The development of Colombia's import/export economy was accompanied by numerous violent conflicts from the second half of the nineteenth century onward. Craftsmen were among those who fiercely opposed the model of ‘outward-looking development’ (desarrollo hacia afuera). With independence this group initially increased in number during the first half of the nineteenth century. Around 1870, their proportion of the gainfully employed male population may have come to about ten per cent. More than sixty per cent of all working women were involved in handicraft activities. Artesanos, as craftsmen were listed in Colombian population statistics, were one of the most wide-spread occupational classes until the turn of the century. In nearly all towns and cities there were tanners, shoemakers, weavers, dyers, tailors, blacksmiths, bricklayers, carpenters, joiners, and potters, as well as the newly introduced trades of lithographers and letterpress printers, to provide for the local consumers’ demands. However, artisans differed from region to region in terms of quantity (absolutely and as a percentage of the total population), composition of professions, proportion of women and children, as well as in their ethnicity. Moreover, a largely rural textile industry (based on family concerns) developed near Pasto as well as in Santander and Boyacá and became famous beyond these regions. In contrast to urban manufacture in Bogotá and Bucaramanga dominated by mestizoes, and that of Cali and the Atlantic coast dominated by mulattos, these weavers were mainly of Indian descent. In Tolima and in parts of Antioquia and Santander palm straw hats (‘Panama hats’) were produced - mainly by Indian women. This headgear was priced so reasonably that the hats were exported in large quantities to the West Indies and the USA.