1 Weatherford Jack, Gengis Khan and the making of the modern world, New York, Three River Press, 2004, p. 267.
2 Richard Alley et al., Climate change 2007: the physical science basis, Geneva: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007.
3 Friedman Thomas L., The world is flat: a brief history of the twenty-first century, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005.
4 Vaclav Smil, Energy in world history, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994.
6 Otto Nicolaus A., Improvement in gas-motor engines. Specification forming part of Letters Patent no. 194,047, dated August 14, 1877. Washington, DC: US Patent Office. As with all US patents, a complete filing is now easily available at Google Patents.
7 Sass Friedrich, Geschichte des deutschen Verbrennungsmotorenbaues von 1860 bis 1918, Berlin: Springer, 1962.
8 Wood Jonathan, Great marques of Germany, New York: Gallery Books, 1985, p. 89.
9 Gunston Bill, The development of piston aero engines, Sparkford, UK: Patrick Stephens, 2001, p. 105.
10 Dickey III Philip S., The Liberty engine 1918–1942, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1968.
11 Taylor Michael J. H., ed., Jane’s encyclopedia of aviation, New York: Portland House, p. 606–7.
12 Meyers Robert A., ed., Handbook of petroleum refining processes, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004.
13 Franz Mandl F.Statistical physics, Chichester: Wiley, 1989, pp. 121–3.
14 Clerk Dugald, ‘Oil engine’, in Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th edition, vol. 20, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1911, pp. 25–43.
16 Lavine Sigmund A., Kettering: master inventor, New York: Dodd, Mead, 1960.
17 Midgley, IV Thomas, From the Periodic Table to production: the life of Thomas Midgley, Jr., the inventor of ethyl gasoline and freon refrigerants, Corona, CA: Stargazer Publishing, 2001, p. 26.
18 Kovarik William, ‘Ethyl-leaded gasoline: how a classic occupational disease became an international public health disaster’, International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 11, 2005, pp. 384–97.
19 Chevron Products Corporation, Aviation fuels: technical review, San Ramon, CA: Chevron Products Corporation, 2000.
20 Scanlan Robert H. and Rosenbaum Robert, Introduction to the study of aircraft vibration and flutter, New York: Macmillan, 1951.
21 Taylor, Jane’s, pp. 338–9.
22 Taylor, Jane’s, pp. 606–7.
23 Graham Cowell J., D.H. Comet: the world’s first jet airliner, Hounslow: Airline Publications, 1976.
24 Diesel Rudolf, Die Entstehung des Dieselmotors, Berlin: Springer, 1913, pp. 1–2.
25 Diesel Eugen, Diesel: Der Mensch, das Werk, das Schicksal, Hamburg: Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt, 1944.
26 Lüders Johannes, Der Dieselmythus: Quellenmässige Geschichte der Entstehung des heutigen Oelmotors, Berlin: M. Krayn, 1913; Riedler Alois, Dieselmotoren: Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Hochdruckmotoren, Wien: Verlag für Fachliteratur, 1914.
27 Crozet-Fourneyron Marcel, Invention de la turbine, Paris: C. Béranger, 1924.
28 Lyle Cummins C., Internal fire, Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers, 1989.
29 Parsons Charles A., The steam turbine, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1911, p. 11.
30 Bryant Lynwood, ‘The development of the Diesel engine’, Technology & Culture, 17, 3, 1976, p. 446.
31 The original German patent (DRP 67,207), ‘Arbeitsverfahren und Ausführungsart für Verbrennungskraftmaschinen’, was issued on 28 February 1892; the US patent 608,845, filed on 15 July 1895 and issued on 9 August 1898, is now accessible in its entirety at Google Patents.
35 Schildberger Friedrich, Bosch und der Dieselmotor, Stuttgart: R. Wunderlich, 1951.
36 Hamilton Ellis C., The lore of the train, New York: Crescent Books, 1977, pp. 203–4.
37 Smil Vaclav, Transforming Vaclav Smil, Transforming the 20th century: technical innovations and their consequences, New York: Oxford University Press, 2006, pp. 208–14.
38 Bunker John Gorley, Liberty ships, New York: Arno Press, 1972.
39 Ratcliffe Mike, Liquid gold ships: a history of the tanker, 1859–1984, London: Lloyd’s of London Press, 1985.
40 MAN B&W Diesel, Propulsion trends in tankers, Copenhagen: MAN B&W Diesel, 2005.
41 MAN B&W Diesel, Tankers, pp. 10-11.
42 MAN B&W Diesel, Propulsion trends in bulk carriers, Copenhagen: MAN B&W Diesel, 2006.
43 Smil, Transforming, p. 222. Three recent books examine in detail the globally transformative impact of this innovation: Frank Broeze, The globalisation of the oceans: containerisation from the 1950s to the present, St John’s: International Maritime History Association, 2002; Levinson Marc, The box: how the shipping container made the world smaller and the world economy bigger, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006; Cudahy Brian J., Box boats: how container ships changed the world, New York: Fordham University Press, 2006.
44 MAN B&W Diesel, Propulsion trends in container vessels, Copenhagen: MAN B&W Diesel, 2004, p. 1.
46 MAN B&W Diesel, Container vessels, pp. 7–8.
48 Nahum Andrew, Frank Whittle: invention of the jet, Cambridge: Icon Books, 2004, p. 95; Anonymous , ‘First practical gas turbines’, New Steam Age 1, 1, pp. 9–10, 20.
49 Smil, Transforming, p. 66.
50 Fulton Kenneth, ‘Frank Whittle (1907–96)’, Nature 383, 6595, p. 27; Whittle’s US patent (2,404,334, ‘Aircraft Propulsion System and Power Unit’) is readily accessible at Google Patents; the best website devoted to Whittle’s achievements is maintained by the Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, ‘Sir Frank Whittle OM KBE CB FRS’, www-g.en.cam.ac.uk/125/achievements/whittle/whitt-r.htm(consulted11March2007)
51 The precarious existence of Power Jets, Whittle’s company, its eventual nationalization and subsequent development of British jet engines are described in detail in Nahum Andrew, Frank Whittle: invention of the jet, Cambridge: Icon Books, 2004, pp. 23–51 and 108–32. For different perspectives on these events see Whittle Frank, Jet, London: Frederick Muller; Golley John and Whittle Frank, Whittle, the true story, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1987; and Constant, II Edward W., The origins of the turbojet revolution, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980.
52 Conner Margaret, Hans von Ohain: elegance in flight, Washington, DC: AIAA, 2001.
53 Nahum, Frank Whittle, pp. 102–3.
54 Meher-Homji Cyrus B., ‘Anselm Franz and the Jumo 004’, Mechanical Engineering 119, 9, 1997, pp. 88–91. Pioneering contributions of other German engineers – Wagner Herbert and Schelp Helmut – are described in Wolfgang Wagner, The history of German aviation: the first jet aircraft, Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing, 1998, and in Constant, Turbojet revolution, pp. 195–207.
55 Loftin Laurence K., Quest for performance: the evolution of modern aircraft, Washington, DC: NASA, p. 410.
57 Including 737, the most successful jetliner in history, the pioneering wide-body jumbo 747 and the soon-to-be-launched 787, the most efficient passenger aeroplane ever. Boeing’s corporate website with details on its commercial aeroplanes is at www.boeing.com/commercial/index.html
58 Sample Frank R. and Shank Maurice E. 1985. Aircraft turbofans: new economic and environmental benefits. Mechanical Engineering, 107, 9, pp. 47–53; Coalson Michael S., ‘Jets fans’, Mechanical Engineering Supplement: 100 Years of Flight, pp. 16–17, 38.
60 Smil Vaclav, Energy in nature and society: general energetics of complex systems, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, p. 375.
61 Details on the development of GE90-115B and its technical specifications are available at: Horibe Kyohei et al., ‘Development of GE90-115B turbofan engine’, IHI Engineering Review, 37, 1, 2004, pp. 1–8, and at GE, ‘Model GE90-115B’, 2007, http://www.geaviation.com/engines/commercial/ge90/ge90-115b.html(consulted12March2007).EnginesmadeforsuperjumboAirbus380areratedeitherat374kN(RR’sTrent900)or363kN(GP-7200,ajointGEandP&Wproduct),bothwith8.7bypassratio:RollsRoyce,‘Trent900’, www.rollsroyce.com/civil_aerospace/downloads/airlines/trent_900.pdf(consulted11March2007)
62 Vaclav Smil, Energy in nature and society, p. 375.
63 Institute for Accelerating Change (IAC), Realizing the future of exponential promise, Culver City, CA: IAC.
64 Moore Gordon, ‘Cramming more components onto integrated circuits’, Electronics, 1965, 38, 8, pp. 114–17; Intel., 2003, ‘Moore’s law’, Santa Clara, CA: Intel., www.intel.com/research/silicon/mooreslaw.htm
65 Smil Vaclav, Creating the twentieth century: technical innovations of 1867–1914 and their lasting impact, New York: Oxford University Press, 2004; Edgerton David, The shock of the old: technology and global history since 1900, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
67 Izuta Takeshi, Progress in marine transportation, Tokyo: Taiyo Shosen Kaisha, 1967, pp. 19.
68 US Energy Information Administration, U.S. imports by country of origin, Washington, DC: EIA, 2007, http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/pet_move_impcus_a2_nus-ep00_im0_mbbl_m.htm (consulted 2 August 2007).
71 National Bureau of Statistics, China statistical yearbook, Beijing: China Statistics Press, annually.
72 Heideloff Christel and Stockman Dieter, ‘World seaborne container trade and port traffic’, Shipping statistics and market review,6, 2006, pp. 1–5.
73 Calculated from data in World Trade Organization, International trade statistics 2001, Geneva: WTO, 2001, pp. 29–30.
74 Scott Robert E., The Wal-Mart effect, Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute, 2007.
75 ICAO, ‘Special report: Annual review of civil aviation’, ICAO Journal, 61, 5, 2006, p. 10.
76 ICAO, ‘Special report’, p. 12.
77 International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), ‘Civil aviation in 1969’, ICAO Bulletin, 25, 5, 197, p. 46; Boeing , Statistical summary of commercial jet airplane accidents: worldwide operations 1959–2005, Seattle, WA: Boeing, 2006.
79 Koff B. L., ‘Spanning the globe with jet propulsion’, Arlington, VA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1991, p. 2; Lee Joosung J. et al., ‘Historical and future trends in aircraft performance, cost, and emissions’, Annual Review of Energy and Environment, 2001, 26, pp. 167–200.
80 Volga-Dnepr Airlines, headquartered in Ulyanovsk, is Russia’s, and the world’s, leading provider of outsize and heavy global airlift using its 10 Antonov-124 planes; since 1990 it has served clients ranging from UN to NATO, and from Exxon to Airbus. See www.volga-dnepr.com/
81 ICAO, ‘Special report’, p. 10.
82 Abraham Thomas, Twenty-first century plague: the story of SARS, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.
83 Brownstein John S.et al., ‘Empirical evidence for the effect of airline travel on inter-regional influenza spread in the United States’, Public Library of Science Medicine, 2006, 3, p. 10, doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030401
84 US Geological Survey, ‘Zebra mussels page’, 2007, http://nas.er.usgs.gov/taxgroup/mollusks/zebramussel/(consulted 15 March 2007).
85 Peterson A. T., Scachetti-Pereira R. and Hargrove W. W., ‘Potential geographic distribution of Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera : Cerambycidae) in North America’, American Midland Naturalist, 2004, 151, pp. 170–8.
86 Vaclav Smil, ‘Peak oil: A catastrophist cult and complex realities’, World Watch, 2006, 19, pp. 22–4. Kerr R. A., ‘The looming oil crisis could arrive uncomfortably soon’, Science, 316, p. 351.
87 This movement embraces such diverse strands as slow food (for its programmatic statement see: ‘Il manifesto dello slow-food’ http://editore.slowfood.it/editore/riviste/slowfood/IT/19/articoli/slowfood19_05.pdf), eco-agriculture, seasonal eating and resurgent farmers markets. The case for local food is made by Halweil Brian, Eat here: reclaiming homegrown pleasures in a global supermarket, Washington, DC: Worldwatch, 2004.