Skip to main content Accessibility help

Phonetic effects of morphology and context: Modeling the duration of word-final S in English with naïve discriminative learning



Recent research on the acoustic realization of affixes has revealed differences between phonologically homophonous affixes, e.g. the different kinds of final [s] and [z] in English (Plag, Homann & Kunter 2017, Zimmermann 2016a). Such results are unexpected and unaccounted for in widely accepted post-Bloomfieldian item-and-arrangement models (Hockett 1954), which separate lexical and post-lexical phonology, and in models which interpret phonetic effects as consequences of different prosodic structure. This paper demonstrates that the differences in duration of English final S as a function of the morphological function it expresses (non-morphemic, plural, third person singular, genitive, genitive plural, cliticized has, and cliticized is) can be approximated by considering the support for these morphological functions from the words’ sublexical and collocational properties. We estimated this support using naïve discriminative learning and replicated previous results for English vowels (Tucker, Sims & Baayen 2019), indicating that segment duration is lengthened under higher functional certainty but shortened under functional uncertainty. We discuss the implications of these results, obtained with a wide learning network that eschews representations for morphemes and exponents, for models in theoretical morphology as well as for models of lexical processing.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Phonetic effects of morphology and context: Modeling the duration of word-final S in English with naïve discriminative learning
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Phonetic effects of morphology and context: Modeling the duration of word-final S in English with naïve discriminative learning
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Phonetic effects of morphology and context: Modeling the duration of word-final S in English with naïve discriminative learning
      Available formats


This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Author’s address: Universität Tübingen, Wilhelmstrasse 19-23, 72072 Tübingen,
Author’s address: Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Universitätsstrasse 1, 40225 Düsseldorf,
Author’s address: Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9103, 6500 HD Nijmegen, The
Author’s address: Universität Tübingen, Wilhelmstrasse 19-23, 72072 Tübingen,


Hide All

We are thankful to three anonymous reviewers for their very helpful comments on previous versions of this paper. The paper also profited from the feedback of the members of the audiences at UC Berkeley 2017, International Symposium of Morphology Lille 2017, 40. DGfS-Jahrestagung Stuttgart 2018, Mental Lexicon Conference Edmonton 2018. This study is part of an ongoing collaboration within the DFG Research Unit FOR2373 ‘Spoken Morphology’. We are very grateful to the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft for funding this research (Grants: BA 3080/3-1 ‘The articulation of morphologically complex words’ to Harald Baayen; PL151/8-1 ‘Morpho-phonetic Variation in English’ to Ingo Plag and Mirjam Ernestus; PL151/7-1 ‘FOR 2737 Spoken Morphology: Central Project’ to Ingo Plag).



Hide All
Arnold, D., Tomaschek, F., Lopez, F., Sering, Tino & Baayen, R. H.. 2017. Words from spontaneous conversational speech can be recognized with human-like accuracy by an error-driven learning algorithm that discriminates between meanings straight from smart acoustic features, bypassing the phoneme as recognition unit. PLoS ONE 12.4, e0174623.
Aronoff, M. 1994. Morphology by itself: Stems and inflectional classes. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Aylett, M. & Turk, A.. 2004. The smooth signal redundancy hypothesis: A functional explanation for relationships between redundancy, prosodic prominence, and duration in spontaneous speech. Language and Speech 47, 3156.
Baayen, R. H., Milin, P., Filipović Durdević, D., Hendrix, P. & Marelli, M.. 2011. An amorphous model for morphological processing in visual comprehension based on naïve discriminative learning. Psychological Review 118, 438482. doi:10.1037/a0023851.
Baayen, R. H., Milin, P. & Ramscar, M.. 2016a. Frequency in lexical processing. Aphasiology 30.11, 11741220. doi:10.1080/02687038.2016.1147767.
Baayen, R. H., Shaoul, C., Willits, J. & Ramscar, M.. 2016b. Comprehension without segmentation: A proof of concept with naïve discriminative learning. Language, Cognition, and Neuroscience 31.1, 106128. doi:10.1080/23273798.2015.1065336.
Baayen, R. Harald, Chuang, Yu-Ying & Blevins, James P.. 2018. Inflectional morphology with linear mappings. The Mental Lexicon 13.2, 230268.
Baayen, R. Harald, Chuang, Yu-Ying, Shafaei-Bajestan, Elnaz & Blevins, James P.. 2019. The discriminative lexicon: A unified computational model for the lexicon and lexical processing in comprehension and production grounded not in (de) composition but in linear discriminative learning. Complexity. Article ID 4895891, 39 pages doi:10.1155/2019/4895891.
Bates, D. M., Mächler, M., Bolker, B. & Walker, S.. 2015. Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software 67.1, 148. doi:10.18637/jss.v067.i01.
Beard, R. 1977. On the extent and nature of irregularity in the lexicon. Lingua 42, 305341.
Bell, A., Jurafsky, D., Fosler-Lussier, E., Girand, C., Gregory, M. & Gildea, D.. 2003. Effects of disfluencies, predictability, and utterance position on word form variation in English conversation. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 113, 10011024.
Bell, Alan, Brenier, Jason M., Gregory, Michelle, Girand, Cynthia & Jurafsky, Dan. 2009. Predictability effects on durations of content and function words in conversational English. Journal of Memory and Language 60.1, 92111.
Ben Hedia, Sonia & Plag, Ingo. 2017. Gemination and degemination in English prefixation: Phonetic evidence for morphological organization. Journal of Phonetics 62, 3449.
Bergmann, Pia. 2015. Morphologisch komplexe Wörter im Morphologisch komplexe Wörter im Deutschen: Prosodische Struktur und phonetische Realisierung: Habilitationsschrift, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg.
Bermúdez-Otero, Ricardo. 2018. Stratal phonology. In Hannahs, S. J. & Bosch, Anna (eds.), Routledge handbook of phonological theory, 100134. London, UK: Routledge.
Blazej, Laura J. & Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.. 2015. Can we hear morphological complexity before words are complex? Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance 41.1, 5068.
Blevins, James P. 2003. Stems and paradigms. Language 79, 737767.
Blevins, James P. 2006. Word-based morphology. Journal of Linguistics 42.03, 531573.
Blevins, James P., Ackerman, Farrell & Malouf, Robert. 2016. Morphology as an adaptive discriminative system. In Harley, Heidi & Siddiqi, Daniel (eds.), Morphological metatheory, 271301. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Bybee, Joan L. 2001. Phonology and language use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chomsky, N. & Halle, M.. 1968. The sound pattern of English. New York: Harper and Row.
Cohen, Claire. 2014a. Combining structure and usage patterns in morpheme production: Probabilistic effects of sentence context and inflectional paradigms. Berkeley: University of California PhD dissertation.
Cohen, Clara. 2014b. Probabilistic reduction and probabilistic enhancement. Morphology 24.4, 291323.
Cohen, Clara. 2015. Context and paradigms: Two patterns of probabilistic pronunciation variation in Russian agreement suffixes. Mental Lexicon 10.3, 313338. doi:10.1075/ml.10.3.01coh.
Cohen Priva, U. 2015. Informativity affects consonant duration and deletion rates. Laboratory Phonology 6.2, 243278.
Dell, G. S. 1986. A spreading-activation theory of retrieval in sentence production. Psychological Review 93, 283321.
Drager, Katie. 2011. Sociophonetic variation and the lemma. Journal of Phonetics 39.4, 694707.
Ernestus, M. 2000. Voice assimilation and segment reduction in casual Dutch. A corpus-based study of the phonology–phonetics interface. Utrecht: LOT.
Ernestus, M., Baayen, R. H. & Schreuder, R.. 2002. The recognition of reduced word forms. Brain and Language 81, 162173. doi:10.1006/brln.2001.2514.
Ernestus, Mirjam & Baayen, R. H.. 2006. The functionality of incomplete neutralization in Dutch. The case of past-tense formation. Laboratory Phonology 8, 2749.
Ernestus, Mirjam & Harald Baayen, R.. 2011. Corpora and exemplars in phonology. The handbook of phonological theory, 2nd edn. 374400. Wiley-Blackwell.
Ernestus, Mirjam & Smith, Rachel. 2018. Qualitative and quantitative aspects of phonetic variation in Dutch eigenlijk. In Cangemi, Francesco, Clayards, Meghan, Niebuhr, Oliver, Schuppler, Barbara & Zellers, Margaret (eds.), Rethinking reduction. Berlin–New York: De Gruyter.
Evert, S. & Arppe, A.. 2016. Some theoretical and experimental observations on naive discriminative learning x. In Wahle, Johannes, Koellner, Marisa, Baayen, Harald R., Jaeger, Gerhard & Baayen-Oudshoorn, Tineke (eds.), Proceedings of 6th Conference Quantitative Investigations in Theoretical Linguistics (QITL-6). Tübingen: Universität Tübingen.
Foulkes, Paul, Docherty, Gerard & Watt, Dominic. 2005. Phonological variation in child-directed speech. Language 81.1, 177206.
Gahl, Susanne. 2008. Time and thyme are not homophones: The effect of lemma frequency on word durations in spontaneous speech. Language 84.3, 474496.
Goad, Heather. 1998. Plurals in SLI: Prosodic deficit or morphological deficit? Language Acquisition 7.2–4, 247284.
Goad, Heather, White, Lydia & Steele, Jeffrey. 2003. Missing inflection in L2 acquisition: Defective syntax or L1-constrained prosodic representations? The Canadian Journal of Linguistics/La Revue Canadienne de Linguistique 48.2, 243263.
Hall, Kathleen Currie, Hume, Elizabeth, Jaeger, T. Florian & Wedel, Andrew. 2018. The role of predictability in shaping phonological patterns. Linguistics Vanguard 4(s2).
Hay, J. B. 2002. From speech perception to morphology: Affix-ordering revisited. Language 78, 527555.
Hay, J. B. 2003. Causes and consequences of word structure. New York and London: Routledge.
Hay, Jen B. & Baayen, R. H.. 2002. Parsing and productivity. In Booij, G. E. & Van Marle, J. (eds.), Yearbook of morphology 2001, 203235. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Hay, Jennifer. 2007. The phonetics of un-. In Munat, Judith (ed.), Lexical creativity, texts and contexts, 3957. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Hickok, Gregory. 2014. The architecture of speech production and the role of the phoneme in speech processing. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience 29.1, 220.
Hockett, C. 1954. Two models of grammatical description. Word 10, 210231.
Jaeger, F. 2010. Redundancy and reduction: Speakers manage syntactic information density. Cognitive Psychology 61, 2362.
Johnson, K. 2004. Massive reduction in conversational American English. Spontaneous speech: data and analysis. Proceedings of the 1st Session of the 10th International Symposium, 2954. Tokyo, Japan: The National International Institute for Japanese Language.
Jurafsky, D., Bell, A., Gregory, M. & Raymond, W. D.. 2001a. Probabilistic relations between words: Evidence from reduction in lexical production. In Bybee, J. L. & Hopper, P. (eds.), Frequency and the emergence of linguistic structure, 229254. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Jurafsky, Dan, Bell, Alan, Gregory, Michelle & Raymond, William D.. 2001b. The effect of language model probability on pronunciation reduction. Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 801804. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: IEEE.
Jurafsky, Daniel, Bell, Alan & Girand, Cynthia et al. 2000. The role of the lemma in form variation. In Gussenhoven, Natasha Warner Carlos (ed.), Papers in laboratory phonology vii, 3–34. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
Kalman, R. E. 1960. A new approach to linear filtering and prediction problems. Journal of basic Engineering 82.1, 3545.
Kamin, L. J. 1969. Predictability, surprise, attention, and conditioning. In Campbell, B. A. & Church, R. M. (eds.), Punishment and aversive behavior, 276296. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Keating, Patricia A. 2006. Phonetic encoding of prosodic structure. In Harrington, Jonathan & Tabain, Marija (eds.), Speech production: Models, phonetic processes, and techniques, 167186. New York: Psychology Press.
Kemps, Rachèl, Ernestus, Mirjam, Schreuder, Robert & Harald Baayen, R.. 2005a. Prosodic cues for morphological complexity: The case of Dutch plural nouns. Memory & Cognition 33.3, 430446. doi:10.3758/BF03193061.
Kemps, Rachèl J. J. K., Wurm, Lee H., Ernestus, Mirjam, Schreuder, Robert & Harald Baayen, R.. 2005b. Prosodic cues for morphological complexity in Dutch and English. Language and Cognitive Processes 20.1–2, 4373.
Kiparsky, Paul. 1982. From cyclic phonology to lexical phonology. In van der Hulst, Harry & Smith, Norval (eds.), The structure of phonological representations, 131176. Dordrecht: Foris.
Kleinschmidt, Dave F. & Jaeger, T. Florian. 2015. Robust speech perception: Recognize the familiar, generalize to the similar, and adapt to the novel. Psychological Review 122.2, 148.
Kuperman, Victor, Pluymaekers, Mark, Ernestus, Mirjam & Baayen, Harald. 2007. Morphological predictability and acoustic salience of interfixes in Dutch compounds. JASA 121, 22612271.
Kuznetsova, Alexandra, Brockhoff, Per Bruun & Bojesen Christensen, Rune Haubo. 2014. lmerTest.
Landauer, T. K. & Dumais, S. T.. 1997. A solution to Plato’s problem: The latent semantic analysis theory of acquisition, induction and representation of knowledge. Psychological Review 104.2, 211240.
Lee-Kim, Sang-Im, Davidson, Lisa & Hwang, Sangjin. 2013. Morphological effects on the darkness of English intervocalic /l/. Laboratory Phonology 4.2, 475511.
Levelt, William J. M. & Wheeldon, Linda R.. 1994. Do speakers have access to a mental syllabary. Cognition 50, 239269.
Levelt, W. J. M., Roelofs, A. & Meyer, A. S.. 1999. A theory of lexical access in speech production. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22, 138.
Lindblom, B. 1990. Explaining phonetic variation: A sketch of the H&H theory. In Hardcastle, W. J. & Marchal, A. (eds.), Speech production and speech modeling, 403440. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Lohmann, Arne. 2018a. Cut (n) and cut (v) are not homophones: Lemma frequency affects the duration of noun–verb conversion pairs. Journal of Linguistics 54.4, 753777.
Lohmann, Arne. 2018b. Time and thyme are not homophones: A closer look at gahl’s work on the lemma-frequency effect, including a reanalysis. Language 94.2, e180e190.
Lorenz, E.1972. Predictability. Paper presented at the 139th AAAS Meeting.
Losiewicz, Beth L.1992. The effect of frequency on linguistic morphology. PhD dissertation. Austin, TX: University of Texas.
Lund, K. & Burgess, C.. 1996a. Producing high-dimensional semantic spaces from lexical co-occurrence. Behaviour Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers 28.2, 203208.
Lund, K. & Burgess, C.. 1996b. Producing high-dimensional semantic spaces from lexical co-occurrence. Behavior Research Methods Instruments and Computers 28.2, 203208.
Marsolek, C. J. 2008. What antipriming reveals about priming. Trends in Cognitive Science 12.5, 176181. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2008.02.005.
Matthews, P. H. 1974. Morphology. An introduction to the theory of word structure. London: Cambridge University Press.
Mikolov, Tomas, Sutskever, Ilya, Chen, Kai, Corrado, Greg S. & Dean, Jeff. 2013. Distributed representations of words and phrases and their compositionality. In Burges, C. J. C., Bottou, L., Welling, M., Ghahramani, Z. & Weinberger, K. Q. (eds.), Advances in neural information processing systems, 31113119. Electronic Proceedings of the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.
Milin, P., Divjak, D. & Baayen, R. H.. 2017a. A learning perspective on individual differences in skilled reading: Exploring and exploiting orthographic and semantic discrimination cues. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. doi:10.1037/xlm0000410.
Milin, P., Feldman, L. B., Ramscar, M., Hendrix, P. & Baayen, R. H.. 2017b. Discrimination in lexical decision. PLoS ONE 12.2, e0171935.
Mulder, K., Dijkstra, T., Schreuder, R. & Baayen, R. H.. 2014. Effects of primary and secondary morphological family size in monolingual and bilingual word processing. Journal of Memory and Language 72, 5984.
Nespor, Marina & Vogel, Irene. 2007. Prosodic phonology. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter.
Pitt, Mark A., Dilley, Laura, Johnson, Keith, Kiesling, Scott, Raymond, William, Hume, Elizabeth & Fosler-Lussier, Eric. 2007. Buckeye corpus of conversational speech (2nd release). Columbus, OH: Department of Psychology, Ohio State University.
Plag, Ingo. 2018. Word-formation in English, 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Plag, Ingo. 2014. Homophony in morphology: The acoustic properties of morphemic and non-morphemic word-final S in English. Plenary talk. 14th International Morphology Meeting, Budapest.
Plag, Ingo, Homann, Julia & Kunter, Gero. 2017. Homophony and morphology: The acoustics of word-final S in English. Journal of Linguistics 53.1, 181216.
Pluymaekers, M., Ernestus, M. & Baayen, R. H.. 2005a. Articulatory planning is continuous and sensitive to informational redundancy. Phonetica 62, 146159.
Pluymaekers, M., Ernestus, M. & Baayen, R. H.. 2005b. Lexical frequency and acoustic reduction in spoken Dutch. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 118.4, 25612569.
Podlubny, R. G., Geeraert, K. & Tucker, B. V.. 2015. Its all about, like, acoustics, In The Scottish Consortium for ICPhS 2015 (ed.), Proceedings of the ICPHS IIXX. Glasgow, UK: The University of Glasgow.
Ramscar, M., Dye, M. & Klein, J.. 2013a. Children value informativity over logic in word learning. Psychological Science 24.6, 10171023.
Ramscar, M., Dye, Melody & McCauley, Stewart M.. 2013b. Error and expectation in language learning: The curious absence of mouses in adult speech. Language 89.4, 760793. doi:10.1353/lan.2013.0068.
Ramscar, M., Dye, Melody, Popick, Hanna Muenke & O’Donnell-McCarthy, Fiona. 2011. The enigma of number: Why children find the meanings of even small number words hard to learn and how we can help them do better. PloS ONE 6.7, e22501. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022501.
Ramscar, M., Hendrix, P., Shaoul, C., Milin, P. & Baayen, R. H.. 2014. Nonlinear dynamics of lifelong learning: the myth of cognitive decline. Topics in Cognitive Science 6, 542. doi:10.1111/tops.12078.
Ramscar, M., Sun, C. C., Hendrix, P. & Baayen, R. H.. 2017. The mismeasurement of mind: Life-span changes in paired-associate-learning scores reflect the ‘cost’ of learning, not cognitive decline. Psychological Science 28.8, 11711179. doi:10.1177/0956797617706393.
Ramscar, M. & Yarlett, D.. 2007. Linguistic self-correction in the absence of feedback: A new approach to the logical problem of language acquisition. Cognitive Science 31.6, 927960. doi:10.1080/03640210701703576.
Ramscar, M., Yarlett, D., Dye, M., Denny, K. & Thorpe, K.. 2010. The effects of feature-label-order and their implications for symbolic learning. Cognitive Science 34.6, 909957. doi:10.1111/j.1551-6709.2009.01092.x.
Rescorla, R. A. 1988. Pavlovian conditioning. It’s not what you think it is. American Psychologist 43.3, 151160. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.43.3.151.
Rescorla, R. A. & Wagner, A. R.. 1972. A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and nonreinforcement. In Black, A. H. & Prokasy, W. F. (eds.), Classical conditioning II: Current research and theory, 6499. New York: Appleton Century Crofts.
Rose, Darcy. 2017. Predicting plurality: An examination of the effects of morphological predictability on the learning and realization of bound morphemes. Christchurch: University of Canterbury PhD Dissertation.
Rosenblatt, Frank. 1962. Principles of neurodynamics. Spartan Book, Washington DC.
Scarborough, R. A. 2004. Degree of coarticulation and lexical confusability. In Nowak, P. M., Yoquelet, C. & Mortensen, D. (eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, February 14–17. Berkley: University of Berkley.
Schweitzer, A. & Lewandowski, N.. 2013. Convergence of articulation rate in spontaneous speech. Proceedings of interspeech 2013, 525529. Lyon: International Speech Communication Association.
Seidenberg, M. 1987. Sublexical structures in visual word recognition: Access units or orthographic redundancy. In Coltheart, M. (ed.), Attention and Performance XII, 245264. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Sering, K., Weitz, M., Kuenstle, D. E. & Schneider, L.. 2018a. Pyndl: Naïve discriminative learning in python. doi:10.5281/zenodo.1134829.
Sering, T., Milin, P. & Baayen, R. H.. 2018b. Language comprehension as a multiple label classification problem. Statistica Neerlandica 72.3, 115. doi:10.1111/stan.12134.
Seyfarth, Scott, Garellek, Marc, Gillingham, Gwendolyn, Ackerman, Farrell & Malouf, Robert. 2018. Acoustic differences in morphologically-distinct homophones. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience 33.1, 3249.
Shafaei Bajestan, E. & Baayen, R. H.. 2018. Wide learning for auditory comprehension. Proceedings of interspeech 2018, 448451. Graz, Austria: International Speech Communication Association.
Shaoul, C., Schilling, N., Bitschnau, S., Arppe, A., Hendrix, P. & Baayen, R. H.. 2014. Ndl2: Naïve discriminative learning. R package version 1.901, development version available upon request.
Shaoul, Cyrus & Westbury, C.. 2010a. Exploring lexical co-occurrence space using hidex. Behavior Research Methods 42.2, 393413.
Shaoul, Cyrus & Westbury, Chris. 2010b. Exploring lexical co-occurrence space using HiDEx. Behavior Research Methods 42.2, 393413.
Smith, Rachel, Baker, Rachel & Hawkins, Sarah. 2012. Phonetic detail that distinguishes prefixed from pseudo-prefixed words. Journal of Phonetics 40.5, 689705. doi:10.1016/j.wocn.2012.04.002.
Song, Jae Yung, Demuth, Katherine, Evans, Karen & Shattuck-Hufnagel, Stefanie. 2013. Durational cues to fricative codas in 2-year-olds’ American English: Voicing and morphemic factors. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 133.5, 29312946.
Tomaschek, F., Arnold, D., Bröker, Franziska & Baayen, R. H. R.. 2018a. Lexical frequency co-determines the speed-curvature relation in articulation. Journal of Phonetics 68, 103116.
Tomaschek, F., Arnold, D., van Rij, J., Tucker, B. V. & Sering, K.. 2019. Proficiency effects on the movement precision during the execution of articulatory gestures (submitted manuscript).
Tomaschek, F., Hendrix, P. & Baayen, R. H.. 2018b. Strategies for managing collinearity in multivariate linguistic data. Journal of Phonetics 71, 249267.
Tomaschek, F., Tucker, B. V., Baayen, R. H. & Fasiolo, M.. 2018c. Practice makes perfect: The consequences of lexical proficiency for articulation. Linguistic Vanguard 4.s2, 113.
Torreira, Francisco & Ernestus, Mirjam. 2009. Probabilistic effects on French [t] duration. Proceedings of interspeech 2009, 448451. Lyon: International Speech Communication Association.
Tremblay, A., Derwing, B., Libben, G. & Westbury, C.. 2011. Processing advantages of lexical bundles: Evidence from self-paced reading and sentence recall tasks. Language Learning 61.2, 569613.
Tremblay, A. & Tucker, B. V.. 2011. The effects of n-gram probabilistic measures on the recognition and production of four-word sequences. The Mental Lexicon 6.2, 302324.
Tucker, B. V., Sims, M. & Baayen, R. H.. 2019. Opposing forces on acoustic duration., doi:10.31234/
Vitevitch, Michael S. 2002. The influence of phonological similarity neighborhoods on speech production. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition 28.4, 735747.
Vitevitch, Michael S. 2008. What can graph theory tell us about word learning and lexical retrieval? Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research 51.2, 408.
Vitevitch, Michael S. & Stamer, Melissa K.. 2006. The curious case of competition in Spanish speech production. Language and Cognitive Processes 21.6, 760770.
Wagner, A. R. & Rescorla, R. A.. 1972. Inhibition in Pavlovian conditioning: Application of a theory. In Boakes, R. A. & Halliday, M. S. (eds.), Inhibition and learning, 301336. New York: Academic Press.
Walsh, Liam, Hay, Jennifer, Jen, Hay, Derek, Bent, Grant, Liz, King, Jeanette, Millar, Paul, Papp, Viktoria & Watson, Kevin. 2013. The UC QuakeBox Project: Creation of a community-focused research archive. New Zealand English Journal 27, 2032.
Walsh, T. & Parker, F.. 1983. The duration of morphemic and non-morphemic /s/ in English. Journal of Phonetics 11, 201206.
Wedel, A., Jackson, S. & Kaplan, A.. 2013a. Functional load and the lexicon: Evidence that syntactic category and frequency relationships in minimal lemma pairs predict the loss of phoneme contrasts in language change. Language and Speech 56.3, 395417.
Wedel, Andrew, Kaplan, Abby & Jackson, Scott. 2013b. High functional load inhibits phonological contrast loss: A corpus study. Cognition 128.2, 179186.
Weingarten, R., Nottbusch, G. & Will, U.. 2004. Morphemes, syllables and graphemes in written word production. In Pechmann, T. & Habel, Ch. (eds.), Multidisciplinary approaches to speech production, 529572. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Widrow, B. & Hoff, Marcian E. et al. . 1960. Adaptive switching circuits. 1960 IRE WESCON convention record, part 4, 96104. New York: Institute of Radio Engineers.
Wood, S. N. 2006. Generalized Additive Models. New York: Chapman & Hall/CRC.
Wood, S. N. 2011. Fast stable restricted maximum likelihood and marginal likelihood estimation of semiparametric generalized linear models. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society (B) 73, 336.
Wood, Simon N., Pya, Natalya & Säfken, Benjamin. 2016. Smoothing parameter and model selection for general smooth models. Journal of the American Statistical Association: Theory and Methods 111.516, 15481575.
Zimmermann, Julia. 2016a. Morphological status and acoustic realization: Findings from New Zealand English. In Carignan, Christopher & Tyler, Michael D. (eds.), Proceedings of the 16th Australasian International Conference on Speech Science and Technology, 6–9 December 2016, Parramatta, Australia. Sydney: University of Western Sydney.
Zimmermann, Julia. 2016b. Morphological status and acoustic realization: Is there a difference between Bra[d] Pitt and a grille[d] cheese omelet, or between Kate Mo[s] and killer robot[s]?In Wahle, Johannes, Köllner, Marisa, Baayen, Harald R., Jäger, Gerhard & Baayen-Oudshoorn, Tineke (eds.), Proceedings of 6th Conference on Quantitative Investigations in Theoretical Linguistics (QITL-6). Tübingen: Universität Tübingen.
Zipf, G. K. 1929. Relative frequency as a determinant of phonetic change. Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 15, 195.
Zipf, G. K. 1949. Human behavior and the principle of the least effort. An introduction to human ecology. New York: Hafner.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Linguistics
  • ISSN: 0022-2267
  • EISSN: 1469-7742
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-linguistics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed