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Uptake and bioavailability of anthocyanins and phenolic acids from grape/blueberry juice and smoothie in vitro and in vivo

  • Sabine Kuntz (a1), Silvia Rudloff (a1) (a2), Heike Asseburg (a1), Christian Borsch (a1), Bettina Fröhling (a3), Franziska Unger (a4), Sebastian Dold (a4), Bernhard Spengler (a4), Andreas Römpp (a4) and Clemens Kunz (a1)...

The goal of eating five servings of fruits and vegetables a day has not yet been achieved. The intake of polyphenols such as anthocyanins (ACN) could be improved by consuming smoothies and juices that are increasingly popular, especially in children; however, bioavailability data concerning food matrix effects are scarce. Thus, we conducted a randomised, cross-over, bioavailability study (n 10) to determine the bioavailability of ACN and their metabolites from an ACN-rich grape/blueberry juice (841 mg ACN/litre) and smoothie (983 mg ACN/litre) in vivo, and the uptake of a corresponding grape/blueberry extract in vitro. After the intake of beverage (0·33 litres), plasma and fractionated urine samples were collected and analysed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to MS. The most abundant ACN found in plasma and urine were malvidin and peonidin as native ACN and as glucuronidated metabolites as well as 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHB); minor ACN (delphinidin, cyanidin and petunidin) were only detected as native glycosides. Plasma pharmacokinetics and recoveries of urinary metabolites of ACN were not different for juice or smoothie intake; however, the phenolic acid 3,4-DHB was significantly better bioavailable from juice in comparison to smoothie. In vitro data with absorptive intestinal cells indicated that despite their weak chemical stability, ACN and 3,4-DHB could be detected at the basal side in their native forms. Whether smoothies as well as juices should be recommended to increase the intake of potentially health-promoting ACN and other polyphenols requires the consideration of other ingredients such as their relatively high sugar content.

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      Uptake and bioavailability of anthocyanins and phenolic acids from grape/blueberry juice and smoothie in vitro and in vivo
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Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Dr S. Kuntz, fax +49 641 9939049, email
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