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Toward a History of Rights in the City at Night: Making and Breaking the Nightly Curfew in Nineteenth-Century Rio de Janeiro

  • Amy Chazkel (a1)

Abstract

During much of the nineteenth century, Rio de Janeiro, the Brazilian capital, was under a selective curfew that made it a crime to be in the city's public spaces after dark. The curfew bent normal rules and attenuated supposedly universal rights, overtly discriminating between people on the basis of class and race. Rules that legally defined the nighttime did not come from any national statute, or from newly independent Brazil's liberal Constitution (1824) or its Criminal Code (1830). Instead, Rio's nocturnal sociolegal world was the product of police edicts, on-the-ground policing practice, and city ordinances. It also emerged from the actions of people who used the darker hours for work, play, and resistance against oppression, especially members of the city's immense enslaved population and the growing number of free persons of African descent. In other words, this is a phenomenon of urban governance that allows, and indeed forces us to look beyond the nineteenth-century nation-state to understand the exercise of power at a local level. This article explores how the curfew established patterns and means of limiting the basic freedom to move about the city. It was at night when both the necessity and fragility of what jurists in Brazil called the “freedom to come and go” came into view. The daily transition between day and night enacted juridical changes that, although invisible at the national level, fundamentally shaped the social categories that determined people's places in society in ways that historical research has yet to explore.

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1 Walsh, Robert, Notices of Brazil in 1828 and 1829, repr. in Conrad, Robert Edgar, ed., Children of God's Fire: A Documentary History of Black Slavery in Brazil (University Park: Penn State University Press, 2000), 219; Ebel, Ernst, O Rio de Janeiro e seus arredores em 1824 (São Paulo: Companhia Editora Nacional, 1972), 73. The quotation comes from Debret, Jean-Baptiste, Viagem Pitoresca e histórica ao Brasil, vol. 1 (São Paulo: Livraria Martins, 1954), 143–45. See generally Moreira Leite, Miriam Lifchitz, Livros de viagem (1803–1900) (Rio de Janeiro: Editora UFRJ, 1997); and Soares, Luiz Carlos, O ‘Povo de Cam’ na Capital do Brasil: A Escravidão Urbana no Rio de Janeiro do Século XIX (Rio de Janeiro: Editora FAPERJ/ 7 Letras, 2007), 123–91.

2 Holloway, Thomas, Policing Rio de Janeiro: Repression and Resistance in a Brazilian City (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1993), 2223. The quotation is from Rev. Fletcher, James C. and Rev. Kidder, Daniel, Brazil and the Brazilians, Portrayed in Historical and Descriptive Sketches, 6th ed. (Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1866 [1857]), 124–25.

3 Terra, Paulo, Magalhães, Marcelo, and Abreu, Martha, eds., Dimensões do poder municipal (Rio de Janeiro: Editora Mauad, 2019); Juliana Teixeira Souza, “A autoridade municipal na Corte imperial: enfrentamentos e negociações na regulação do comércio de gêneros (1884–1889),” PhD diss. (Campinas: Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 2007); Schettini, Cristiana and Terra, Paulo, eds., “Trabalhadores e Poder Municipal,” special issue of Mundos do Trabalho 5, 9 (2013): 3125. For a longer view, see de Mello Pereira, Magnus Roberto and de Almeida Santos, Antonio Cesar, O poder local e a cidade: A Câmara Municipal de Curitiba, Séculos XVII a XX (Curitiba: Aos Quatro Ventos, 2000); Pinto, Luciano Rocha, “Sobre a arte de governar das Representantes de Sua Majestade: apresentando nossos olhares e fazeres,” in Pinto, Luciano Rocha, ed., Arte de governar: O poder local no Brasil, Séculos XVIII–XIX (Rio de Janeiro: Editora Multifoco, 2014), 1314; Fragoso, Roberto Guedes and Krause, Thiago, eds., A América portuguesa e os sistemas atlânticos na Época Moderna: Monarquia pluricontinental e Antigo Regime (Rio de Janeiro: Editora FGV, 2013), 3740; Baptista Bicalho, Maria Fernanda, “As câmaras ultramarinhas e o governo do Império,” in Fragoso, João, Bicalho, Maria Fernanda, and de Fátima Gouvêa, Maria, eds., Um antigo regime nos trópicos: A dinámica imperial portuguesa (séculos XVI–XVIII) (Rio de Janeira: Civilização Brasiliera, 2001), 191.

4 See especially the work of de Carvalho, José Murilo; e.g., Cidadania no Brasil: O longo caminho, 3d ed. (Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 2002); Pontos e Bordados: Escritos de história e política (Belo Horizonte: Editora da UFMG, 1999); and Os bestializados: O Rio de Janeiro e a república que não foi (São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 1987).

5 Salvatore, Ricardo D., Wandering Paysanos: State Order and Subaltern Experience in Buenos Aires during the Rosas Era (Durham: Duke University Press, 2003); Cyril Lynch, Christian Edward, “O caminho para Washington passa por Buenos Aires: A recepção do conceito argentino do estado de sítio e seu papel na construção da República brasileira,” Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais 27, 78 (Feb. 2012): 149–69; Salvatore, Ricardo D., Aguirre, Carlos, and Joseph, Gilbert M., Crime and Punishment in Latin America since Late Colonial Times (Durham: Duke University Press, 2001). On the rule of law, see Adelman, Jeremy, “Institutions, Property, and Economic Development in Latin America,” in Centeno, Miguel and Adelman, Jeremy, eds., The Other Mirror: Grand Theory through the Lens of Latin America (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), 2754; Owensby, Brian, Empire of Law and Indian Justice in Colonial Mexico (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008).

6 Pena, Eduardo Spiller, Pajens da Casa Imperial: Jurisconsultos, escravidão, e a lei de 1871 (Campinas, SP: Editora da Unicamp/ Coleção Várias Histórias, 2001). See also da Costa, Emília Viotti, The Brazilian Empire: Myths and Histories, rev. ed. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000).

7 Burbank, Jane and Cooper, Frederick, “Rules of Law, Politics of Empire,” in Benton, Lauren and Ross, Richard J., eds., Legal Pluralism and Empires, 1500–1850 (New York: New York University Press, 2013), 285. See also Gerald Frug, “A ‘Rule of Law’ for Cities,” LSE Cities (Nov. 2007), https://lsecities.net/media/objects/articles/a-rule-of-law-for-cities/en-gb (accessed 3 Oct. 2017).

8 Comaroff, Jean and Comaroff, John, “Law and Disorder in the Postcolony,” Social Anthropology/Anthropologie Sociale 15, 2 (2007): 133–52. See also Roy, Ananya, “Slumdog Cities: Rethinking Subaltern Urbanism,” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 35, 2 (2011): 223–38.

9 On overlapping local jurisdictions, see dos Santos, Edilson Nunes, “Direitos e cidadania no Rio de Janeiro: poder e disputas por espaços de trabalho na praia da Saúde em 1841,” Revista Mundos do Trabalho 9, 18 (2017): 6379. See also Valverde, Mariana, “Practices of Citizenship and Scales of Governance,” New Criminal Law Review 13, 2 (2010): 216–40.

10 Comaroff and Comaroff, “Law and Disorder,” 146.

11 Chalhoub, Sidney, A força da escravidão: Ilegaldade e costume no Brasil oitocentista (São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2012); Mamigonian, Beatriz Gallotti, Africanos livres: A abolição do tráfico de escravos no Brasil (São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2017), 26, passim. See also Scott, Rebecca, “Public Rights, Social Equality, and the Conceptual Roots of the Plessy Challenge,” Michigan Law Review 106 (2009): 777804.

12 Examples abound. See Arquivo Geral da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro (hereafter AGCRJ), Códice 40.3.78, f. 2. (Ofício, 18 de junho de 1836); Arquivo Nacional (Brazil) (hereafter AN), Polícia da Côrte, Códice 327, vols. 1 and 2; AN, Polícia da Côrte, Códice 330, vols. 6 and 7. Sidney Chalhoub also cites arrests for curfew-breaking, in “The Precariousness of Freedom in a Slave Society (Brazil in the Nineteenth Century),” International Review of Social History 56 (2011): 405–39.

13 Líbano Soares, Carlos Eugênio, A capoeira escrava e outras tradições rebeldes no Rio de Janeiro (1808–1850) (Campinas, SP: Editora da Unicamp, 2001); Abreu, Martha, O Império do Divino: Festas religiosas e cultura popular no Rio de Janeiro, 1830–1900 (Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, 1999); Graham, Sandra Lauderdale, “O Motim do Vintém e a cultura política do Rio de Janeiro, 1880,” in Dantas, Mônica Duarte, ed., Revoltas, Motins, Revoluções: Homens livre pobres e libertos no Brasil do século XIX, 2d ed. (São Paulo: Alameda Casa Editorial, 2018), 485510; B. J. Barickman, “A Social History of the Beach in Rio de Janeiro: Sea-Bathing and Beach-Going in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries,” unpub. MS, 2015; Green, James N., Beyond Carnival: Male Homosexuality in Twentieth-Century Brazil (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001); Cicalo, André, “Campos de pós-abolição: identidades laborais e experiência “negra” entre os trabalhadores do café no Rio de Janeiro (1931–1964),” Revista Brasileira de História 35, 69 (2015): 101–30; Chalhoub, Sidney, Visões da Liberdade: Uma história das últimas décadas de escravidão na Corte (São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 1990).

14 See, for example, Peiss, Kathy, Cheap Amusements: Working Women and Leisure in Turn-of-the-Century New York (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991); Nasaw, David, Going Out: The Rise and Fall of Public Amusements (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999); and Rancière, Jacques, Proletarian Nights: The Workers Dream in Nineteenth-Century France (London: Verso, 2012).

15 There are notable exceptions to this descriptive tendency: Beaumont, Matthew, Nightwalking: A Nocturnal History of London (London: Verso, 2015); Koslofsky, Craig, Evening's Empire: A History of the Night in Early Modern Europe (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011); and Baldwin, Peter C., In the Watches of the Night: Life in the Nocturnal City, 1820–1931 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012).

16 Ekirch, A. Roger, At Day's Close: Night in Times Past (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006); Brunt, Lodewijk and Steger, Brigitte, eds., Night Time and Sleep in Asia and the West (Exploring the Dark Side of Life (New York: Routledge, 2013); Palmer, Bryan D., Cultures of Darkness: Night Travels in the Histories of Transgression (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2000); and Melbin, Murray, Night as Frontier: Colonizing the World after Dark (New York: Free Press, 1987).

17 Walkowitz, Judith R., “Jack the Ripper and the Myth of Male Violence,” Feminist Studies 8, 3 (1982): 542–74. On Brazil, see Holloway, Policing; Líbano Soares, Carlos Eugênio, A negrada instituição: Os capoeiras escravos na Corte Imperial, 1850–1890 (Rio de Janeiro: Access Editora, 1999); and Abreu, O Império do Divino.

18 Scott, Joan W., “Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis,” American Historical Review 91, 5 (1986): 1053–75, 1075. On the history of the senses, see The Senses in History,” American Historical Review, 116, 2 (2011): 307400.

19 The writings of Schmitt and Agamben, and other thinkers with whom they were in dialogue such as Walter Benjamin and Hannah Arendt, have generated a debate whose breadth and nuances I cannot address here. Contemporary writers are again raising the specter of “constitutional dictatorship.” See Jed Shugerman, “Think Matthew Whitaker Is a Hack? He's One of Many,” Washington Post, 16 Nov. 2018; Leonardo Augusto de Andrade Barbosa, “Under the Sign of Elections: The Making of Undemocratic Electoral Politics during the Brazilian Civilian-Military Regime,” paper presented at American Society for Legal History Annual Meeting, Nov. 2018.

20 Nyquist, Mary, Arbitrary Rule: Slavery, Tyranny, and the Power of Life and Death (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013).

21 de la Durantaye, Leland, Giorgio Agamben: A Critical Introduction (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2009), 338.

22 Fontana, Benedetto, “Symposium Notes on Schmitt and Marxism,” Cardoso Law Review 21 (2000): 3338. On Schmitt's “rehabilitation,” see Teschke, Benno, “Decisions and Indecisions: Political and Intellectual Receptions of Carl Schmitt,” New Left Review 67 (2011): 6195. See also Agamben, Giorgio, State of Exception, Attell, Kevin, trans. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005), 1.

23 Humphries, Stephen, “Legalizing Lawlessness: On Giorgio Agamben's State of Exception,” European Journal of International Law 17, 3 (2006): 677–87, 678; Agamben, State of Exception, 14. Agamben principally references Nazi Germany and the United States in the post-9/11 international world order and draws examples from Western Europe, from Ancient Rome to the French Revolution to interwar France, Germany, and Italy.

24 Others have shown how states of exception do away with the normal temporal limits of “emergency” and amount to “bureaucratic mechanisms of exclusion”; Rosén, Frederik, “Towards a Theory of Institutionalized Judicial Exceptionalism,” Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention 6 (2005): 147–63, 148.

25 Agamben, State of Exception, 2. Agamben's genealogy of the state of exception in the modern West starts with revolutionary France and the “democratic-revolutionary tradition” that came out of it rather than either Nazi Germany or an earlier absolutist tradition; ibid., 4–6, 49–50, 87.

26 Schmitt assigned the absolutist state the monopoly of violence at the expense of private entities like cities and private jurisdictions; Teschke, “Decisions and Indecisions,” 64.

27 Spieler, Miranda, “The Vanishing Slaves of Paris: The Lettre de Cachet and the Emergence of an Imperial Legal Order in Eighteenth-Century Paris,” in Benite, Zvi Ben-Dor, Geroulanos, Stefanos, and Jerr, Nicole, eds., The Scaffolding of Sovereignty: Global and Aesthetic Perspectives on the History of a Concept (New York: Columbia University Press, 2017), 231; Editors’ Introduction,” in Benite, Zvi Ben-Dor, Geroulanos, Stefanos, and Jerr, Nicole, eds., The Scaffolding of Sovereignty: Global and Aesthetic Perspectives on the History of a Concept (New York: Columbia University Press, 2017), 34, 12; Fontana, Symposium Notes”; Valverde, Mariana, Chronotopes of Law: Jusidiction, Scale, and Governance (New York: Routledge, 2015).

28 Weheliye, Alexander G., Habeas Viscus: Racializing Assemblages, Biopolitics, and Black Feminist Theories of the Human (Durham: Duke University Press, 2014), 8687. On Agamben's silence “on the matter of slavery,” see Baucom, Ian, Specters of the Atlantic: Finance Capital, Slavery, and the Philosophy of History (Durham: Duke University Press, 2005), 129.

29 José de Alencar, Senhora (São Paulo: Companhia Melhoramentos, 1941 [1875]); de Almeida, Manuel Antonio, Memórias de um Sargento de Milícias (São Paulo, Livraria Martins, 1941 [1854]).

30 In the identification of a particular action as a crime, one encounters the social and cultural system defining itself.” Muir, Edward and Ruggiero, Guido, eds., History from Crime: Selections from Quaderni Storici, Curry, Corrada Biazzo, Galucci, Margaret A., and Galucci, Mary M., trans. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994), 226.

31 Schultz, Kristen, Tropical Versailles: Empire, Monarchy, and the Portuguese Royal Court (New York: Routledge, 2001). There is no agreement concerning the legal personhood of slaves. Augustinho Marques Perdigão Malheiro, a jurist and author of the most influential book about slavery and law in Brazil, states that slaves have “no legal personality or status” and are “fully deprived of any civil capacity”; Escravidão no Brasil: Ensaio histórico, jurídico, social, vol. 1 (Rio de Janeiro: Typografia Nacional, 1866), ch. 3, article 3. While numerous scholars agree that slaves technically could be considered, at least potentially, to possess juridical personhood, they categorically were non-citizens and generally lacked the legal status needed to leverage their “personhood” to derive rights and formal legal standing from it. See Grinberg, Keila, “Slavery, Liberalism, and Civil Law: Definitions of Status and Citizenship in the Elaboration of the Brazilian Civil Code,” in Caulfield, Sueann, Chambers, Sarah C., and Putnam, Lara, eds., Honor, Status, and Law in Modern Latin America (Durham: Duke University Press, 2005), 109–19; Mamigonian, Beatriz Gallotti, “O direito de ser africano livre: Os escravos e as interpretações da lei de 1831,” in Lara, Sílvia and Mendonça, Joseli, eds., Direitos e justiças: Ensaios de história social (Campinas: Editora da Unicamp, 2006), 129–60; Mariana Armond Dias Paes, “Sujeito da história, sujeitos de direitos: personalidade jurídica no Brasil escravista, 1860–1888,” MA thesis (Faculdade de Direito, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 2014); Owensby, Brian, “Legal Personality and the Processes of Slave Liberty in Early-Modern New Spain,” European Review of History: Revue Europeenne d'Histoire 16, 3 (2009): 365–82.

32 Perdigão Malheiro, Escravidão no Brasil; Florentino, Manolo Garcia, Em costas negras: Uma história do tráfico atlântico de escravos entre a África e o Rio de Janeiro (séculos XVIII e XIX) (Rio de Janeiro: Arquivo Nacional, 1995), 38, 52; Karasch, Mary, Slave Life in Rio de Janeiro, 1808–1850 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987), xxi, 6061; da Silva, Marilene Rosa Nogueira, Negro na Rua: A nova face da escravidão (São Paulo: Editora Husitec, 1988), 71.

33 According to a 1849 census, Rio's urban zone had 205,906 inhabitants, of which 78,855 were enslaved and 10,732 freed former slaves; Soares, Luiz Carlos, O “Povo de Cam” na Capital do Brasil: A Escravidão Urbana no Rio de Janeiro do Século XIX (Rio de Janeiro: Editora FAPERJ—7 Letras, 2007), 29. See also Chalhoub, “Precariousness of Freedom,” 406–8.

34 On the eighteenth century, see Lara, Sílvia Hunolt, “Customs and Costumes: Carlos Julião and the Image of Black Slaves in Late Eighteenth-Century Brazil,” Slavery and Abolition 23, 2 (2010): 143–46.

35 The authoritative work on “free Africans” is Beatriz Galotti Mamigonian, Africanos livres: A abolição do trâfico de escravos (São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2017).

36 See Chalhoub, “Precariousness of Freedom,” and A força da escravidão; Lima, Henrique Espada, “Freedom, Precariousness, and the Law: Freed Persons Contracting out Their Labour in Nineteenth-Century Brazil,” International Review of Social History 54, 3 (2009): 391416; Mamigonian, Africanos livres; da Cunha, Manuela Carneiro, Negros, Estrangeiros: Os escravos libertos e sua volta à Àfrica, 2d ed. (São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2012). On the precariousness of freedom for contract laborers not necessarily of African descent, see Mendonça, Joseli Maria Nunes, “Sobre cadeias e coerção: Experiências de trabalho no Centro-Sul do Brasil do Século XIX,” Revista Brasileira de História 32, 64 (2012): 4560.

37 AN, Fundo: Polícia da Côrte, Códice 332, folhas 2–3. See Schultz, Kristen, “The Crisis of Empire and the Problem of Slavery: Portugal and Brazil, c. 1700–1820,” Common Knowledge 11, 2 (2005): 264–82; Algranti, Leila Mezan, O feitor ausente: Estudo sobre a escravidão urbana no Rio de Janeiro (Petrópolis: Vozes, 1988).

38 On the French Code Noir and its relationship to both urban night and the question of race, see Koslofksy, Evening's Empire, 270–71.

39 Ordenações e Leis do Reino de Portugal Recopiados per Mandado delrei D. Philippe o Primeiro: Duodecima Edição, Segunda a nona (Coimbra: Imprensa da Universidade, 1850), tomo 1, título 65, p. 17, pars. 13 and 14. On the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, see Marcos Luiz Bretas, A guerra das ruas: Povo e polícia na Cidade do Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro: Ministério da Justiça/ Arquivo Nacional, 1997), ch. 3., and p. 59, n17.

40 João Paulo de Mello Barreto Filho and Lima, Hermeto, História da polícia do Rio de Janeiro: Aspectos da cidade e da vida carioca (Rio de Janeiro: Editora A Noite, 1939), 36.

41 All references to the Toque de Aragão come from Império do Brasil: Diário Fluminense 1, 5 (3 Jan. 1825): 2–3.

42 AN, Polícia da Corte, Código do fundo 0E, Códice 318, folha 11v.

43 Holloway, Policing, 46–47.

44 AN, Códice, 327–3; Polícia da Côrte, 0E, 327, vols 1 and 2, CODES.

45 Most of these cases are found in the Brazilian National Archive's collection called “GIFI” (Grupo de Fundos Identificados), which contains the records from the Ministry of Justice and the municipal police (Polícia da Corte). See also AN, Fundo: Polícia da Côrte, Códice 330, vol. 7, n.p.; AN, Polícia da Côrte, Códice 339, f. 39; AN, Polícia da Côrte, códice 323, vol. 8, f. 40; AN, Polícia da Côrte, Códice 323, vol. 9, f. 27; AGCRJ, Códice 40.3.78, f. 2. On impressment into the navy for curfew-breaking, see Saulo Álvaro de Mello, “Eugenia na Marinha Imperial Brasileira, 1822–1910,” paper presented at Associação Nacional de História (Brasil), 2011.

46 Holloway, Policing, 198, 201.

47 AGCRJ, Códice 40.3.78, f. 2, Oficio de 18 de junho de 1836.

48 See, for example, AN, Fundo: Polícia da Côrte, Códice 330, vol. 7.

49 Atkinson, Naill, “Sonic Armatures: Constructing an Acoustic Regime in Renaissance Florence,” Senses and Society 7, 1 (2012): 3952.

50 Article III of Aragão's edital reads: “As Patrulhas se hão de dar as precisas instruções, para que se não abuse deste medida, sem se adopte para com as pessoas notoriamente conhecidas, e de probidade”; Império do Brasil, 2–3. See, for example, AGCRJ, Códice 40.3.78, folha 2.

51 Smith, Mark, Mastered by the Clock: Time, Slavery, and Freedom in the American South (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007).

52 Thompson, E. P., “Time, Work Discipline, and Industrial Capitalism,” Past and Present 38 (1967): 5697.

53 Recenseamento Geral do Império do Brasil (Rio de Janeiro: Imprensa Nacional, 1872). There had been attempts to count the population in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries; Nireu Cavalcanti, O Rio de Janeiro setecentista: A vida e a construção da cidade da invasão francesa até a chegada da Corte (Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar, 2004), 253–58.

54 AGCRJ, Códice, 6.1.45, folhas 2, 5.

55 Ibid., folha 14.

56 AN, Relação do Rio de Janeiro, Código do fundo 48, caixa 187, no. 2587, Ano 1878–1880, Galeria c, Apelação Civil.

57 Chalhoub, A força da escravidão; Chalhoub, Visões da liberdade; and Keila Grinberg, “Re-escravização, direitos, e justiça no Brasil do século XIX,” in Sílvia Lara and Joseli Mendonça, eds., Direitos e justiças: Ensaios de história social (Campinas: Editora da Unicamp, 2006), 101–28.

58 Acerbi, Patricia, Street Occupations: Urban Vending in Rio de Janeiro, 1850–1925 (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2017); da Silva, Negro na rua; Nishida, Mieko, Ethnicity, Gender, and Race in Salvador, Brazil, 1808–1888 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003), 1921; Soares, Luiz Carlos, “Os escravos de ganho no Rio de Janeiro no sec. XIX,” Revista Brasileira de Historia 8, 16 (1988): 107–42.

59 One municipal ordinance reads: “Every slave that is found after 7 o'clock in the evening without a note from his or her master, dated from that same day declaring the destination where he or she is goine, will suffer eight days of prison, at the cost of the master”; Código de Posturas de 1838, Seção Segunda—Polícia, Título VII, artigo 6°.

60 On midwives being permitted to enter the streets after curfew, see AN, Maço IJ6 211.

61 AN, Polícia da Côrte, Códice 336.

62 These announcements appear throughout the classified sections of the Jornal do Comércio from January through February 1830.

63 Rio's first police force, the Intendência Geral da Polícia, followed a model borrowed from eighteenth-century Portugal via Bourbon France, which assigned to the police a wide range of administrative responsibilities, including public works and lighting. See Schultz, Tropical Versailles, 276–77; Holloway, Policing Rio.

64 Centro Cultural da Light, “A iluminação no Rio de Janeiro,” unpub. MS; AGCRJ, Códice 8.4.58, folha 49; AGCRJ, Códice 8.4.58, folha 70; AGCRJ, Códice 8.4.57, folha 3; AGCRJ, Códice 8.4.57, folhas 27–29.

65 The quotation is from an unnamed source and is dated 1838. It is cited in Americo Jacobina Lacombe, “A illuminação do Rio com oleo de baleia,” Revista Light (Jan. 1933), 27.

66 The contract is reprinted in the newspaper Jornal do Comércio 1, 20 (27 Jan. 1830): 1–2, under heading “Parte Comercial.”

67 See, for example, AN, Gifi, caixa 5B 519; AN, IJ6 211; AN, IJ6 216. AN, Polícia da Côrte 232, vol. 8, n.p., AN IJ6 215.

68 See Chazkel, Amy, “Imagens nostálgicas: Os ascendedores de lampião na Revista Light,” in Maia, Andrea Casa Nova, ed., O mundo do trabalho nas páginas das revistas ilustradas (Rio de Janeiro: Editora 7 Letras, 2016).

69 All references to this murder case come from AN, IJ6 211. I am grateful to Sidney Chalhoub for bringing this document to my attention.

70 See, for example, Algranti, O feitor ausente; Dantas, Mariana L. R., Black Townsmen: Urban Slavery and Freedom in the Eighteenth-Century Americas (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2008). For a nuanced analysis of the mobility of enslaved people in urban space, see Johnson, Rashauna, Slavery's Metropolis: Unfree Labor in New Orleans during the Age of Revolutions (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2016).

71 Perdigão Malheiro writes, “In all countries where this cancer [of slavery] has been introduced, the slave is reputed to be not only a domestic enemy but also a public enemy, ready at any time to rebel, to rise up in rebellion”; Escravidão no Brasil, 32. See also Célia Maria Marinho de Azevedo, Onda negra, medo branco: O negro no imaginário das elites—século XIX (São Paulo: Annablume Editora, 1987).

72 Constituição Política do Império do Brasil (25 Mar. 1824), Título 8o, arts. 178 and 179, accessed at http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/constituicao/constituicao24.htm (accessed 25 Aug. 2019). See L. de Mello Aguirre and E. Francisco Volpato, “A influência do liberalismo na primeira constituição brasileira,” Contribuciones a las Ciencias Sociales (June 2014), www.eumed.net/rev/cccss/28/direitos.html (accessed 25 Aug. 2019).

73 Thomas Alvez Junior, Annotações Theoricas e Praticas ao Codigo Criminal, tomo IV (Rio de Janeiro: B. L. Garnier, 1883).

74 Código Criminal do Império do Brasil (Lei de 16 Dec. 1830). Accessed at http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/leis/lim/LIM-16-12-1830.htm (accessed 25 Aug. 2019).

75 These concerns echo in the police and judicial archives. See, for example, AN, Códice 339, vol. 2: “Portarias, 1841–1850.”

76 Farias, Juliana Barreto, Líbano Soares, Carlos Eugênio, and Gomes, Flávio Santos, No labirinto das Nações: Africanos e identidades no Rio de Janeiro, século XIX (Rio de Janeiro: Arquivo Nacional, 2005), 8890. On the control of movements of enslaved workers and foreigners, see AN, Códice 339, vol. 2, “Portarias, 1841–1850.”

77 Reis, João José, “‘The Revolution of the Ganhadores’: Urban Labor, Ethnicity, and the African ‘Strike’ of 1857 in Bahia, Brazil,” Journal of Latin American Studies 29, 2 (1997): 355–92; dos Santos Gomes, Flávio and Líbano Soares, Carlos Eugenio, “‘Dizem as quitandeiras’: ocupações urbanas e identidades étnicas numa cidade escravista, Rio de Janeiro, século XIX,” Acervo 15, 2 (2002): 316; Santos Junior, Edison Nunes, “Direitos e cidadania no Rio de Janeiro: poder e disputas por espaços na Praia de Saúde em 1841,” Mundos do Trabalho 9, 18 (2017): 6379.

78 Chalhoub, Visões da liberdade. See also Farias, Soares, and Gomes, No labirinto das Nações, 35–49, 67–93.

79 Cited in Ribeiro, Gladys Sabina, “Linguagens e práticas da cidadnia no século XIX,” in Ribeiro, Gladys Sabina and Tania Maria Bessoni da C. Ferreira, eds., Linguagens e práticas da cidadnia no século XIX (São Paulo: Alameda Casa Editorial, 2010), 15.

80 Melbin, Night as Frontier.

81 On the revocation of the curfew, see Chazkel, Amy, “The Invention of Night: Visibility and Violence after Dark in Rio de Janeiro,” in Santamaría, Gema and Carey, David Jr., eds., Violence and Crime in Latin America: Representations and Politics (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2016), 153–55.

82 On public entertainment in nineteenth-century Rio de Janeiro, see Martins de Souza, Sílvia Cristina, “Com um olho no entretenimento e outro na política: História, teatro, e cotidiano politizado no Alcázar Lírico (Rio de Janeiro, década de 1860),” Baleia na Rede: Estudos de Arte e Sociedade 9, 1 (2012): 1633; Marzano, Andrea, Cidade em cena: o ator Vasques, o teatro e o Rio de Janeiro (1829–1892) (Rio de Janeiro: Folha Seca/FAPERJ, 2008); and Mencarelli, Fernando Antonio, A Cena Aberta: A interpretação de “O Bilontra” no teatro de revista de Arthur Azevedo (Campinas: Editora da Unicamp, 1999).

83 See Goodrich, Peter, “Signs Taken for Wonders: Community, Identity, and a History of Sumptuary Law,” Law and Social Inquiry 23, 3 (1998): 707–28.

84 See, for example, Baptist, Edward, The Half Has Not Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism (New York: Basic Books, 2014), 60; Beaumont, Nightwalking; Fry, Gladys-Marie, Nightriders in Black Folk History (Raleigh: University of North Carolina Press, 2001), 8991; Lousada, Maria Alexandre, “Una nuova grammatica per lo spazzio urbano: La polizia e la città a Lisbona, 1760–1833,” Storia Urbana 108 (2005): 6785.

85 Ogle, Vanessa, “Whose Time Is It? The Pluralization of Time and the Global Condition,” American Historical Review 120, 5 (2013): 1376–402; and The Global Transformation of Time, 1870–1950 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2015). My thinking about the concept of pluralism and urban history has been informed by my reading of Hartog's, Hendrik classic article, “Pigs and Positivism,” Wisconsin Law Review 917 (1985): 899935.

86 I borrow the term “nocturnalization” from Koslofsky, Evening's Empire.

Keywords

Toward a History of Rights in the City at Night: Making and Breaking the Nightly Curfew in Nineteenth-Century Rio de Janeiro

  • Amy Chazkel (a1)

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