Skip to main content Accessibility help

Comorbidities and continuities as ontogenic processes: Toward a developmental spectrum model of externalizing psychopathology

  • Theodore P. Beauchaine (a1) and Tiffany McNulty (a1)
  • Please note a correction has been issued for this article.

Research on child and adolescent mental health problems has burgeoned since the inaugural issue of Development and Psychopathology was published in 1989. In the quarter century since, static models of psychopathology have been abandoned in favor of transactional models, following the agenda set by editor Dante Cicchetti and other proponents of the discipline. The transactional approach, which has been applied to autism, depression, self-injury, and delinquency, (a) specifies vulnerabilities and risk factors across multiple levels of analysis spanning genes to cultures, (b) identifies multifinal and equifinal pathways to psychopathology, and (c) transcends traditional disciplinary boundaries. However, as noted by Rutter and Sroufe (2000), specific mechanisms of continuity, discontinuity, and comorbidity of psychopathology must be identified if we wish to understand etiology fully. In this article, we present a model of early-onset externalizing behavior in which comorbidities and continuities are viewed as ontogenic processes: products of complex longitudinal transactions between interdependent individual-level vulnerabilities (e.g., genetic, epigenetic, allostatic) and equally interdependent contextual risk factors (e.g., coercive parenting, deviant peer group affiliations, neighborhood criminality). Through interactions across levels of analysis, some individuals traverse along the externalizing spectrum, beginning with heritable trait impulsivity in preschool and ending in antisociality in adulthood. In describing our model, we note that (a) the approach outlined in the DSM to subtyping externalizing disorders continues to obscure developmental pathways to antisociality, (b) molecular genetics studies will likely not identify meaningful subtypes of externalizing disorder, and (c) ontogenic trait approaches to psychopathology are much more likely to advance the discipline in upcoming years.

Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Theodore P. Beauchaine, Department of Psychology, Ohio State University, 225 Psychology Building, 1835 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210; E-mail:
Hide All
Achenbach, T. (1974). Developmental psychopathology. New York: Ronald Press.
Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. S. (1984). Psychopathology of childhood. Annual Review of Psychology, 35, 227256.
Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. S. (1991). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4–18 and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., rev.). Washington, DC: Author.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Angold, A., Costello, E. J., & Erkanli, A. (1999). Comorbidity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 5787.
Anney, R. J., Lasky-Su, J., O'Dúshláine, C., Kenny, E., Neale, B. M., Mulligan, A., et al. (2008). Conduct disorder and ADHD: Evaluation of conduct problems as a categorical and quantitative trait in the international multicentre ADHD genetics study. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 147B, 13691378.
Arnold, D. S., O'Leary, S. G., Wolff, L. S., & Acker, M. M. (1993). The Parenting Scale: A measure of dysfunctional parenting in discipline situations. Psychological Assessment, 5, 137144.
Arnsten, A. F. (2009). Stress signaling pathways that impair prefrontal cortex structure and function. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10, 410422.
Ashby, F. G., Isen, A. M., & Turken, A. U. (1999). A neuropsychological theory of positive affect and its influence on cognition. Psychological Review, 106, 529550.
Asherson, P. (2005). Clinical assessment and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 5, 525539.
Avila, C., Cuenca, I., Félix, V., Parcet, M. A., & Miranda, A. (2004). Measuring impulsivity in school-aged boys and examining its relationship with ADHD and ODD ratings. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32, 295304.
Barkley, R. A., Murphy, K. R., & Fischer, M. (2008). ADHD in adults: What the science says. New York: Guilford Press.
Bava, S., & Tapert, S. F. (2010). Adolescent brain development and risk for alcohol and other drug problems. Neuropsychology Review, 20, 398413.
Beauchaine, T. P. (2009). The role of biomarkers and endophenotypes in prevention and treatment of psychopathological disorders. Biomarkers in Medicine, 3, 13.
Beauchaine, T. P., & Gatzke-Kopp, L. M. (2012). Instantiating the multiple levels of analysis perspective in a program of study on externalizing behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 10031018.
Beauchaine, T. P., & Gatzke-Kopp, L. M. (2013). Genetic and environmental influences on behavior. In Beauchaine, T. P. & Hinshaw, S. P. (Eds.), Child and adolescent psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 111140). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Beauchaine, T. P., Gatzke-Kopp, L., & Mead, H. K. (2007). Polyvagal theory and developmental psychopathology: Emotion dysregulation and conduct problems from preschool to adolescence. Biological Psychology, 74, 174184.
Beauchaine, T. P., Gatzke-Kopp, L. M., Neuhaus, E., Chipman, J., Reid, M. J., & Webster-Stratton, C. (2013). Sympathetic- and parasympathetic-linked cardiac function and prediction of externalizing behavior, emotion regulation, and prosocial behavior among preschoolers treated for ADHD. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 481493.
Beauchaine, T. P., Hinshaw, S. P., & Pang, K. (2010). Comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and early-onset conduct disorder: Biological, environmental, and developmental mechanisms. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 17, 327336.
Beauchaine, T. P., Klein, D. N., Crowell, S. E., Derbidge, C., & Gatzke-Kopp, L. M. (2009). Multifinality in the development of personality disorders: A Biology × Sex × Environment model of antisocial and borderline traits. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 735770.
Beauchaine, T. P., Klein, D. N., Erickson, N. L., & Norris, A. L. (2013). Developmental psychopathology and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. In Beauchaine, T. P. & Hinshaw, S. P. (Eds.), Child and adolescent psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 29110). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Beauchaine, T. P., Lenzenweger, M. F., & Waller, N. G. (2008). Schizotypy, taxometrics, and disconfirming theories in soft science: Comment on Rawlings, Williams, Haslam, and Claridge. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 16521662.
Beauchaine, T. P., & Marsh, P. (2006). Taxometric methods: Enhancing early detection and prevention of psychopathology by identifying latent vulnerability traits. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 931967). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Beauchaine, T. P., Neuhaus, E., Brenner, S. L., & Gatzke-Kopp, L. (2008). Ten good reasons to consider biological processes in prevention and intervention research. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 745774.
Beauchaine, T. P., Neuhaus, E., Zalewski, M., Crowell, S. E., & Potapova, N. (2011). The effects of allostatic load on neural systems subserving motivation, mood regulation, and social affiliation. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 975999.
Beauchaine, T. P., & Zalewski, M. (in press). Physiological and developmental mechanisms of emotional lability in coercive relationships. In Dishion, T. J. & Snyder, J. J. (Eds.), Oxford handbook of coercive relationship dynamics. New York: Oxford University Press.
Becker, K., El-Faddagh, M., Schmidt, M. H., Esser, G., & Laucht, M. (2008). Interaction of dopamine transporter genotype with prenatal smoke exposure on ADHD symptoms. Journal of Pediatrics, 152, 263269.
Belsky, J., & Pluess, M. (2009). Beyond diathesis stress: Differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 885908.
Berridge, K. C. (2003). Pleasures of the brain. Brain and Cognition, 52, 106128.
Berridge, K. C., & Robinson, T. E. (2003). Parsing reward. Trends in Neuroscience, 26, 507513.
Biederman, J., Petty, C. R., Evans, M., Small, J., & Faraone, S. V. (2010). How persistent is ADHD? A controlled 10-year follow-up study of boys with ADHD. Psychiatry Research, 177, 299304.
Bodmer, W., & Bonilla, C. (2008). Common and rare variants in multifactorial susceptibility to common diseases. Nature Genetics, 40, 695701.
Boomsma, D. I., Koopsman, J. R., Van Doornen, L. J., & Orlebeke, J. F. (1994). Genetic and social influences on starting to smoke: A study of Dutch adolescent twins and their parents. Addiction, 89, 219226.
Bradley, R. H., & Corwyn, R. F. (2008). Infant temperament, parenting, and externalizing behavior in first grade: A test of the differential susceptibility hypothesis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 124131.
Brennan, P. A., Grekin, E. R., & Mednick, S. A. (1999). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and adult male criminal outcomes. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 215219.
Brenner, S. L., Beauchaine, T. P., & Sylvers, P. D. (2005). A comparison of psychophysiological and self-report measures of BAS and BIS activation. Psychophysiology, 42, 108115.
Brown, S. M., Manuck, S. B., Flory, J. D., & Harari, A. R. (2006). Neural basis of individual differences in impulsivity: Contributions of corticolimbic circuits for behavioral arousal and control. Emotion, 6, 239245.
Bubenikova-Valesovaa, V., Kacerb, P., Syslovab, K., Rambousekb, L., Janovskyc, M., Schutovad, B., et al. (2009). Prenatal methamphetamine exposure affects the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and behavior in adult offspring. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 27, 525530.
Burnett, M. L., & Cicchetti, D. (Eds.). (2012). Multilevel approaches to understanding antisocial behavior: Current research and future directions [Special Issue]. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 7031155.
Burt, S. A. (2009). Rethinking environmental contributions to child and adolescent psychopathology: A meta-analysis of shared environmental influences. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 608637.
Burt, S. A., Krueger, R. F., McGue, M., & Iacono, W. G. (2001). Sources of covariation among attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder: The importance of shared environment. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 516525.
Bush, G., Valera, E. M., & Seidman, L. J. (2005). Functional neuroimaging of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A review and suggested future directions. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 12731284.
Campbell, S. B., Shaw, D. S., & Gilliom, M. (2000). Early externalizing behavior problems: Toddlers and preschoolers at risk for later maladjustment. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 467488.
Carmona, S., Hoekzema, E., Ramos-Quiroga, J. A., Richarte, V., Canals, C., Bosch, R., et al. (2011). Response inhibition and reward anticipation in medication-naïve adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A within-subject case-control neuroimaging study. Human Brain Mapping, 33, 23502361.
Caron, C., & Rutter, M. (1991). Comorbidity in child psychopathology: Concepts, issues and research strategies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 32, 10631080.
Casey, B. J., & Jones, R. M. (2010). Neurobiology of the adolescent brain and behavior: Implications for substance use disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 11891201.
Caspi, A., Hariri, A. R., Holmes, A., Uher, R., & Moffitt, T. E. (2010). Genetic sensitivity to the environment: The case of the serotonin transporter gene and its implications for studying complex diseases and traits. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 509527.
Caspi, A., Langley, K., Milne, B., Moffitt, T. E., O'Donovan, M., Owen, M. J., et al. (2008). A replicated molecular genetic basis for subtyping antisocial behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 203210.
Caspi, A., McClay, J., Moffitt, T. E., Mill, J., Martin, J., Craig, I. W., et al. (2002). Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science, 297, 851854.
Castellanos, F. X., & Tannock, R. (2002). Neuroscience of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: The search for endophenotypes. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3, 617628.
Churchwell, J. C., Morris, A. M., Heurtelou, N. M., & Kesner, R. P. (2009). Interactions between the prefrontal cortex and amygdala during delay discounting and reversal. Behavioral Neuroscience, 123, 11851196.
Cicchetti, D. (1984). The emergence of developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55, 17.
Cicchetti, D. (1989). Developmental psychopathology: Some thoughts on its evolution. Development and Psychopathology, 1, 14.
Cicchetti, D. (Ed.). (1996). Regulatory process [Special Issue]. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 1305.
Cicchetti, D. (2006). Development and psychopathology. In Cicchetti, D. and Cohen, D. J. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 1. Theory and method (pp. 123). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Cicchetti, D. (2008). A multiple-levels-of-analysis perspective on research in developmental psychopathology. In Beauchaine, T. P. & Hinshaw, S. P. (Eds.), Child and adolescent psychopathology (pp. 2757). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Cicchetti, D., Ackerman, B. P., & Izard, C. (Eds.). (1995). Emotions in developmental psychopathology [Special Issue]. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 1226.
Cicchetti, D., & Blender, J. A. (2004). A multiple-levels-of-analysis approach to the study of developmental processes in maltreated children. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101, 1732517326.
Cicchetti, D., & Cannon, T. D. (1999). Neurodevelopmental processes in the ontogenesis and epigenesis of psychopathology [Special Issue]. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 375654.
Cicchetti, D., & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.). (1995a). Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 1. Theory and method. New York: Wiley.
Cicchetti, D., & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.). (1995b). Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 2. Risk, disorder, and adaptation. New York: Wiley.
Cicchetti, D., & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.). (2006a). Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 1. Theory and method (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.
Cicchetti, D., & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.). (2006b). Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 2. Developmental neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.
Cicchetti, D., & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.). (2006c). Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 3. Risk, disorder, and adaptation (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.
Cicchetti, D., & Dawson, G. (Eds.). (2002). Multiple levels of analysis [Special Issue]. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 417666.
Cicchetti, D., & Hinshaw, S. P. (2003). Conceptual, methodological, and statistical issues in developmental psychopathology: A Special Issue in honor of Paul E. Meehl [Special Issue]. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 497832.
Cicchetti, D., & Posner, M. (Eds.). (2005). Integrating cognitive and affective neuroscience and developmental psychopathology [Special Issue]. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 569891.
Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (Eds.). (1996). Developmental pathways: Diversity in process and outcome [Special Issue]. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 597666.
Cicchetti, D., Rogosch, F. A., & Thibodeau, E. L. (2012). The effects of child maltreatment on early signs of antisocial behavior: Genetic moderation by tryptophan hydroxylase, serotonin transporter, and monaoamine oxidase A genes. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 907928.
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (1998). The development of depression in children and adolescents. American Psychologist, 53, 221241.
Cloninger, C. R. (1987). A systematic method for clinical description and classification of personality variants. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 573588.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Colantuoni, C., Lipska, B. K., Ye, T., Hyde, T. M., Tao, R., Leek, J. T., et al. (2011). Temporal dynamics and genetic control of transcription in the human prefrontal cortex. Nature, 478, 519523.
Colvin, M., Cullen, F. T., & Vander ven, T. (2002). Coercion, social support, and crime: An emerging theoretical consensus. Criminology, 40, 1942.
Conners, C. K., Sitarenios, G., Parker, J. D. A., & Epstein, J. N. (1998). The revised Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS–R): Factor structure, reliability, and criterion validity. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 257268.
Covault, J., Tennen, H., Armeli, S., Conner, T. S., Herman, A. I., Cillessen, A., et al. (2007). Interactive effects of the serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and stressful life events on college student drinking and drug use. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 609616.
Crews, F., He, J., & Hodge, C. (2007). Adolescent cortical development: A critical period of vulnerability for addiction. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 86, 189199.
Crocker, N. A., Fryer, S. L., & Mattson, S. N. (2013). Exposure to teratogens as a risk factor for psychopathology. In Beauchaine, T. P. & Hinshaw, S. P. (Eds.), Child and adolescent psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 285316). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Crowell, S. E., Beauchaine, T. P., & Linehan, M. (2009). The development of borderline personality: Extending Linehan's theory. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 495510.
Crowell, S. E., Derbidge, C., & Beauchaine, T. P. (in press). Developmental approaches to understanding self-injury and suicidal behaviors. In Nock, M. K. (Ed.), Oxford handbook of suicide and self-injury. New York: Oxford University Press.
Davies, P. T., Sturge-Apple, M. L., Cicchetti, D., Manning, L. G., & Vonhold, S. E. (2012). Pathways and processes of risk in associations among maternal antisocial personality symptoms, interparental aggression, and preschoolers’ psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 807832.
Davis, M., & Whalen, P. J. (2001). The amygdala: Vigilance and emotion. Molecular Psychiatry, 6, 1334.
Dawson, G. (2008). Early behavioral intervention, brain plasticity, and the prevention of autism spectrum disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 775803.
Derbidge, C., & Beauchaine, T. P. (in press). A developmental model of self-inflicted injury, borderline personality, and suicide risk. In Lewis, M. & Rudolph, K. (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychopathology (3rd ed.). New York: Springer.
Decety, J., Michalska, K. J., Akitsuki, Y., & Lahey, B. B. (2009). Atypical empathic responses in adolescents with aggressive conduct disorder: A functional MRI investigation. Biological Psychology, 80, 203211.
De Sanctis, V. A., Nomura, Y., Newcorn, J. H., & Halperin, J. M. (2012). Childhood maltreatment and conduct disorder: Independent predictors of criminal outcomes in ADHD youth. Child Abuse and Neglect, 36, 782789.
De Sanctis, V. A., Trampush, J. W., Harty, S. C., Marks, D. J., Newcorn, J. H., Miller, C. J., et al. (2008). Childhood maltreatment and conduct disorder: Independent predictors of adolescent substance use disorders in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37, 785793.
DeYoung, C. G., Getchell, M., Koposov, R. A., Yrigollen, C. M., Haeffel, G. J., Klinteberg, B., et al. (2010). Variation in the catechol-o-methyltransferase val158met polymorphism associated with conduct disorder and ADHD symptoms among adolescent male delinquents. Psychiatric Genetics, 20, 2024.
Dick, D. M., Viken, R. J., Kapiro, J., Pulkkinen, L., & Rose, R. J. (2005). Understanding the covariation among childhood externalizing symptoms: Genetic and environmental influences on conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 219229.
Dickstein, S. G., Bannon, K., Castellanos, X. F., & Milham, M. P. (2006). The neural correlates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: An ALE meta-analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 10511062.
Dishion, T. J., McCord, J., & Poulin, F. (1999). When interventions harm. American Psychologist, 54, 755764.
Dishion, T. J., & Racer, K. H. (2013). Development of adult antisocial behavior. In Beauchaine, T. P. & Hinshaw, S. P. (Eds.), Child and adolescent psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 453487). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Drabick, D. A. G., Gadow, K. D., & Sprafkin, J. (2006). Co-occurrence of conduct disorder and depression in a clinic-based sample of boys with ADHD. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 766774.
Durston, S. (2003). A review of the biological bases of ADHD: What have we learned from imaging studies? Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Reviews, 9, 184195.
Ellis, B. J., Del Giudice, M., & Shirtcliff, E. A. (2013). Beyond allostatic load: The stress response system as a mechanism of conditional adaptation. In Beauchaine, T. P. & Hinshaw, S. P. (Eds.), Child and adolescent psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 251284).
Fairchild, G., Passamonti, L., Hurford, G., Hagan, C. C., von dem Hagen, E. A. H., van Goozen, S. H. M., et al. (2011). Brain structure abnormalities in early-onset and adolescent-onset conduct disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 624633.
Faraone, S. V., & Mick, E. (2010). Molecular genetics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 33, 159180.
Fergusson, D. M., Swain-Campbell, N. R., & Horwood, L. J. (2002). Deviant peer affiliations, crime and substance use: A fixed effects regression analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 419430.
First, M. B. (2005). Mutually exclusive versus co-occurring diagnostic categories: The challenge of diagnostic comorbidity. Psychopathology, 38, 206210.
Floresco, S. B., & Magyar, O. (2006). Mesocortical dopamine modulation of executive functions: Beyond working memory. Psychopharmacology, 188, 567585.
Foley, M., McClowry, S. G., & Castellanos, F. X. (2008). The relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and child temperament. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 157169.
Forbes, E. E., & Dahl, R. E. (2005). Neural systems of positive affect: Relevance to understanding child and adolescent depression? Development and Psychopathology, 17, 827850.
Fowles, D. C. (1988). Psychophysiology and psychopathology: A motivational approach. Psychophysiology, 25, 373391.
Frick, P. J., & Marsee, M. A. (2006). Psychopathy and developmental pathways to antisocial behavior in youth. In Patrick, C. J. (Ed.), Handbook of psychopathy (pp. 353375). New York: Guilford Press.
Frick, P. J., Stickle, T. R., Dandreaux, D. M., Farrell, J. M., & Kimonis, E. R. (2005). Callous–unemotional traits in predicting the severity and stability of conduct problems and delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 471487.
Frick, P. J., & White, S. F. (2008). Research Review: The importance of callous–unemotional traits for developmental models of aggressive and antisocial behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 359375.
Garon, N., Bryson, S. E., & Smith, I. M. (2008). Executive function in preschoolers: A review using an integrative framework. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 3160.
Gatzke-Kopp, L. M. (2011). The canary in the coalmine: Sensitivity of mesolimbic dopamine to environmental adversity during development. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 794803.
Gatzke-Kopp, L., & Beauchaine, T. P. (2007a). Central nervous system substrates of impulsivity: Implications for the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder. In Coch, D., Dawson, G., & Fischer, K. (Eds.), Human behavior and the developing brain: Atypical development (pp. 239263). New York: Guilford Press.
Gatzke-Kopp, L., & Beauchaine, T. P. (2007b). Prenatal nicotine exposure and the development of conduct disorder: Direct and passive effects. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 38, 255269.
Gatzke-Kopp, L. M., Beauchaine, T. P., Shannon, K. E., Chipman-Chacon, J., Fleming, A. P., Crowell, S. E., et al. (2009). Neurological correlates of reward responding in adolescents with and without externalizing behavior disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 203213.
Gatzke-Kopp, L. M., Greenberg, M. T., Fortunato, C. K., & Coccia, M. A. (2012). Aggression as an equifinal outcome of distinct neurocognitive and neuroaffective processes. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 9851002.
Gau, S. S.-F., Ni, H.-C., Shang, C.-Y., Soong, W.-T., Wu, Y.-Y., Lin, L.-Y., et al. (2010). Psychiatric comorbidity among children and adolescents with and withpout persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 44, 135143.
George, O., & Koob, G. F. (2010). Individual differences in prefrontal cortex function and the transition from drug use to drug dependence. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 232247.
Gerard, J. M., & Buehler, C. (2004). Cumulative environmental risk and youth problem behavior. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66, 702720.
Giedd, J. N., & Rapoport, J. L. (2010). Structural MRI of pediatric brain development: What have we learned and where are we going? Neuron, 67, 728734.
Gillespie, C. F., Phifer, J., Bradley, B., & Ressler, K. J. (2009). Risk and resilience: Genetic and environmental influences on development of the stress response. Depression and Anxiety, 26, 984992.
Gizer, I. R., Ficks, C., & Waldman, I. D. (2009). Candidate gene studies of ADHD: A meta-analytic review. Human Genetics, 126, 5190.
Glover, V. (2011). Annual Research Review: Prenatal stress and the origins of psychopathology: An evolutionary perspective. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 356367.
Gogtay, N., Giedd, J. N., Lusk, L., Hayashi, K. M., Greenstein, D., Vaituzis, A. C., et al. (2004). Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101, 81748179.
Goldsmith, H. H., Pollak, S. D., & Davidson, R. J. (2008). Developmental neuroscience perspectives on emotion regulation. Child Development Perspectives, 2, 132140.
Goldstein, R. Z., & Volkow, N. D. (2011). Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex in addiction: Neuroimaging findings and clinical implications. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 12, 652669.
Gottesman, I. I. (1963). Genetic aspects of intelligent behavior. In Ellis, N. R. (Ed.), Handbook of mental deficiency (pp. 253296). New York: McGraw–Hill.
Gottesman, I. I., & Gould, T. D. (2003). The endophenotype concept in psychiatry: Etymology and strategic intentions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 636645.
Gottesman, I. I., & Shields, J. (1966). Schizophrenia in twins: 16 years’ consecutive admissions to a psychiatric clinic. British Journal of Psychiatry, 112, 809818.
Gray, J. A. (1987). The neuropsychology of emotion and personality. In Stahl, S. M., Iversen, S. D., & Goodman, E. C. (Eds.), Cognitive neurochemistry (pp. 171190). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gunnar, M. R., Wenner, J. A., Thomas, K. M., Glatt, C. E., McKenna, M. C., & Clark, A. G. (2012). The brain-derived neurotrophic factor factor Val66Met polymorphism moderates early deprivation effects on attention problems. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 12151223.
Halperin, J. M., & Schulz, K. P. (2006). Revisiting the role of the prefrontal cortex in the patho-physiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 560581.
Hanson, J. L., Chung, M. K., Avants, B. B., Shirtcliff, E. A., Gee, J. C., Davidson, R. J., et al. (2010). Early stress is associated with alterations in the orbitofrontal cortex: A tensor-based morphometry investigation of brain structure and behavioral risk. Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 74667472.
Heatherton, T. F. (2011). Neuroscience of self and self-regulation. Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 363390.
Heatherton, T. F., & Wagner, D. D. (2011). Cognitive neuroscience of self-regulation failure. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15, 132139.
Hinshaw, S. P. (1987). On the distinction between attention-deficit/hyperactivity and conduct problems/aggression in child psychopathology. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 443463.
Hinshaw, S. P., Henker, B., Whalen, C. K., Erhardt, D., & Dunnington, R. E. (1989). Aggressive, prosocial, and nonsocial behavior in hyperactive boys: Dose effects of methylphenidate in naturalistic settings. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 636643.
Hinshaw, S. P., Lahey, B. B., & Hart, E. L. (1993). Issues of taxonomy and comorbidity in the development of conduct disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 3149.
Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R., Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., Violette, H., Wrightsman, J., & Rosenbaum, J. F. (2002). Temperamental correlates of disruptive behavior disorders in young children: Preliminary findings. Biological Psychiatry, 50, 563574.
Hollander, E., Zohar, J., Sirovatka, P. J., & Regier, D. A. (Eds.). (2011). Obsessive–compulsive spectrum disorders: Refining the research agenda for DSM-V. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Hunter, A. L., Minnis, H., & Wilson, P. (2011). Altered stress responses in children exposed to early adversity: A systematic review of salivary cortisol studies. Stress, 14, 614626.
Insel, T. R., Cuthbert, B. N., Garvey, M. A., Heinssen, R. K., Pine, D. S., Quinn, K. J., et al. (2010). Research domain criteria (RDoC): Toward a new classification framework for research on mental disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 748751.
Jensen, P. (2003). Comorbidity and child psychopathology: Recommendations for the next decade. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 293300.
Kalivas, P. W. (2008). Addiction as a pathology in prefrontal cortical regulation of corticostriatal habit circuitry. Neurotoxicity Research, 14, 185189.
Kalivas, P. W., & Nakamura, M. (1999). Neural systems for behavioral activation and reward. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 9, 223227.
Kapoor, A., Petropoulos, S., & Matthews, S. G. (2008). Fetal programming of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis function and behavior by synthetic glucocorticoids. Brain Research Reviews, 57, 586595.
Keijsers, L., Loeber, R., Branje, S., & Meeus, W. (2011). Bidirectional links and concurrent development of parent–child relationships and boys’ offending behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120, 878889.
Kendall, P. C., & Drabick, D. A. G. (Eds.). (2010). Comorbidity in children's mental health [Special Issue]. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 17, 265359.
Kessler, R. C., Chiu, W., Demler, O., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 617627.
Kiff, C. J., Lengua, L. J., & Zalewski, M. (2011). Nature and nurturing: Parenting in the context of child temperament. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14, 251301.
Kim, M. J., Loucks, R. A., Palmer, A. L., Brown, A. C., Solomon, K. M., Marchante, A. N., et al. (2011). Structural and functional connectivity of the amygdala: From normal emotion to pathological anxiety. Behavioural Brain Research, 223, 403410.
Kim, S., & Kochanska, G. (2012). Child temperament moderates effects of parent–child mutuality on self-regulation: A relationship-based path for emotionally negative infants. Child Development, 83, 12751289.
Kim, S., & Lee, D. (2011). Prefrontal cortex and impulsive decision making. Biological Psychiatry, 69, 11401146.
Klein, D. N., & Riso, L. P. (1993). Psychiatric disorders: Problems of boundaries and comorbidity. In Costello, C. G. (Ed.), Basic issues in psychopathology (pp. 1966). New York: Guilford Press.
Knutson, B., Fong, G. W., Adams, C. M., Varner, J. L., & Hommer, D. (2001). Dissociation of reward anticipation and outcome with event-related fMRI. Brain Imaging, 12, 36833687.
Koehl, M., Lemaire, V., Vallee, M., Abrous, N., Piazza, P. V., Mayo, W., et al. (2001). Long-term neurodevelopmental and behavioral effects of perinatal life events in rats. Neurotoxicity Research, 3, 6583.
Koopsman, J. R., Slutzke, W. S., Heath, A. C., Neale, M. C., & Boomsma, D. I. (1999). The genetics of smoking initiation and quantity smoked in Dutch adolescent and young adult twins. Behavior Genetics, 29, 383393.
Koopsman, J. R., van Doornen, L. J., & Boomsma, D. I. (1997). Association between alcohol use and smoking in adolescent and young adult twins: A bivariate genetic analysis. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 21, 537546.
Krueger, R. F., Hicks, B. M., Patrick, C. J., Carlson, S. R., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (2002). Etiologic connections among substance dependence, antisocial behavior, and personality: Modeling the externalizing spectrum. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 411424.
Krueger, R. F., Markon, K. E., Patrick, C. J., Benning, S. D., & Kramer, M. (2007). Linking antisocial behavior, substance use, and personality: An integrative quantitative model of the adult externalizing spectrum. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 645666.
Kuperman, S., Schlosser, S. S., Kramer, J. R., Bucholz, K., Hesselbrock, V., Reich, T., et al. (2001). Developmental sequence from disruptive behavior diagnosis to adolescent alcohol dependence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 20222026.
Kupper, N. H. M., Willemsen, G., van den Berg, M., de Boer, D., Posthuma, D., Boomsma, D. I., et al. (2004). Heritability of ambulatory heart rate variability. Circulation, 110, 27922796.
Laakso, A., Wallius, E., Kajander, J., Bergman, J., Eskola, O., Solin, O., et al. (2003). Personality traits and striatal dopamine synthesis capacity in healthy subjects. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 904910.
Lahey, B. B., Van Hulle, C. A., Singh, A. L., Waldman, I. D., & Rathouz, P. J. (2011). Higher-order genetic and environmental structure of prevalent forms of child and adolescent psychopathology. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68, 181189.
Laine, T. P. J., Ahonen, A., Räsänen, P., & Tiihonen, J. (2001). Dopamine transporter density and novelty seeking among alcoholics. Journal of Addictive Disease, 20, 95100.
Lansford, J. E., Malone, P. S., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (2010). Developmental cascades of peer rejection, social information processing biases, and aggression during middle childhood. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 593602.
Leckman, J. F., Weissman, M. M., Merikangas, K. R., Pauls, D. L., & Prusoff, B. A. (1983). Panic disorder and major depression: Increased risk of depression, alcoholism, panic, and phobic disorders in families of depressed probands with panic disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 10551060.
Lenroot, R. K., Schmitt, J. E., Ordaz, S. J., Wallace, G. L., Neale, M. C., Lerch, J. P., et al. (2007). Differences in genetic and environmental influences on the human cerebral cortex associated with development during childhood and adolescence. Human Brain Mapping, 30, 163174.
Lilienfeld, S. O. (2003). Comorbidity between and within childhood externalizing and internalizing disorders: Reflections and directions. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 285291.
Loeber, R., & Hay, D. (1997). Key issues in the development of aggression and violence from childhood to early adulthood. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 371410.
Loeber, R., & Keenan, K. (1994). Interaction between conduct disorder and its comorbid conditions: Effects of age and gender. Clinical Psychology Review, 14, 497523.
Lorber, M. F., & Egeland, B. (2011). Parenting and infant difficulty: Testing a mutual exacerbation hypothesis to predict early onset conduct problems. Child Development, 82, 20062020.
Louilot, A., LeMoal, M., & Simon, H. (1989). Opposite influences of dopaminergic pathways to the prefrontal cortex or the septum on the dopaminergic transmission in the nucleus accumbens: An in vivo voltammetric study. Neuroscience, 29, 4556.
Lynam, D. R. (1996). The early identification of chronic offenders: Who is the fledgling psychopath? Psychological Bulletin, 120, 209234.
Lynam, D. R. (1998). Early identification of the fledgling psychopath: Locating the psychopathic child in the current nomenclature. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 566575.
Lynam, D. R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Wikström, P. H., Loeber, R., & Novak, S. (2000). The interaction between impulsivity and neighborhood context in offending: The effects of impulsivity are stronger in poorer neighborhoods. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 563574.
Martel, M. N., & Nigg, J. T. (2006). Child ADHD and personality/temperament traits of reactive and effortful control, resiliency, and emotionality. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 11751183.
Martin-Soelch, C., Leenders, K. L., Chevalley, A.-F., Missimer, J., Kunig, S., Magyar, A., et al. (2001). Reward mechanisms in the brain and their role in dependence: Evidence from neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies. Brain Research Reviews, 36, 139149.
Masten, A. S. (2006). Developmental psychopathology: Pathways to the future. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 30, 4754.
Matthys, W., Vanderschuren, L. J. M. J., & Schutter, D. J. L. G. (2012). The neurobiology of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: Altered functioning in three mental domains. Development and Psychopathology, 25. Advance online publication.
Maughan, B., Rowe, R., Messer, J., Goodman, R., & Meltzer, H. (2004). Conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder in a national sample: Developmental epidemiology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 606621.
McCormick, C. M., & Mathews, I. Z. (2010). Adolescent development, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal function, and programming of adult learning and memory. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 34, 756765.
McGue, M., Iacono, W. G., Legrand, L. N., & Elkins, I. (2001). Origins and consequences of age at first drink: II. Familial risk and heritability. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 25, 11661173.
Mead, H. K., Beauchaine, T. P., & Shannon, K. E. (2010). Neurobiological adaptations to violence across development. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 122.
Meaney, M. J., Brake, W., & Gratton, A. (2002). Environmental regulation of the development of mesolimbic dopamine systems: A neurobiological mechanism for vulnerability to drug use? Psychoneuroendocrinology, 27, 127138.
Medici, F., Hawa, M., Ianari, A., Pyke, D. A., & Leslie, R. D. (1999). Concordance rate for type II diabetes mellitus in monozygotic twins: Actuarial analysis. Diabetologia, 42, 146150.
Meehl, P. E. (1962). Schizotaxia, schizotypy, schizophrenia. American Psychologist, 17, 827838.
Meehl, P. E. (1995). Bootstraps taxometrics: Solving the classification problem in psychopathology. American Psychologist, 50, 266275.
Meier, M. H., Slutske, W. S., Arndt, S., & Cadoret, R. J. (2008). Impulsive and callous traits are more strongly associated with delinquent behavior in higher risk neighborhoods among boys and girls. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 117, 377385.
Meier, M. H., Slutzke, W. S., Heath, A. C., & Martin, N. G. (2011). Sex differences in genetic and environmental influences on childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120, 377388.
Miller, G. E., & Chapman, J. P. (2001). Misunderstanding analysis of covariance. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 4048.
Milner, P. M. (1991). Brain stimulation reward: A review. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 45, 136.
Minabe, Y., Ashby, C. R., Heyser, C., Spear, L. P., & Wang, R. Y. (1992). The effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on spontaneously active midbrain dopamine neurons in adult male offspring: An electrophysiological study. Brain Research, 586, 152156.
Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674701.
Monuteaux, M. C., Biederman, J., Doyle, A. E., Mick, E., & Faraone, S. V. (2009). Genetic risk for conduct disorder symptom subtypes in an ADHD sample: Specificity to aggressive symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 757764.
MTA Cooperative Group. (1999). A 14-month randomized clinical trial of treatment strategies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 10731086.
Muris, P., & Ollendick, T. H. (2005). The role of temperament in the etiology of child psychopathology. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 8, 271289.
Myers, M. G., Stewart, D. G., & Brown, S. A. (1998). Progression from conduct disorder to antisocial personality disorder following treatment for adolescent substance use. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 479485.
Neiderhiser, J. M., Reiss, D., Pedersen, N. L., Lichtenstein, P., Spotts, E. L., Hansson, K., et al. (2004). Genetic and environmental influences on mothering of adolescents: A comparison of two samples. Developmental Psychology, 40, 335351.
Neuhaus, E., & Beauchaine, T. P. (2013). Impulsivity and vulnerability to psychopathology. In Beauchaine, T. P. & Hinshaw, S. P. (Eds.), Child and adolescent psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 197226). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Neuman, R. J., Lobos, E., Reich, W., Henderson, C. A., Sun, L. W., & Todd, R. D. (2007). Prenatal smoking exposure and dopaminergic genotypes interact to cause a severe ADHD subtype. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 13201328.
Oberlin, B. G., Dzemidzic, M., Bragulat, V., Lehigh, C. A., Talavage, T., O'Connor, S. J., et al. (2012). Limbic responses to reward cues correlate with antisocial trait density in heavy drinkers. NeuroImage, 60, 644652.
O'Connor, T. G., Deater-Deckard, K., Fulker, D., Rutter, M., & Plomin, R. (1998). Genotype–environment correlations in late childhood and adolescence: Antisocial behavior problems and coercive parenting. Developmental Psychology, 34, 970981.
Oswald, L. M., Wong, D. F., McCaul, M., Zhou, Y., Kuwabara, H., Choi, L., et al. (2005). Relationships among ventral striatal dopamine release, cortisol secretion, and subjective responses to amphetamine. Neuropsychopharmacology, 30, 821832.
Pardini, D. (2008). Novel insights into longstanding theories of bidirectional parent–child influences: Introduction to the Special Section. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 627631.
Patrick, C. J., Hicks, B. M., Krueger, R. F., & Lang, A. R. (2005). Relations between psychopathy facets and externalizing in a criminal offender sample. Journal of Personality Disorders, 19, 339356.
Patterson, G. R. (1982). Coercive family process. Eugene, OR: Castalia.
Patterson, G. R., Chamberlain, P., & Reid, J. B. (1982). A comparative evaluation of parent training procedures. Behavior Therapy, 13, 638650.
Patterson, G. R., DeBaryshe, B. D., & Ramsey, E. (1989). A developmental perspective on antisocial behavior. American Psychologist, 44, 329335.
Patterson, G. R., DeGarmo, D. S., & Knutson, N. M. (2000). Hyperactive and antisocial behaviors: Comorbid or two points in the same process? Development and Psychopathology, 12, 91107.
Patterson, G. R., Dishion, T. J., & Bank, L. (1984). Family interaction: A process model of deviancy training. Aggressive Behavior, 10, 253267.
Pedhazur, E. (1997). Multiple regression in behavioral research (3rd ed.). New York: Harcourt Brace.
Perry, J. L., Joseph, J. E., Jiang, Y., Zimmerman, R. S., Kelly, T. H., Darna, M., et al. (2011). Prefrontal cortex and drug abuse vulnerability: Translation to prevention and treatment interventions. Brain Research Reviews, 65, 124149.
Peters, J., Kalivas, P. W., & Quirk, G. J. (2009). Extinction circuits for fear and addiction overlap in prefrontal cortex. Learning and Memory, 16, 279288.
Pharo, H., Sim, C., Graham, M., Gross, J., & Hayne, H. (2011). Risky business: Executive function, personality, and reckless behavior during adolescence and emerging adulthood. Behavioral Neuroscience, 125, 970978.
Phillips, A. G., Blaha, C. D., & Fibiger, H. C. (1989). Neurochemical correlates of brain-stimulation reward measured by ex vivo and in vivo analyses. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 13, 99104.
Phillips, K. A., Stein, D. J., Rauch, S. L., Hollander, E., Fallon, B. A., Barsky, A., et al. (2010). Should an obsessive–compulsive spectrum grouping of disorders be included in DSM-V? Depression and Anxiety, 27, 528555.
Phillips, P. E., Walton, M. E., & Jhou, T. C. (2007). Calculating utility: Preclinical evidence for cost-benefit analysis by mesolimbic dopamine. Psychopharmacology, 191, 483495.
Pollak, S. D. (2008). Mechanisms linking early experience and the emergence of emotions: Illustrations from the study of maltreated children. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 370375.
Pollak, S. D. (2011). Early social experience and the ontogenesis of emotion regulatory behavior in children. Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects, 36, 333341.
Popper, K. R. (1985). The aim of science. In Miller, D. (Ed.), Popper selections (pp. 162170). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. (Original work published 1957)
Porteus, S. D. (1965). Porteus maze tests: Fifty years application. Palo Alto, CA: Pacific Books.
Preskorn, S. H., & Baker, B. (2002). The overlap of DSM-IV syndromes: Potential implications for the practice of polypsychopharmacology, psychiatric drug development, and the human genome project. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 8, 170177.
Quay, H. C. (1993). The psychobiology of undersocialized aggressive conduct disorder: A theoretical perspective. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 165180.
Raudino, A., Fergusson, D. M., Woodward, L. J., & Horwood, L. J. (2012). The intergenerational transmission of conduct problems. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. Advance online publication.
Richters, J. E., & Cicchetti, D. (1993). Toward a developmental perspective on conduct disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 14.
Riggs, A. D., Russo, V. E. A, & Martienssen, R. A. (1996). Epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation. Plainview, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Robins, L. N. (1966). Deviant children grown up. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.
Rolls, E. T., Rolls, B. J., Kelly, P. H., Shaw, S. G., Wood, R. J., & Dale, R. (1974). The relative attenuation of self-stimulation, eating, and drinking produced by dopamine receptor blockade. Psychopharmacologia, 38, 219230.
Rubia, K. (2011). “Cool” inferior frontostriatal dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder versus “hot” vetromedial orbitofrontal-limbic dysfunction in conduct disorder: A review. Biological Psychiatry, 69, e69e87.
Rubia, K., Halari, R., Cubillo, A., Mohammad, M., & Taylor, E. (2009). Methylphenidate normalises activation and functional connectivity deficits in attention and motivation networks in medication-naïve children with ADHD during a rewarded continuous performance task. Neuropharmacology, 57, 640652.
Rubia, K., Halari, R., Mohammad, M., Taylor, E., & Brammer, M. (2011). Methylphenidate normalizes frontocingulate underactivation during error processing in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 70, 255262.
Rubia, K., Smith, A., Halari, R., Matukura, F., Mohammad, M., Taylor, E., et al. (2009). Disorder-specific dissociation of orbitofrontal dysfunction in boys with pure conduct disorder during reward and ventrolateral prefrontal dysfunction in boys with pure attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during sustained attention. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 8394.
Rutter, M. (2006). Genes and behavior: Nature–nurture interplay explained. Oxford: Blackwell.
Rutter, M. (2012). Annual research review: Resilience: Clinical implications. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Advance online publication.
Rutter, M., Moffitt, T. E., & Caspi, A. (2006). Gene–environment interplay and psychopathology: Multiple varieties but real effects. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 226261.
Rutter, M., & Sroufe, L. A. (2000). Developmental psychopathology: Concepts and challenges. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 265296.
Sagvolden, T., Johansen, E. B., Aase, H., & Russell, V. A. (2005). A dynamic developmental theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) predominantly hyperactive/impulsive and combined subtypes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 397468.
Sanislow, C. A., Pine, D. S., Quinn, K. J., Kozak, M. J., Garvey, M. A., Heinssen, R. K., et al. (2010). Developing constructs for psychopathology research: Research domain criteria. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 631639.
Saudino, L. J. (2009). The development of temperament from a behavioral genetics perspective. Advances in Child Development and Behavior, 37, 201231.
Scheres, A., Milham, M. P., Knutson, B., & Castellanos, F. X. (2007). Ventral striatal hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 720724.
Schmidt, L. A., Fox, N. A., Perez-Edgar, K., & Hamer, D. H. (2009). Linking gene, brain, and behavior: DRD4, frontal asymmetry, and temperament. Psychological Science, 20, 831837.
Schoenbauma, G., & Shahamd, Y. (2008). The role of orbitofrontal cortex in drug addiction: A review of preclinical studies. Biological Psychiatry, 63, 256262.
Schott, B. H., Minuzzi, L., Krebs, R. M., Elmenhorst, E., Lang, M., Winz, O. H., et al. (2008). Mesolimbic functional magnetic resonance imaging activations during reward anticipation correlate with reward-related ventral striatal dopamine release. Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 1431114319.
Shannon, K. E., Sauder, C., Beauchaine, T. P., & Gatzke-Kopp, L. (2009). Disrupted effective connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and the caudate in adolescent boys with externalizing behavior disorders. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 36, 11411157.
Shannon Bowen, K. E., & Gatzke-Kopp, L. M. (2013). Brain injury as a risk factor for psychopathology. In Beauchaine, T. P. & Hinshaw, S. P. (Eds.), Child and adolescent psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 317340). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Slotkin, T. A. (1998). Fetal nicotine or cocaine exposure: Which one is worse? Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 285, 931945.
Sneider, H., Boomsma, D. I., van Doornen, L. J. P., & DeGeus, E. J. C. (1997). Heritability of respiratory sinus arrhythmia: Dependency on task and respiration rate. Psychophysiology, 34, 317328.
Snyder, J., Edwards, P., McGraw, K., Kilgore, K., & Holton, A. (1994). Escalation and reinforcement in mother–child conflict: Social processes associated with the development of physical aggression. Developmental and Psychopathology, 6, 305321.
Snyder, J., Schrepferman, L., McEachern, A., Barner, S., Johnson, K., & Provines, J. (2008). Peer deviancy training and peer coercion: Dual processes associated with early-onset conduct problems. Child Development, 79, 252268.
Snyder, J., Schrepferman, L., Oeser, J., Patterson, G., Stoolmiller, M., Johnson, K., et al. (2005). Deviancy training and association with deviant peers in young children: Occurrence and contribution to early-onset conduct problems. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 397413.
Snyder, J., Schrepferman, L., & St. Peter, C. (1997). Origins of antisocial behavior: Negative reinforcement and affect dysregulation of behavior as socialization mechanisms in family interaction. Behavior Modification, 21, 187215.
Spear, L. P. (2007). Assessment of adolescent neurotoxicity: Rationale and methodological considerations. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 29, 19.
Sroufe, L. A. (1997). Psychopathology as an outcome of development. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 251268.
Sroufe, L. A. (2009). The concept of development in developmental psychopathology. Child Development Perspectives, 3, 178183.
Sroufe, L. A., & Rutter, M. (1984). The domain of developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55, 1729.
Stanwood, G. D., Washington, R. A., Shumsky, J. S., & Levitt, P. (2001). Prenatal cocaine exposure produces consistent developmental alterations in dopamine-rich regions of the cerebral cortex. Neuroscience, 106, 514.
Stein, D. J., Fineberg, N. A., Bienvenu, O. J., Denys, D., Lochner, C., Nestadt, G., et al. (2010). Should OCD be classified as an anxiety disorder in DSM-V? Depression and Anxiety, 27, 495506.
Sterling, P., & Eyer, J. (1988). Allostasis: A new paradigm to explain arousal pathology. In Fisher, S. & Reason, J. (Eds.), Handbook of life stress, cognition, and health (pp. 629649). New York: Wiley.
Sterzera, P., Stadlerb, C., Poustkab, F., & Kleinschmidta, A. (2007). A structural neural deficit in adolescents with conduct disorder and its association with lack of empathy. NeuroImage, 37, 335342.
Stringaris, A., Maughan, B., & Goodman, R. (2010). What's in a disruptive disorder? Temperamental antecedents of oppositional defiant disorder: Findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 474483.
Sullivan, R. M., & Brake, W. G. (2003). What the rodent prefrontal cortex can teach us about attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: The critical role of early developmental events on prefrontal function. Behavior and Brain Research, 146, 4355.
Swartz, J. R. (1999). Dopamine projections and frontal systems function. In Miller, B. L. & Cummings, J. L. (Eds.), The human frontal lobes: Functions and disorders (pp. 159173). New York: Guilford Press
Tackett, J. L. (2010). Toward an externalizing spectrum in DSM-V: Incorporating developmental concerns. Child Development Perspectives, 4, 161167.
Thayer, J., Hansen, A. L., Saus-Rose, E., & Johnsen, B. H. (2009). Heart rate variability, prefrontal neural function, and cognitive performance: The neurovisceral integration perspective on self-regulation, adaptation, and health. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 37, 141153.
Thomas, M. J., Beurrier, C., Bonci, A., & Malenka, R. C. (2001). Long-term depression in the nucleus accumbens: A neural correlate of behavioral sensitization to cocaine. Nature Neuroscience, 4, 12171223.
Thorell, L. B., & Wȧhlstedt, C. (2006). Executive functioning deficits in relation to symptoms of ADHD and/or ODD in preschool children. Infant and Child Development, 15, 503518.
Tisch, S., Silberstein, P., Limousin-Dowsey, P., & Jahanshahi, M. (2004). The basal ganglia: Anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 27, 757759.
Tuvblad, C., Zheng, M., Raine, A., & Baker, L. A. (2009). A common genetic factor explains the covariation among ADHD, ODD, and CD symptoms in 9–10-year-old boys and girls. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 153167.
van Harmelen, A.-L., van Tol, M.-J., Demenescu, L. R., van der Wee, N. J. A., Veltman, D. J., Aleman, A. et al. (2013). Enhanced amygdala reactivity to emotional faces in adults reporting childhood emotional maltreatment. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8, 362369.
Vezina, P. (2004). Sensitization of midbrain dopamine neuron reactivity and the self-administration of psychomotor stimulant drugs. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 27, 827839.
Viken, R. J., Kaprio, J., Koskenvuo, M., & Rose, R. J. (1999). Longitudinal analyses of the determinants of drinking and of drinking to intoxication in adolescent twins. Behavior Genetics, 29, 455461.
Vles, J., Feron, F., Hendriksen, J., Jolles, J., van Kroonenburgh, M., & Weber, W. (2003). Methylphenidate down-regulates the dopamine receptor and transporter system in children with attention deficit hyperkinetic disorder. Neuropediatrics, 34, 7780.
Volkow, N. D., Fowler, J. S., & Wang, G. J. (2004). The addicted human brain viewed in light of imaging studies: Brain circuits and treatment strategies. Neuropharmacology, 47, 313.
Volkow, N. D., Fowler, J. S., Wang, G. J., Baler, R., & Telang, F. (2009). Imaging dopamine's role in drug abuse and addiction. Neuropharmacology, 56 (Suppl. 1), 38.
Volkow, N. D., Fowler, J. S., Wang, G., Ding, Y., & Gatley, S. J. (2002). Mechanism of action of methylphenidate: Insights from PET imaging studies. Journal of Attention Disorders, 6, S31S43.
Volkow, N. D., Wang, G.-J., Kollins, S. H., Wigal, T. L., Newcorn, J. H., Telang, F., et al. (2009). Evaluating dopamine reward pathway in ADHD: Clinical implications. Journal of the American Medical Association, 302, 10841091.
Wakschlag, L. S., Lahey, B. B., Loeber, R., Green, S. M., Gordon, R. A., & Leventhal, B. L. (1997). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of conduct disorder in boys. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 670676.
Waldman, I. D., & Lahey, B. B. (2013). Oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and juvenile delinquency. In Beauchaine, T. P. & Hinshaw, S. P. (Eds.), Child and adolescent psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 411452). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Waller, N. G., & Meehl, P. E. (1998). Multivariate taxometric procedures. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Webster-Stratton, C., Reid, M. J., & Beauchaine, T. P. (2011). Combining parent and child training for young children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 40, 191203.
Welsh, M. C., Pennington, B. F., & Groisser, D. B. (1991). A normative-developmental study of executive function: A window on prefrontal function in children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 7, 131149.
Willcutt, E. G., Doyle, A. E., Nigg, J. T., Faraone, S. V., & Pennington, B. F. (2005). Validity of the executive function theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analytic review. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 13361346.
Zepf, F. D., Holtmann, M., Stadler, C., Demisch, L., Schmitt, M., Wöckel, L., et al. (2008). Diminished serotonergic functioning in hostile children with ADHD: Tryptophan depletion increases behavioural inhibition. Pharmacopsychiatry, 41, 6065.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed