We give the first examples over finite fields of rings of invariants that are not finitely generated. (The examples work over arbitrary fields, for example the rational numbers.) The group involved can be as small as three copies of the additive group. The failure of finite generation comes from certain elliptic fibrations or abelian surface fibrations having positive Mordell–Weil rank. Our work suggests a generalization of the Morrison–Kawamata cone conjecture on Calabi–Yau fiber spaces to klt Calabi–Yau pairs. We prove the conjecture in dimension two under the assumption that the anticanonical bundle is semi-ample.
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