Skip to main content
×
×
Home

21.—Morphological and Ontogenetic Reconstructions of Parka decipiens Fleming and Pachytheca Hooker from the Lower Old Red Sandstone, Scotland

  • Karl J. Niklas (a1)
Synopsis

Morphological examination of 56 specimens of Parka decipiens suggests that the thallus was dorsiventral with a many layered ventral cell-layer bearing dorsal sporangia originating from both the margin of the thallus and the underlying tissue. A disc-like holdfast is present, suggesting that at maturity Parka was attached to some substrate. Mathematical simulations of growth suggest that sporangia were produced by lateral proliferation of cells, while simulations of the frequency of cell dichotomy indicate that the order of sporangial packing on the dorsal surface is consistent with an underlying pseudoparenchyma. Latex replicas indicate the presence of filament dichotomy and corroborate to some extent the presence of a pseudoparenchyma. Intercalated, anticlinal cell divisions are demonstrated mathematically. Ontogenetic reconstructions of Parka suggest a similarity to the extant green algal genus Coleochaete. Growth stages of Coleochaete in their early stages of development are similar to the fossil Pachytheca, while mathematical and chemical comparison of Pachytheca with those of Parka suggest either a phylogenetic or ontogentic interpretation.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Armstrong, M. and Paterson, I. B., 1970. The Lower Old Red Sandstone of the Strathmore Region. Rep. Inst. Geol. Sci. 70/12, 23 pp.
Arnold, C. A., 1947. An Introduction to Paleobotany. New York: McGraw-Hill, 433 pp.
Dawson, J. W., 1882. Notes of Prototaxites and Pachytheca discovered by Dr Hicks in the Denbighshire Grits of Corwen, North Wales. Q. Jl Geol. Soc. Lond., 38, 103107.
Dawson, J. W. and Penhallow, D. P., 1891. Parka decipiens. Notes on specimens from the collections of James Reid, Esq. Trans. Roy. Soc. Canada, 9 (IV), 3.
Chaloner, W. G. and Gay, M. M., 1973. Scanning electron microscopy of latex casts of fossil plant impressions. Palaeontology, 16, 645649.
Don, A. W. R. and Hickling, G., 1917. On Parka decipiens. Q. Jl Geol. Soc. Lond., 71, 648666.
Fleming, J., 1831. On the occurrence of scales of vertebrated animals in the Old Red Sandstone of Fifeshire. Edinb. Jl Nat. Geog. Sci., 3, 8186.
Fritsch, F. E., 1935. The Structure and Reproduction of the Algae, 1. Cambridge: C.U.P. 791 pp.
Hickling, G., 1908. The Old Red Sandstone of Forfarshire. Geol. Mag., 5, 396408.
Hooker, J., 1853. On the spheroidal bodies, resembling seeds, from the Ludlow Bone Bed. Q. Jl Geol. Soc. Lond., 9, 12.
Johnson, J. H. and Konishi, K., 1958. Studies of Devonian Algae. Colo. Sch. Mines. Q., 53 (2), 1114.
Korn, R., 1969. A stochastic approach to the development of Coleochaete. J. Theor. Biol., 24, 147158.
Lang, W. H., 1937. On the plant remains from the Dowtonian of England and Wales. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond., B, 227, 245291.
Lang, W. H., 1944. Pachytheca and some anomalous early plants (Prototaxites, Nematothallus, Parka, Foerstia, Orvillea n.g.). J. Linn. Soc. Bot., 52, 535552.
Mantella, G. A., 1852. On the supposed fossil eggs from the Devonian rocks of Forfarshire. Q. Jl Geol. Soc. Lond., 8, 108.
Maslov, V. P., 1956. Calcareous fossil algae in the U.S.S.R. Acad. Nauk S.S.R. Inst. Geol. Sci., 160, 301 pp. (cf. 58–60, 90).
Miller, H., 1842. The Old Red Sandstone, 2nd edn. Edinburgh. 179 pp.
Miller, H., 1857. The Testimony of the Rocks. Edinburgh.
Murchison, R. I., 1839. The Silurian System. London: Murray.
Niklas, K. J., 1976a. Chemical Examinations of some non-vascular Paleozoic Plants. Brittonia, 28: 113137.
Niklas, K. J., 1976b. The Chemotaxonomy of Parka decipiens from the Lower Old Red Sandstone, Scotland (U.K.). Rev.Palaeobot. Palynol 21: 202507.
Niklas, K. J. and Chaloner, W. G., 1976. Simulations of the ontogeny of Spongiophyton a Devonian plant. Ann. Bot. 40: 111.
Penhallow, D. P., 1892. Additional notes on Devonian plants from Scotland. Can. Rec. Sci., 5, 113.
Powrie, J., 1864. On the fossiliferous rocks of Forfarshire and their contents. Q. Jl Geol. Sci., 20, 413429.
Reid, J. and Macnair, P., 1898. On the genera Psilophyton, Lycopodites, Zosterophyllum, and Parka decipiens of the Old Red Sandstone of Scotland. Their distributions and affinities. Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc., 7, 368380.
Reid, J., Graham, W. and Macnair, P., 1897. Parka decipiens, its origin, affinities and distribution. Trans. Geol. Soc. Glasg., 11, 105121.
Schopf, J. M., 1957. ‘Spores’ and problematic plants commonly regarded as marine. Mem. Geol. Soc. Am., 67, 709718.
Strickland, H. E., 1852. On a protruded mass of upper Ludlow rock at Hagley Park, Herefordshire. Q. Jl Geol. Soc. Lond., 8, 381385.
Strickland, H. E., 1853. On the distribution and organic contents of the Ludlow Bone Bed in the districts of Woolhope and May Hill. With a note on the seed-like bodies found in it (by Hooker, J.), Q. Jl Geol. Soc. Lond., 9, 811 (cf. Hooker, J., 1853).
Westoll, T. S., 1951. The vertebrate-bearing strata of Scotland. Int. Geol. Congr., 18/11, 521.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of The Royal Society of Edinburgh
  • ISSN: 1755-6910
  • EISSN: 1755-6929
  • URL: /core/journals/earth-and-environmental-science-transactions-of-royal-society-of-edinburgh
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed