Nutr (1994) 124, 18911897.
Burk RF & Hill KESelenoprotein P: an extracellular protein with unique physical characteristics and a role in selenium homeostasis. Annu Rev Nutr (2005) 25, 215235.
Cesarini, JP, Michel L, Maurette JM, Adhoute H & Bejot MImmediate effects of UV radiation on the skin: modification by an antioxidant complex containing carotenoids. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed (2003) 19, 182189.
Clinton SK, Emenhiser C, Schwartz SJ, Bostwick DG, Williams AW, Moore BJ & Erdman JWCis-trans lycopene isomers, carotenoids and retinol in the human prostate. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev (1996) 5, 823833.
Cooper DA, Webb DR & Peters JCEvaluation of the potential for olestra to affect the availability of dietary phytochemicals. J Nutr (1997) 127, Suppl., 1699S1709S.
Cross CE, van der Vliet A, Louie S, Thiele JJ & Halliwell BOxidative stress and antioxidants at biosurfaces: plants, skin, and respiratory tract surfaces. Environ Health Perspect (1998) 106, 12411251.
Dalle CM & Pathak MASkin photosensitizing agents and the role of reactive oxygen species in photoaging. J Photochem Photobiol B (1992) 14, 105124.
Darvin ME, Gersonde I, Meinke M, Sterry W & Landemann JNon-invasive in vivo determination of the carotenoids b-carotene and lycopene concentrations in the human skin using the Raman spectroscopic method. J Phys D Appl Phys (2005) 38, 26962700.
Day AJ, Canada FJ, Diaz JC, Kroon PA, McLauchlan WR, Faulds CB, Plumb GW, Morgan MRA, Williamson GDietary flavonoid and isoflavone glycosides are hydrolysed by the lactase site of lactase phlorizin hydrolase. FEBS Lett (2000) 468, 166170.
Day AJ, Mellon FA, Barron D, Sarrrazin GMorgan MRAWilliamson GHuman metabolism of dietary flavonoids: identification of plasma metabolites of quercetin. Free Radic Res (2001) 212, 941952.
Downing DT, Stewart ME & Strauss JSEstimation of sebum production rates in man by measurement of the squalene content of skin biopsies. J Invest Dermatol (1981) 77, 358360.
During A, Dawson HD & Harrison EHCarotenoid transport is decreased and expression of the lipid transporters SR-BI, NPC1L1, and ABCA1 is downregulated in Caco-2 cells treated with ezetimibe. J Nutr (2005) 135, 23052312..
During A, Hussain MM, Morel DW & Harrison EHCarotenoid uptake and secretion by CaCo-2 cells: b-carotene isomer selectivity and carotenoid interactions. J Lipid Res (2002) 43, 10861095.
Emerit IFree radicals and aging of the skin. EXS (1992) 62, 328341.
Evans GWNormal and abnormal zinc absorption in man and animals: the tryptophan connection. Nutr Rev (1980) 38, 137141.
Ford DIntestinal and placental zinc transport pathways. Proc Nutr Soc (2004) 63, 2129.
Fuchs JPotential and limitation of the natural antioxidants RRR a tocopherol, L-ascorbic acid and b-carotene in cutaneaous photoprotection. Free Radic Biol Med (1998) 25, 848873.
Fuchs J & Kern HModulation of UV-light-induced skin inflammation by D-a-tocopherol and L-ascorbic acid: a clinical study using solar simulated radiation. Free Radic Biol Med (1998) 25, 10061012.
Fuchs J & Podda M (1997) Vitamin C in cutaneous biology. In Vitamin C in Health and Disease, pp. 333340. [Packer L and Fuchs J, editors]. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc.
Gollnick HPM, Hopfenmuller W, Hemmes C, Chun SC, Schmid C, Sundermeier K & Biesalski HCSystemic b carotene plus topical UV-sunscreen are an optimal protection against harmful effects of natural UV-sunlight: results of the Berlin-Eilath study. Eur J Dermatol (1996) 6, 200205.
Greul AK, Grundmann JU, Heinrich F, Pfitzincer I, Bernhardt J, Ambach A, Biesalski HK & Gollnick HPhotoprotection of UV-irradiated human skin: an antioxidative combination of vitamins E and C, carotenoids, selenium and proanthocyanidins. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol (2002) 15, 307315.
Guiraud P, Lepee M, Monjo AM, Richard MJ & Favier ACultured human skin fibroblasts absorb 65Zn. Optimization of the method and study of the mechanisms involved. Biol Trace Elem Res (1992) 32, 213225.
Guyton KZ & Kensler TWOxidative mechanisms in carcinogenesis. Br Med Bull (1993) 49, 523544.
Hallman PS, Perrin DD & Watt AEThe computed distribution of Cu (II) and zinc (II) ions among seventeen amino acids present in human blood plasma. Biochem J (1971) 121, 549555.
Hambidge K, Casey C & Krebs N Zinc In Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition. pp. 1137 [W Mertz editor]. New York: Academic Press (1986)
Hammond BR & Wooten BRResonance Raman spectroscopic measurement of carotenoids in the skin and retina. J Biomed Opt (2005) 10, (5), 054002 (12 pages).
Handelman GJ, Dratz EA, Reay CC & van Kuijk FJGMCarotenoids in the human macula and whole retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci (1988) 29, 850855.
Hata TR, Scholz TA, Ermakov IV, McClane RW, Khachik F, Gellermann W & Pershing LKNon-invasive Raman spectroscopic detection of carotenoids in human skin. J Invest Dermatol (2000) 115, 441448.
Heinrich U, Gartner C, Wiebusch M, Eichler OSies HTronnier H & Stahl WSupplementation with β–carotene or a similar amount of mixed carotenoids protects humans from UV-induced erythema. J Nutr (2003) 133, 98101.
Hollander, D, Rim E & Muralidhara KSMechanism and site of small intestinal absorption of a-tocopherol in the rat. Gastroenterology (1975) 68, 14921499.
Hollander D & Ruble PEβ–Carotene intestinal absorption: bile, fatty acid, pH, and flow rate effects on transport. Am J Physiol (1978) 235, E686E691.
Hosomi A, Arita M, Sato Y, Kiyose CUeda TIgarashi O, Arai H, Inoue KAffinity for a-tocopherol transfer protein as a determinant of the biological activities of vitamin E analogs. FEBS Lett (1997) 409, 105108.
Hu ML & Tappel ALPotentiation of oxidative damage to proteins by ultraviolet-A and protection by antioxidant. Photochem Photobiol (1992) 56, 357363.
Jackson MJ Physiology of zinc: general aspects In Zinc in Human Biology. pp. 114 [CF Mills editor]. London: Springer-Verlag. (1989)
Jang M, Cai L, Udeani GOet al.. Cancer chemopreventive activity of resveratrol, a natural product derived from grapes. Science (1997) 275, 218220.
Jungmann H, Heinrich U, Wiebusch M & Tronnier HDer einsatz der reflektionsspektroskopie in der dermatologie am beispiel der β–carotins. Kosmet Med (1996) 1, 5057.
Kamimura A & Takahashi TProcyanidin B-2, extracted from apples, promotes hair growth: a laboratory study. Br J Dermatol (2002) 146, 4151.
Katiyar SK, Agarwal R & Mukhtar HInhibition of tumor promotion in SENCAR mouse skin by ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale rhizome. Cancer Res (1996) 56, 10231030.
Katiyar SK & Mukhtar HTea antioxidants in cancer chemoprevention. J Cell Biochem (1997) 27, 5967.
Kenny TP, Keen CL, Jones P, Kung HJSchmitz HH & Gershwin MECocoa procyanidins inhibit proliferation and angiogenic signals in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells following stimulation by low-level H2O2.. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) (2004) 229, 765771.
King JC, Shames DM & Woodhouse LRZinc homeostasis in humans. J Nutr (2000) 130, Suppl., 1360S1366S.
Krinsky NI & Deneke SMInteraction of oxygen and oxy-radicals with carotenoids. J Natl Cancer Inst (1982) 69, 205210.
Krinsky NI, Russett MD, Handelman GJ & Snodderly DMStructural and geometrical isomers of carotenoids in human plasma. J Nutr (1990) 120, 16541662.
Kroon PA, Clifford MN, Crozier A, Day AJ, Donovan JL, Manach C & Williamson GHow should we assess the effects of exposure to dietary polyphenols in vitro?. Am J Clin Nutr (2004) 80, 1521.
Lang JK, Gohil K, Packer LSimultaneous determination of tocopherols, ubiquinols, and ubiquinones in blood, plasma, tissue homogenates, and subcellular fractions. Anal Biochem (1986) 157, 106116.
Leccia MT, Richard MJ, Joanny-Crisci F & Beani JCUV-A1 cytotoxicity and antioxidant defence in keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Eur J Dermatol (1998) 8, 478482.
Leveque N, Robin S, Muret P, Mac-Mary S, Makki S & Humbert PHigh iron and low ascorbic acid concentrations in the dermis of atopic dermatitis patients. Dermatology (2003) 207, 261264.
Liang WJ, Johnson D & Jarvis SMVitamin C transport systems of mammalian cells.. Mol Membr Biol (2001) 18, 8795.
McKenzie RCSelenium, ultraviolet radiation and the skin. Clin Exp Dermatol (2000) 25, 631636.
Manach C, Williamson G, Morand C, Scalbert A & Remesy CBioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. I. Review of 97 bioavailability studies. Am J Clin Nutr (2005) 81, Suppl., 230S242S.
Miller LV, Hambidge KM, Naake VL, Hong ZWestcott JL & Fennessey PVSize of the zinc pools that exchange rapidly with plasma zinc in humans: alternative techniques for measuring and relation to dietary zinc intake. J Nutr (1994) 124, 268276.
Mittal A, Elmets CA & Katiyar SKDietary feeding of proanthocyanidins from grape seeds prevents photocarcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mice: relationship to decreased fat and lipid peroxidation. Carcinogenesis (2003) 24, 13791388.
Molokhia MM & Portnoy BNeutron activation analysis of trace elements in skin. 3. Zinc in normal skin. Br J Dermatol (1969) 81, 759762.
Molokhia A, Portnoy B & Dyer ANeutron activation analysis of trace elements in skin. VIII. Selenium in normal skin. Br J Dermatol (1979) 101, 567572.
Moser U & Bendich A (1991) Vitamin C. In Handbook of Vitamins, pp. 195195 [LJ Machlin editor]. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc.
Mukhtar H & Ahmad NCancer chemoprevention: future holds in multiple agents. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol (1999) 158, 207210.
Nemeth K, Plumb GW, Berrin JG, Juge N, Jacob R, Naim HY,Williamson G, Swallow DM & Kroon PADeglycosylation by small intestinal epithelial cell β–glucosidases is a critical step in the absorption and metabolism of dietary flavonoid glycosides in humans. Eur J Nutr (2003) 42, 2942.
Ni Z, Mu Y & Gulati OTreatment of melasma with Pycnogenol. Phytother Res (2002) 16, 567571.
O’Leary KA, Day AJ, Needs PW, Mellon FAO’Brien NM & Williamson GMetabolism of quercetin–7–and quercetin–3–glucuronides by an in vitro hepatic model: the role of human b-glucuronidase, sulfotransferase, catechol–O–methyltransferase and multi–resistant protein 2 (MRP2) in flavonoid metabolism. Biochem Pharmacol (2003) 65, 479491.
Oster O, Schmiedel G & Prellwitz WThe organ distribution of selenium in German adults. Biol Trace Elem Res (1988) 15, 2345.
Pasqualini JR & Nguyen BLEstrone sulfatase activity and effect of antiestrogens on transformation of estrone sulfate in hormone-dependent vs independent human breast–cancer cell-lines. Breast Cancer Res Treat (1991) 18, 9398.
Perchellet JP & Perchellet EMAntioxidants and multistage carcinogenesis in mouse skin. Free Radic Biol Med (1989) 7, 377408.
Perchellet JP, Perchellet EM & Belman SInhibition of DMBA-induced mouse skin tumorigenesis by garlic oil and inhibition of two tumor-promotion stages by garlic and onion oils. Nutr Cancer (1990) 14, 183193.
Podda M, Traber MG, Weber C, Yan LJ & Packer LUVirradiation depletes antioxidants and causes oxidative damage in a model of human skin. Free Radic Biol Med (1998) 24, 5565.
Postaire E, Jungmann H, Bejot M, Heinrich U & Tronnier HEvidence for antioxidant nutrients-induced pigmentation in skin: results of a clinical trial. Biochem Mol Biol Intern (1997) 42, 10231033.
Prasad A Clinical and biochemical spectrum of zinc deficiency in human subjects In Clinical, Biochemical, and Nutritional Aspects of Trace Elements pp. 362 [AS Prasadeditor]. New York: Alan R. Liss (1982)
Proteggente AR, Basu-Modak S, Kuhnle G, Gordon MJ, Youdim K, Tyrrell R & Rice-Evans CAHesperetin glucuronide, a photoprotective agent arising from flavonoid metabolism in human skin fibroblasts. Photochem Photobiol (2003) 78, 256261.
Rafferty TS, McKenzie RC, Hunter JA, Howie AFArthur JRNicol F & Beckett GJDifferential expression of selenoproteins by human skin cells and protection by selenium from UVB-radiation-induced cell death. Biochem J (1998) 332, 231236.
Re R, Fraser PD, Long M, Bramley PM & Rice-Evans CIsomerization of lycopene in the gastric milieu. Biochem Biophys Res Commun (2001) 281, 576581.
Reboul E, Abou L, Mikail C, Ghiringhelli OAndre MPortugal H, Jourdheuil-Rahmani D, Amiot MJ, Lairon D & Borel PLutein transport by Caco-2 TC-7 cells occurs partly by a facilitated process involving the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Biochem J (2004) 387, 455461.
Ribaya-Mercado JD, Garmyn M, Gilchrest BA & Russell RMSkin lycopene is destroyed preferentially over β–carotene during ultraviolet irradiation in humans. J Nutr (1995) 125, 18541858.
Richardson DRMore roles for selenoprotein P: local selenium storage and recycling protein in the brain. Biochem J (2005) 386, e5e7.
Rios L, Bennett RN, Lazarus SA, Remesy CScalbert A & Williamson GCocoa proanthocyanidins are stable during gastric transit in humans. Am J Clin Nutr (2002) 76, 11061110.
Rostan EF, DeBuys HV, Madey DL, Pinnell SREvidence supporting zinc as an important antioxidant for skin. Int J Dermatol (2002) 41, 606611.
Rumsey SC & Levine MAbsorption, transport, and disposition of ascorbic acid in humans. J Nutr Biochem (1998) 9, 116160.
Sadhana AS, Rao AR, Kucheria K & Bijani VInhibitory action of garlic oil on the initiation of benzo[a]pyrene-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice. Cancer Lett (1988) 40, 193197.
Savini I, Catani MV, Rossi A, Duranti GMelino G & Avigliano LCharacterization of keratinocyte differentiation induced by ascorbic acid: protein kinase C involvement and vitamin C homeostasis. J Invest Dermatol (2002) 118, 372379.
Savini I, D’Angelo I, Ranalli M, Melino G & Avigliano LAscorbic acid maintenance in HaCaT cells prevents radical formation and apoptosis by UV-B. Free Radic Biol Med (1999) 26, 11721180.
Savini I, Duflot S & Avigliano LDehydroascorbic acid uptake in a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) is glutathione-independent. Biochem J (2000) 345, 665672.
Schallreuter KU, Hordinsky MK & Wood JMThioredoxin reductase. Role in free radical reduction in different hypopigmentation disorders. Arch Dermatol (1987) 123, 615619.
Schierle J, Bretzel W, Bühler I, Faccin N, Hess D, Steiner K & Schüep WContent and isomeric ratio of lycopene in food and human plasma. Food Chem (1997) 59, 459465.
Schiffer R, Neis M, Holler D et al. . Active influx transport is mediated by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family in human epidermal keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol (2003) 120, 285291.
Shindo Y, Witt E, Han D, Epstein W & Packer LEnzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in epidermis and dermis of human skin. J Invest Dermatol (1994) 102, 122124.
Singh RP & Agarwal RFlavonoid antioxidant silymarin and skin cancer. Antioxid Redox Signal (2002) 4, 655663.
Sotiriou S, Gispert S, Cheng J, Wang Y, Chen A, Hoogstraten-Miller S, Miller GF, Kwon O, Levine M, Guttentag SH & Nussbaum RLAscorbic-acid transporter Slc23a1 is essential for vitamin C transport into the brain and for perinatal survival. Nat Med (2002) 8, 514517.
Stahl W, Heinrich U, Jungmann H, Sies H & Tronnier HCarotenoids and carotenoids plus vitamin E protect against ultraviolet light-induced erythema in humans. Am J Clin Nutr (2000) 71, 795798.
Stahl W, Heinrich U, Jungmann H, von Laar J, Schietzel M, Sies H & Tronnier HIncreased dermal carotenoid levels assessed by noninvasive reflection spectrometry correlate with serum levels in women ingesting betatene. J Nutr (1998) 128, 903907.
Stahl W, Heinrich U, Wiseman S, Eichler O, Sies H & Tronnier HDietary tomato paste protects against ultraviolet lightinduced erythema in humans. J Nutr (2001) 131, 14491451.
Stahl W, Schwarz W, Sundquist AR & Sies HCis-trans isomers of lycopene and b-carotene in human serum and tissues. Arch Biochem Biophys (1992) 294, 173177.
Stahl W & Sies HUptake of lycopene and its geometrical isomers is greater from heat processed than from unprocessed tomato juice in humans. J Nutr (1992) 122 (11), 21612166.
Stahl W & Sies HLycopene: a biologically important carotenoid for humans?. Arch Biochem Biophys (1996) 336, 19.
Stahl W & Sies HCarotenoids and protection against solar UV radiation. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol (2002) 15, 291296.
Steenvoorden DP & van Henegouwen GMThe use of endogenous antioxidants to improve photoprotection. J Photochem Photobiol B (1997) 41, 110.
Stoner GD & Mukhtar HPolyphenols as cancer chemopreventive agents. J Cell Biochem Suppl (1995) 22, 169180.
Suganuma M, Okabe S, Oniyama M, Tada Y, Ito H & Fujiki HWide distribution of [3H]–epigallocatechin gallate, a cancer preventive tea polyphenol, in mouse tissue. Carcinogenesis (1998) 19, 17711776.
Tapiero H & Tew KDTrace elements in human physiology and pathology: zinc and metallothioneins. Biomed Pharmacother (2003) 57, 399411.
Thiele JJ, Dreher F & Packer L Cosmeceuticals. Drugs vs Cosmetics, pp. 145188 [Elsner P and Maibach H, editors]. New York: Dekker. (2000)
Thiele JJ, Podda M & Packer LTropospheric ozone: an emerging environmental stress to skin. Biol Chem (1997) 378, 12991305.
Thiele JJ, Traber MG & Packer LDepletion of human stratum corneum vitamin E: an early and sensitive in vivo marker of UV induced photo-oxidation. J Invest Dermatol (1998) 110, 756761.
Thiele JJ, Weber SU & Packer LSebaceous gland secretion is a major physiologic route of vitamin E delivery to skin. J Invest Dermatol (1999) 113, 10061010.
Tsukaguchi H, Tokui T, Mackenzie B, Berger UV, Chen XZ, Wang Y, Brubaker RF & Hediger MAA family of mammalian Na+-dependent L-ascorbic acid transporters. Nature (1999) 399, 7075.
Vaule H, Leonard SW & Traber MGVitamin E delivery to human skin: studies using deuterated a-tocopherol measured by APCI LC-MS. Free Radic Biol Med (2004) 36, 456463.
Wang K, Zhou B, Kuo YM, Zemansky J & Gitschier JA novel member of a zinc transporter family is defective in acrodermatitis enteropathica. Am J Hum Genet (2002) 71, 6673.
Weber SU, Thiele JJ, Cross CE & Packer LVitamin C, uric acid, and glutathione gradients in murine stratum corneum and their susceptibility to ozone exposure. J Invest Dermatol (1999) 113, 11281132.
Widyarini S, Husband AJ & Reeve VEProtective effect of the isoflavonoid equol against hairless mouse skin carcinogenesis induced by UV radiation alone or with a chemical cocarcinogen. Photochem Photobiol (2005) 81, 3237.
Wie H, Saladi R, Lu Y, Wang Y, Palep SR, Moore J, Phelps R, Shyong E & Lebwohl MGIsoflavone genistein: photoprotection and clinical implications in dermatology. J Nutr (2003) 133, Suppl., 3811S3819S.
Wilson DS & Tappel ALBinding of plasma selenoprotein P to cell membranes. J Inorg Biochem (1993) 51, 707714.
Wingerath T, Sies H & Stahl WXanthophyll esters in human skin. Arch Biochem Biophys (1998) 355, 271274.
Wolffram SMechanisms of intestinal absorption of selenium. Med Klein (Munich) (1995) 90, Suppl., 15.
Wu K, Schwartz SJ, Platz EA, Clinton SK, Erdman JW Jr, Ferruzzi MG, Willett WC & Giovannucci ELVariations in plasma lycopene and specific isomers over time in a cohort of US men. J Nutr (2003) 133, 19301936.
Zhao J & Agarwal RTissue distribution of silibinin, the major active constituent of silymarin, in mice and its association with enhancement of phase II enzymes: implications in cancer chemoprevention. Carcinogenesis (1999) 20, 21012108.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 5
Total number of PDF views: 618 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 538 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.