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Importance of the nozzle-exit boundary-layer state in subsonic turbulent jets

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 July 2018

Guillaume A. Brès*
Affiliation:
Cascade Technologies Inc., Palo Alto, CA 94303, USA
Peter Jordan
Affiliation:
Institut PPRIME, CNRS-Université de Poitiers-ENSMA, Poitiers, France
Vincent Jaunet
Affiliation:
Institut PPRIME, CNRS-Université de Poitiers-ENSMA, Poitiers, France
Maxime Le Rallic
Affiliation:
Institut PPRIME, CNRS-Université de Poitiers-ENSMA, Poitiers, France
André V. G. Cavalieri
Affiliation:
Divisão de Engenharia Aeronáutica, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, 12228-900 São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil
Aaron Towne
Affiliation:
Center for Turbulence Research, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Sanjiva K. Lele
Affiliation:
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Department of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Tim Colonius
Affiliation:
Division of Engineering and Applied Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
Oliver T. Schmidt
Affiliation:
Division of Engineering and Applied Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
*
Email address for correspondence: gbres@cascadetechnologies.com

Abstract

To investigate the effects of the nozzle-exit conditions on jet flow and sound fields, large-eddy simulations of an isothermal Mach 0.9 jet issued from a convergent-straight nozzle are performed at a diameter-based Reynolds number of $1\times 10^{6}$. The simulations feature near-wall adaptive mesh refinement, synthetic turbulence and wall modelling inside the nozzle. This leads to fully turbulent nozzle-exit boundary layers and results in significant improvements for the flow field and sound predictions compared with those obtained from the typical approach based on laminar flow in the nozzle. The far-field pressure spectra for the turbulent jet match companion experimental measurements, which use a boundary-layer trip to ensure a turbulent nozzle-exit boundary layer to within 0.5 dB for all relevant angles and frequencies. By contrast, the initially laminar jet results in greater high-frequency noise. For both initially laminar and turbulent jets, decomposition of the radiated noise into azimuthal Fourier modes is performed, and the results show similar azimuthal characteristics for the two jets. The axisymmetric mode is the dominant source of sound at the peak radiation angles and frequencies. The first three azimuthal modes recover more than 97 % of the total acoustic energy at these angles and more than 65 % (i.e. error less than 2 dB) for all angles. For the main azimuthal modes, linear stability analysis of the near-nozzle mean-velocity profiles is conducted in both jets. The analysis suggests that the differences in radiated noise between the initially laminar and turbulent jets are related to the differences in growth rate of the Kelvin–Helmholtz mode in the near-nozzle region.

Type
JFM Papers
Copyright
© 2018 Cambridge University Press 

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Brès et al. supplementary movie 1

Animation of the instantaneous pressure fluctuations (grey scale) and temperature field (color scale) for the case BL69M_WM_Turb in the mid-section of the jet plume (left image), at the cross-section x/D = 20 (right image), and in the potential core (left insert). The nozzle external surface is shown in metallic grey and the white dashed circle in the right image represents the outline of the nozzle lip. The vertical white dashed line in the left image indicated the location of the cross-section x/D = 20 and its dimension are y/D = -6 to 6 (i.e., limit of extracted LES database)

Download Brès et al. supplementary movie 1(Video)
Video 23 MB
Supplementary material: File

Brès et al. supplementary material

Nozzle profile, flow and acoustics data from experiment and simulation

Download Brès et al. supplementary material(File)
File 223 KB
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