Skip to main content Accessibility help

Pulmonic ingressive phonation: Diachronic and synchronic characteristics, distribution and function in animal and human sound production and in human speech

  • Robert Eklund (a1)


This paper looks at the phenomenon of ingressive speech, i.e. speech produced on a pulmonic ingressive airstream, set in the context of human and animal ingressive phonation. The literature on ingressive speech and phonation spanning several centuries is reviewed, as well as contemporary reports of their incidence and characteristics from both functional and acoustic perspectives. Ingressive phonation has been used as a deliberate means of speech or sound production for hundreds of years in order to achieve specific effects, and it is still used for the same purposes, by e.g. shamans and ventriloquists. In normal spoken conversation – contrary to what is often claimed – present-day ingressive speech is not limited to Scandinavia or Nordic languages, but is found on all continents, in genetically unrelated languages. Where ingressive speech occurs, it serves more or less the same paralinguistic functions, such as a feedback marker in a dialog. Since pulmonic ingressive phonation is also common in the calls of monkeys and apes, thus exhibiting a biological basis, it is suggested that ingressive speech might constitute a neglected universal phenomenon, rather than being highly marked, which is how it is commonly described in the literature.



Hide All
Abercrombie, David. 1967. Elements of general phonetics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Abley, Mark. 2003. Spoken here: Travels among threatened languages. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Abondolo, Daniel (ed.). 1998. The Uralic languages. London: Routledge.
Acosta-Reyes, Luis H. 2004. Prosodic features that cue back-channel responses in Northern Mexican Spanish. M.A. dissertation, University of Texas at El Paso.
Alexandre, Pierre & Binet, Jacques. 1958. Le groupe dit Pahouin (Fang – Boulou – Beti). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
Allsopp, Richard (ed.). 1996. Dictionary of Caribbean English usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Allwood, Jens. 1981. Finns det svenska kommunikationsmönster? In Vad är svensk kultur? (Papers in Anthropological Linguistics 9), 650. Göteborg: Göteborg University.
Allwood, Jens. 1985. Tvärkulturell kommunikation. In Allwood, Jens (ed.), Tvärkulturell kommunikation (Papers in Anthropological Linguistics 12), 961. Göteborg: Göteborg University.
Allwood, Jens. 1988. Om det svenska systemet för språklig återkoppling. In Linell, Per, Adelswärd, Viveka, Nilsson, Torbjörn & Pettersson, Per A. (eds.), Svenskans Beskrivning 16(1), 89106. University of Linköping.
Allwood, Jens. 2000. The structure of dialog. In Taylor, Martin M., Néel, Françoise & Bouwhuis, Don G. (eds.), Structure of multimodal dialog II, 324. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Allwood, Jens (ed.). 2001. Dialog coding – function and grammar: Göteborg Coding Schemas (Gothenburg Papers in Theoretical Linguistics 85). Göteborg: Göteborg University.
Allwood, Jens, Ahlsén, Elisabeth, Björnberg, Maria & Nivre, Joakim. 2001a. Communicative acts: Coding manual. In Allwood, (ed.), 85, 9–16.
Allwood, Jens & Björnberg, Maria. 1999. Coding schemas within the SDS project – a comparison: A platform for multimodal spoken language corpora (Project report for Swedish Dialogue Systems (SDS), HSFR/NUTEK). Göteborg: Göteborg University.
Allwood, Jens, Björnberg, Maria, Grönqvist, Leif, Ahlsén, Elisabeth & Ottesjö, Cajsa. 2000. The Spoken Language Corpus at the Department of Linguistics, Göteborg University, Sweden. Forum Qualitative Social Research 1 (3).
Allwood, Jens, Grönqvist, Leif, Ahlsén, Elisabeth & Gunnarsson, Magnus. 2001b. Annotations and tools for an activity based spoken language corpus. In Kuppevelt, Jan van & Smith, Ronnie (eds.), 2nd SIGdial Workshop on Discourse and Dialogue, 110. Aalborg.
Allwood, Jens & Strömqvist, Sven. 1988. Tvärkulturell kommunikation med särskild hänsyn till talspråklig interaktion. In Strömqvist, Sven & Strömqvist, Göran (eds.), Kulturmöten, kommunikation, skola, 7894. Stockholm: Norstedts.
Amery, Rob. 2006. Directions for linguistic research: Forging partnerships in language development and expansion of the domains of use of Australia's indigenous languages. In Cunningham, Denis, Ingram, D. E. & Sumbuk, Kenneth (eds.), Language diversity in the Pacific: Endangerment and survival, 162179. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Amman, Johann Conrad. 1694. THE Talking Deaf Man: OR, A Method Proposed, Whereby he who is Born DEAF, May Learn to SPEAK The talking deaf man (Surdus loquens). London: Tho. Hawkins. [Latin original Surdus loquens, 1692, Amsterdam: G. L. Meinsma; English translation by Daniel Foot.]
Amman, Johann Conrad. 1873. A dissertation on speech. London: Sampson Low, Marston, Low, and Searle. [Latin original Dissertatio de loquela, 1700, Amsterdam: John Wolters; facsimile edition of the English 1873 translation: Rieber, R. W. (ed.), 1965, Amsterdam: North-Holland.]
Anderson, Earl R. 1998. A grammar of iconism. Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Press.
Anspach, Lewis Amadeus. 1819. A history of the island of Newfoundland, containing a description of the island, the bank, the fisheries and trade of Newfoundland and the coast of Labrador. London: Allman & Richardson.
Arcadi, Adam Clark. 1996. Phrase structure of wild chimpanzee hoots: Patterns of production and interpopulation variability. American Journal of Primatology 39, 159178.
Armstrong, Robert G. 1976. Talking instruments in West Africa. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 865–877.
Arnott, Neil. 1831. Elements of physics or natural philosophy. . ., vol. 1. Philadelphia, PA: Carey and Lea.
Atkinson, J. Maxwell & Heritage, John (eds.). 1984. Structures of social action: Studies in conversation analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bagemihl, Bruce. 1988. The morphology and phonology of katajjait (Inuit throat games). Canadian Journal of Linguistics 33 (1), 158.
Ball, Martin J. 1991a. Recent developments in the transcription of non-normal speech. Journal of Communication Disorders 24, 5978.
Ball, Martin J. 1991b. Computer coding of the IPA: Extensions to the IPA. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 21 (1), 3641.
Ball, Martin J., Code, Chris, Rahilly, Joan & Hazlett, Diane. 1994. Non-segmental aspects of disordered speech: Developments in transcription. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 8 (1), 6783.
Ball, Martin J., Esling, John H. & Dickson, Craig. 1995. The VoQS system for the transcription of voice quality. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2), 7180.
Ball, Martin J. & Lowry, Orla. 2001. Methods in clinical phonetics. London: Whurr Publishers.
Ball, Martin J. & Müller, Nicole. 2005. Phonetics for communication disorders. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Ball, Martin J. & Müller, Nicole. 2007. Non-pulmonic-egressive speech in clinical data: A brief review. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics 21 (11–12), 869874.
Ball, Martin J. & Rahilly, Joan. 1999. Phonetics: The science of speech. London: Arnold.
Ball, Martin J., Rahilly, Joan & Tench, Paul. 1996. The phonetic transcription of disordered speech. San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing Group.
Battisti, Carlo. 1938. Fonetica generale. Milano: Editore Ulrico Hoepli.
Beach, D. M. 1938. The phonetics of the Hottentot language. Cambridge: W. Heffer & Sons Ltd.
Beard, Jonathan. 2005. Whistle spoken here. Scientific American Mind 16 (2), 6.
Beaudry, Nicole. 1978. Toward transcription and analysis of Inuit throat-Games: Macro-structure. Ethnomusicology XXII (2), 261273.
Behnke, Emil. 1882?. The mechanism of the human voice, 11th edn. London: J. Curwen & Sons.
Bell, Alexander Melville. 1867. Visible speech: The science of universal alphabetics. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co.
Bell, Linda, Boye, Johan, Gustafson, Joakim, Heldner, Mattias, Lindström, Anders & Wirén, Mats. 2005. The Swedish NICE Corpus – Spoken dialogues between children and embodied characters in a computer game scenario. 9th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology, Interspeech 2005, Lisbon, 2765–2768.
Bernhardt, Barbara & Ball, Martin J.. 1993. Characteristics of atypical speech currently not included in the extensions to the IPA. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (1), 3538.
Berntson, Gary G., Boysen, Sarah T., Bauer, Harold R. & Torello, Michael S.. 1989. Conspecific screams and laughter: Cardiac and behavioral reactions of infant chimpanzees. Developmental Psychobiology 22 (8), 771787.
Bhaskararao, Peri. 1972. Practical phonetics. Pune: University of Poona at Deccan College.
Bleile, Ken Mitchell. 2003. Manual of articulation and phonological disorders: Infancy through adulthood, 2nd edn. (Thomson Delmar Learning's Clinical Competence Series). Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Learning.
Blevins, Juliette. 2004. Evolutionary phonology: The emergence of sounds patterns. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bloch, Bernard & Trager, George L.. 1942. Outline of linguistic analysis (Special Publications of the Linguistic Society of America). Baltimore, MD: Waverly Press.
Bloomer, Aileen, Griffiths, Patrick & Merrison, Andrew John. 2005. Introducing language in use. Abingdon: Routledge.
Borg, Albert & Azzopardi-Alexander, Marie. 1997. Maltese. Abingdon: Routledge.
Bosma, James F. 1964. Respiratory motion patterns in the newborn infant cry. In Jacob, L. Kay (ed.), Physical diagnosis of the newly born: Report of the Forty-sixth ROSS CONFERENCE on Pediatric Research, 103111. Columbus, OH: Ross Laboratories.
Bosma, James F., Truby, H. M. & Lind, John. 1965. Cry motions of the newborn infant. In Lind, John (ed.), Newborn infant cry, 6192. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksells.
Boves, Lou & Oostdijk, Nelleke. 2003. Spontaneous speech in the Spoken Dutch Corpus. The ISCA and IEEE Workshop on Spontaneous Speech Processing and Recognition (SSPR), Tokyo. [Page numbers not available.]
Bradshaw, John & Cameron-Beaumont, Charlotte. 2000. The signalling repertoire of the domestic cat and its undomestic relatives. In Turner, Dennis C. & Bateson, Patrick (eds.), The domestic cat: The biology of its behaviour, 2nd edn., 6794. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [1st edn. in 1998.]
Branco, Anete, Behlau, Mara & Rehder, Maria Inês. 2005. The neonate cry after cesarean section and vaginal delivery during the first minutes of life. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 69, 681689.
Branco, Anete, Fekete, Saskia M. W., Rugolo, Ligia M. S. S. & Rehder, Maria Inês. 2007. The newborn pain cry: Descriptive acoustic spectrographic analysis. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 71 (4), 539–46.
Brinton, Laurel J. 2000. The structure of modern English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Broch, Olaf & Selmer, Ernst W.. 1938. Håndbok i elementær fonetik. Oslo: H. Aschehoug & Co.
Bromley, H. Myron. 1961. The phonology of Lower Grand Valley Dani: A comparative structural study of skewed phonemic patterns (Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, deel 34). 's–Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff.
Browne, Lennox & Behnke, Emil. 1884. Voice, song, and speech, 2nd edn. London: Sampson Low.
Busnel, René-Guy. 1976a. Information in the human whistled language and sea mammal whistling. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 914–938.
Busnel, René-Guy. 1976b. Historical briefing of the whistling language of Kusköy. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 1029–1030.
Busnel, René-Guy. 1976c. Recherches expérimentales sur la langue sifflée de Kusköy. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 1057–1089.
Busnel, René-Guy & Classe, André. 1976. Whistled languages (Communication and Cybernetics 13). Berlin: Springer.
Busnel, René-Guy, Moles, A. & Vallancien, B.. 1976. Sur l'aspect phonétique d'une langue sifflée des Pyrénées françaises. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 900–913.
Busnel, René-Guy, Moles, A. & Gilbert, M.. 1976. Un cas de langue sifflée utilisée dans les Pyrénées françaises. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 881–899.
Bussman, Hadumod. 1996. Routledge dictionary of language and linguistics. London: Routledge.
Button, Graham & Casey, Neil. 1984. Generating topic: The use of topic initial elicitors. In Atkinson, & Heritage, (eds.), 167–190.
Cameron, E. E. & Cogger, H. G.. 1992. The herpetofauna of the Weipa Region, Cape York Peninsula (Technical Reports of the Australian Museum 7).
Carreiras, Manuel, Lopez, Jorge, Rivero, Francisco & Carina, David. 2005. Neural processing of a whistled language. Nature 433, 3132.
Catford, J. C. 1977. Fundamental problems in phonetics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Catford, J. C. 1988. A practical introduction to phonetics. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Caughley, Ross. C. 1976. Chepang whistle talk. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 997–1022.
Caughley, Ross. C. 1969. Chepang phonemic summary: Tibeto-Burman phonemic summaries – IV. Kirtipur: Summer Institute of Linguistics, Tribhuvan University.
Cavanagh, Beverly. 1976. Some throat-games of Netsilik Eskimo women. Canadian Folk Music Journal 4, 4347.
Chafe, Wallace. 2003. Laughing while talking. In Tannen, Deborah & Alatis, James E. (eds.), Linguistics, language, and the real world: Discourse and beyond (Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 2001), 3649. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
Charron, Claude. 1978. Toward transcription and analysis of Inuit throat-games: Micro-structure. Ethnomusicology XXII, 245259.
Chiaramonte, Louis J. 1969. Mumming in ‘Deep Harbour’: Aspects of social organization in mumming and drinking. In Halpert, & Story, (eds.), 77–103.
Childs, G. Tucker. 1995. A grammar of Kisi. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Chin, Steven B.. 2003. Children's consonant inventories after extended cochlear implant use. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 46 (4), 849862.
Chung, Chul-Hwa & Chung, Kyung-Ja. 1993. Back ground [sic] study. Ms., Summer Institute of Linguistics, Papua New Guinea.
Clark, John, Yallop, Colin & Fletcher, Janet. 1995. An introduction to phonetics and phonology, 2nd edn. Oxford: Blackwell.
Clarke, Sandra & Melchers, Gunnel. 2005. Ingressive particles across borders: Gender and discourse parallels across the North Atlantic. In Filppula, Markku, Klemola, Juhani, Palander, Marjatta & Penttilä, Esa (eds.), Dialects across borders: 11th International Conference on Methods in Dialectology (Methods XI), Joensuu, August 2002 (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 273), 5172. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Classe, André. 1957. The whistled language of La Gomera. Scientific American 196, 111120.
Classe, André. 1976a. The phonetics of the Silbo Gomero. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 966–982.
Classe, André. 1976b. Les langues sifflées, squelettes informatifs du langage. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 983–992.
Cline, Ruth H. 1958. Belsnickles and Shanghais. Journal of American Folklore, 71 (280), 164165.
Coates, Jennifer. 1989. Gossip revisited: Language in all-female groups. In Coates, Jennifer & Tannen, Deborah (eds.), Women in their speech communities, 94121. London: Longman.
Coates, Jennifer. 1986. Women, men and language: A sociolinguistic account of gender differences in language. London: Longman.
Collaer, Paul. 1956. Sixteen Ainu songs. Colloques de Wégiment, vol. 1, 195205. Bruxelles: Elsevier.
Collins, Beverly & Mees, Inger M.. 1981. The phonetics of English and Dutch. Leiden: Brill. [5th edn. in 2003.]
Collins, Beverly & Mees, Inger M.. 2003. Practical phonetics and phonology: A resource book for students. London: Routledge.
Colton, Raymond H., Casper, Janina K. & Leonard, Rebecca. 2006. Understanding voice problems: A physiological perspective for diagnosis and treatment. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Conklin, Harold C. 1949. Preliminary report on field work on the islands of Mindoro and Palawan, Philippines. American Anthropologist 51, 268273.
Conklin, Harold C. 1959. Linguistic play in its cultural context. Language 35 (4), 631636.
Connor, Steven. 2000. Dumbstruck: A cultural history of ventriloquism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Coombes, Kay. 1987. Speech therapy. In Yule, William & Rutter, Michael (eds.), Language development and disorders, 350366. Oxford: Mac Keith Press & Blackwell.
Corwin, Michael J. & Golub, Howard L.. 1985. Medical applications of infant cry analysis. In Milunsky, Aubrey, Friedman, Emanuel A. & Gluck, Louis (eds.), Advances in perinatal medicine, vol. 4, 163188. New York: Plenum Press.
Cowan, George M. 1948. Mazateco whistle speech. Language 24 (3), 280286.
Cowan, George M. 1972. Segmental features of Tepehua whistle speech. In Rigault, André & Charbonneau, René (eds.), 7th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS), Montreal (Janua Linguarum, series maior 57), 695698. The Hague: Mouton.
Cowan, George M. 1976a. Whistled Tepehua. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 1400–1409.
Cowan, George M. 1976b. Mazateco whistle speech. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 1383–1393.
Cranz, David. 1765. Historie von Grönland, enthaltend . . . Barby: Heinrich Detlef Ebers & Leipzig: Weidmanns Erben und Reich. [Swedish translation Historia om Grönland, Deruti . . ., 1769, Stockholm: Johan Georg Lange; English translation The history of Greenland, including . . ., 1820, London: Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown.]
Critchley, MacDonald. 1939. Spastic dysphonia (“Inspiratory Speech”). Journal of Neurology 62, 96103.
Croft, William. 2003. Typology and universals, 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cross, Douglas E. & Luper, Harold L.. 1979. Voice reaction time of stuttering and nonstuttering children and adults. Journal of Fluency Disorders 4, 5977.
Cross, Douglas E., Shadden, Barbara B. & Luper, Harold L.. 1979. Effects of stimulus ear presentation on the voice reaction time of adult stutterers and nonstutterers. Journal of Fluency Disorders 4, 4558.
Cross, Douglas E. & Luper, Harold L.. 1983. Relation between finger reaction time and voice reaction time in stuttering and nonstuttering children and adults. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 26, 356361.
Cruttenden, Alan. 1986. Intonation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cruttenden, Alan (ed.). 2001. Gimson's Pronunciation of English, 6th edn. London: Arnold.
Crystal, David. 1987. The Cambridge encyclopedia of language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [2nd edn. in 1997.]
Crystal, David. 1997. A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics, 4th edn. Oxford: Blackwell. [6th edn. in 2008.]
Curry, Robert. 1940. The mechanism of the human voice. London: J. & A. Churchill.
Darwin, Charles. 1872. The expression of the emotions in man and animals. London: John Murray.
Davenport, Mike & Hannahs, S. J.. 1998. Introducing phonetics & phonology. London: Arnold.
Davila Ross, Marina & Geissmann, Thomas. 2007. Call diversity of wild male orangutans: A phylogenetic approach. American Journal of Primatology 69, 305324.
Deacon, Terrence. 1997. The symbolic species: The co-evolution of language and the human brain. London: Allen Lane & The Penguin Press.
Dedouch, K., Horáček, J., Vampola, T., Švec, J. G., Kršek, P. & Havlik, R.. 2002. Acoustic modal analysis of male vocal tract for Czech vowels. In Zolotarev, I. (ed.), Interaction and Feedbacks 2002, 1319. Prague: Institute of Thermodynamic AS CR.
Dictionaire des sciences médicales, par une societé de médecins et de chirurgiens. 1815. Paris: C. L. F. Pancoucke.
Dieth, Eugen. 1950. Vademecum der Phonetik. Bern: A. Francke AG. Verlag.
Dinnan, James A., McGuiness, Eugene & Perrin, Lawrence. 1970. Auditory feedback: Stutterers versus nonstutterers. Journal of Learning Disabilities 3, 209213.
Dixon, R. M. W. 1980. The languages of Australia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dixson, Alan F. 1998. Primate sexuality: Comparative studies of the promisians, monkeys, apes, and human beings. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Drachmann, Gaberell. 1980. Are all universals of child-language truly universals of language? In Brettschneider, Gunter & Lehmann, Christian (eds.), Wege zur Universalien Forschung: Sprachwissenschaftliche Beiträge zum 60. Geburtstag von Hansjakob Seiler, 131138. Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag.
Drew, Paul. 1984. Speakers' reportings in invitation sequences. In Atkinson, & Heritage, (eds.), 129–151.
Duckworth, Martin, Allen, George, Hardcastle, William J. & Ball, Martin J.. 1990. Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for the transcription of atypical speech. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 4 (4), 273280.
Dunn, Alexandra & Ohala, John J.. 2000. F0 declination: Its causes and its infrequency in unscripted speech. Presented at Patterns of Speech Sounds in Unscripted Communication Workshop, Akademie Sankelmark.
Eboué, F. 1935. La clef musicale des langages tambourines et sifflés. Bulletin du Comité d'Ètudes Historiques et Scientifiques de l'Afrique Occidentale Française 18 (2–3), 353360.
Edwards, Harold T. 2002. Applied phonetics: The sounds of American English. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Learning.
Edwards, Jane A. 2001 The transcription of discourse. In Schiffrin, Deborah, Tannen, Deborah & Hamilton, Heidi E. (eds.), The handbook of discourse analysis, 321348. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Eijkman, L. P. H. 1937/1955. Phonetiek van het Nederlands, 1st/2nd edn. Haarlem: De Erven F. Bohn.
Eklund, Robert. 2002. Ingressive speech as an indication that humans are talking to humans (and not to machines). International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP) 2002, Denver, vol. 2, 837840.
Eklund, Robert. 2004. Disfluency in Swedish human–human and human–machine travel booking dialogues. Ph.D. dissertation, Linköping University.
Eklund, Robert. 2007. Pulmonic ingressive speech: A neglected universal? Fonetik 2007, Stockholm, TMH-QPSR, KTH, vol. 46, 2124.
Elert, Claes-Christian. 1989. Allmän och svensk fonetik, 6th edn. Stockholm: Norstedts. [1st edn. in 1966.]
Ellis, Alexander J. c.1878. Speech in song. London: Novello and Company.
Ertmer, David J., Young, Nancy M. & Nathani, Suneeti. 2007. Profiles of vocal development in young cochlear implant recipients. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 50, 393407.
Esling, John H. & Harris, Jimmy G.. 2005. States of the glottis: An articulatory phonetic model based on laryngoscopic observations. In Hardcastle, William J. & Beck, Janet Mackenzie (eds.), A figure of speech: A Festschrift for John Laver, 347383. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Evans, Nicholas. 2007. Warramurrungunji undone: Australian languages in the 51st [sic] Millennium. In Brenzinger, Matthias (ed.), Language diversity endangered, 342373. The Hague: Mouton de Gruyter.
Evans, Nick [Nicholas]. 1995. Current issues in the phonology of Australian languages. In Goldsmith, John A. (ed.), The handbook of phonological theory, 723761. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Falk, Dean. 2000. Hominid brain evolution and the origins of music. In Wallin, et al. (eds.), 197–216.
Faris, James C. 1969. Mumming in an outport fishing settlement: A description and suggestions on the cognitive complex. In Halpert, & Story, (eds.), 129–144.
Figueoroa, Esther. 2005. Rude sounds: Kiss Teeth and negotiation of the public sphere. In Mühleisen, Susanne & Migge, Bettina (eds.), Politeness and face in Caribbean creoles, 7399. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Figueoroa, Esther & Patrick, Peter L.. To appear. The meaning of Kiss-Teeth. In Spears, Arthur K. & DeJongh, James (eds.), Black language in the U.S. and Caribbean: Education, history, structure, and use.
Findley, Michael Shaw. 1998. Language and communication: A cross-cultural encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Finger, Leila Susana & Cielo, Carla Aparecida. 2007. Reverse phonation – physiologic and clinical aspects of this speech voice therapy modality. Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology 73 (2), 271277.
Fink, B. Raymond, Basek, Milos & Epanchin, V.. 1956. The mechanism of opening of the human larynx. Laryngoscope 66, 410425.
Firestone, Melvin M. 1969. Mummers and strangers in Northern Newfoundland. In Halpert, & Story, (eds.), 63–75.
Fischer-Jørgensen, Eli. 1962. Almen Fonetik, 3rd edn. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde og Bagger.
Fisher, Len. 2005. Why and how do cats purr? BBC Focus 152, 41.
Fitch, William Tecumseh Sherman III. 1994. Vocal tract length perception and the evolution of language. Ph.D. dissertation, Brown University.
Flatau, Theodor S. & Gutzmann, Hermann. 1894. Die Bauchrednerkunst: Geschichte und experimentelle Untersuchungen. Leipzig: Verlag von Ambr. Abel (Arthur Meiner).
Flórez, Luis. 1957. Habla y cultura popular en antioquia. Bogota: Publicationes del Instituto Caro y Cuervo.
Forchhammer, Jörgen. 1924. Die Grundlage der Phonetiek. Heidelberg: Carl Winter's Universitätsbuchhandlung.
Forsblom-Nyberg, Ylva. 1995. Samtal som transkription. Folkmålsstudier 36, 5374.
Fries, Charles Carpenter. 1952. The structure of English: An introduction to the construction of English sentences. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company.
Frint, T. & Kelemen, A.. 1969. Inspiratorische Stimmbildung psychogenen Ursprunges. Folia Phoniatrica 21 (2), 105111.
Froeschels, Emil. 1950. A technique for stutterers – ‘ventriloquism’. The Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders 15 (4), 336337.
Fuchs, Susanne & Perrier, Pascal. 2005. On the complex nature of speech kinematics. ZAS Papers in Linguistics 42, 137165.
Fuller, Michael. 1990. Pulmonic ingressive fricatives in Tsou. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 20 (2), 914.
Gaunt, Abbot S. & Gaunt, Sandra L. L.. 1977. Mechanics of the syrinx in Gallus gallus, part II: Electromyographic studies of ad libitum vocalizations. Journal of Morphology 152 (1), 120.
Gavriely, Noam, Palti, Yoram, Alroy, Gideon & Grotberg, James B.. 1984. Measurement and theory of wheezing breath sounds. Journal of Applied Physiology 57 (2), 481492.
Geis, Michael L. 1995. Speech acts and conversational interaction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Geissmann, Thomas. 1984. Inheritance of song parameters in the gibbon song, analysed in 2 hybrid gibbons (Hylobates pileatus × H. lar). Folia Primatologica 42, 216235.
Geissmann, Thomas. 1991. Sympatry between white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) and pileated gibbons (H. pileatus) in Southeastern Thailand. Primates 32 (3), 357363.
Geissmann, Thomas. 2000. Gibbon song and human music from an evolutionary perspective. In Wallin, et al. (eds.), 103–123.
Geissmann, Thomas & Dallmann, R.. 2002. Die Gesäng der Gibbons und die Evolution der Musik. Praxis der Naturwissenschaften 51 (1), 2129.
Geissmann, Thomas & Nijman, Vincent. 2006. Calling in wild silvery gibbons (Hylobates moloch) in Java (Indonesia): Behavior, phylogeny, and conservation. American Journal of Primatology 68, 119.
Gierke, Henning von. 1947. Über die mit dem Mund hervorgebrachten Pfeiftöne. Pflügers Archiv 249, 307312.
Gierut, Judith A. & Champion, Annette Hust. 2000. Ingressive substitutions: Typical or atypical phonological pattern? Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 14 (8), 603617.
Gil, David. 2005. Paralinguistic usages of clicks. In Haspelmath, Martin, Dryer, Matthew, Gil, David & Comrie, Bernard (eds.), The world atlas of language structures, 570573. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gillis, Steven, Schauwers, Karen & Govaerts, Paul J.. 2002. Babbling milestones and beyond: Early speech development in CI children. In Schauwers, Karen, Govaerts, Paul J. & Gillis, Steven (eds.), Language acquisition in very young children with a cochlear implant (Antwerp Papers in Linguistics 102), 2339. Antwerp: University of Antwerp.
Gimson, A. C. 1994. An introduction to the pronunciation of English, 5th edn. London: Edward Arnold. [1st edn. in 1962.]
Goffman, Erving. 1978. Response cries. Language 54, 787815.
Goller, Franz. 1998. Vocal gymnastics and the bird brain. Nature 395, 1112.
Goller, Franz & Daley, Monica A.. 2001. Novel motor gestures for phonation during inspiration enhance the acoustic complexity of birdsong. The Royal Society. Biology 268, 23012305.
Golub, Howard L. & Corwin, Michael J.. 1982. Infant cry: A clue to diagnosos. Pediatrics 69 (2), 197201.
Goodall, Jane. 1986. The chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of behavior. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University.
Gould, Wilbur J. & Okamura, Hiroshi. 1974. Interrelationships between voice and laryngeal mucosal reflexes. In Wyke, (ed.), 347–369.
Grammont, Maurice. 1933. Traité de phonétique. Paris: Librairie Delagrave.
Grau, Susan M.,Robb, Michael P. & Cacace, Anthony T.. 1995. Acoustic correlates of inspiratory phonation during infant cry. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 38, 373381.
Grønnum, Nina. 1998. Fonetik og Fonologi: Almen og Dansk. Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag.
Grosjean, François & Collins, Maryann. 1979. Breathing, pausing and reading. Phonetica 36, 98114.
Gunnell, Terry. 1995. The origins of drama in Scandinavia. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer.
Gunnell, Terry. 2001. Grýla, grýlur, “grøleks” and skeklers: Medieval disguise traditions in the North Atlantic? Arv: Nordic Yearbook of Folklore 2001 57, 3354.
Gutzmann, Hermann. 1909. Physiologie der Stimme und Sprache. Braunschweig: Druck und Verlag von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn.
Hakulinen, Auli. 1993. Inandningen som kulturellt interaktionsfenomen. In Ivars, A.-M. et al. (eds.), Språk och social kontext, 4967. Helsinki: Helsinki University.
Hale, Kenneth. 1973. Deep-surface canonical disparities in relation to analysis and change: An Australian example. In Sebeok, Thomas A. (ed.), Diachronic, areal, and typological linguistics (Current Trends in Linguistics 11), 401458. The Hague: Mouton.
Hale, Kenneth. 1998. On endangered languages and the importance of linguistic diversity. In Grenoble, Lenore A. & Whaley, Lindsay J. (eds.), Endangered languages, 192216. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hall, Christopher. 2003. Modern German pronunciation: An introduction for speakers of English. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Haller, Albrecht von. 1761. Elementa physiologiœ corporis humani. Tomus tertius. Respiratio. Vox. Lausanne: Sumptibus Sigismundi D'Arnay.
Halpert, Herbert. 1969. A typology of mumming. In Halpert, & Story, (eds.), 35–61.
Halpert, Herbert & Story, George Morley (eds.). 1969. Christmas mumming in Newfoundland: Essays in anthropology, folklore, and history. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Handelman, Don. 1998. Models and mirrors: Towards an anthropology of public events. New York & Oxford: Berghahn Books. [First published in 1990, Cambridge University Press.]
Harrison, Gordon A., Pamela J. Davis, Richard A. Troughear & Alison L. Winkworth. 1992. Inspiratory speech as a management option for spastic dysphonia. The Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology 101, 375382.
Hartlieb, K., Luchsinger, R. & Pfister, K.. 1960. Ein Vergleich der exspiratorischen mit der inspiratorischen Stimmgebung mit Verwendung der differenzierten Klanganalyse. Folia Phoniatrica 12 (4), 241260.
Havet, Louis. 1875. Observations phonétiques d'un professeur aveugle. Mémoirs de la Société de Linguistique de Paris 2, 218221.
Helgason, Pétur. 2002. Preaspiration in the Nordic languages: Synchronic and diachronic aspects. Ph.D. dissertation, Stockholm University.
Helmont, Franciscus Mercurius B. van. 1657. Alphabeti vere Naturalis Hebraici. . . Sulzbaci: Typis Abrahami Lichtenthaleri.
Hewlett, Nigel & Beck, Janet. 2006. An introduction to the science of phonetics. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Hill, Jane H. & Zepeda, Ofelia. 1999. Language, gender, and biology: Pulmonic ingressive airstream in women's speech in Tohono O'odham. In Jonz, Jon G. (ed.), Southwest Journal of Linguistics 18 (1), 1540.
Hixon, Thomas J. & collaborators, . 1987. Respiratory function in speech and song. London: Taylor & Francis.
Hixon, Thomas J. & Weismer, Gary. 1995. Perspectives on the Edinburgh study of speech breathing. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 38, 4260.
Hockett, Charles F. 1955. A manual of phonology. Baltimore, MD: Waverly Press.
Hodge, Megan M. & Rochet, Anne Putnam. 1989. Characteristics of speech breathing in young women. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 32, 466480.
Hoit, Jeannette D. & Hixon, Thomas J.. 1987. Age and speech breathing. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 30, 351366.
Hoit, Jeannette D., Hixon, Thomas J., Ellen Altman, Mary & Morgan, Wayne J.. 1989. Speech breathing in women. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 32, 353365.
Holmes, Janet. 1984. Hedging your bets and sitting on the fence: Some evidence for hedges as support structures. Te Reo 27, 4762.
Hoole, Philip. 1999. Einsatz der elektromagnetischen Artikulographie bei der Analyse lingualer Sprechbewegungen. In Hahn, V., Schneider, C. & Hahn, H. (eds.), Schauplatz Mund: Das orofaziale System als Sensomotorische Einheit, 101114. Munich: Verlag Arbeitskreis für myofunktionelle Therapie.
Hoole, Philip, Munhall, Kevin & Mooshammer, Christine. 1998. Do airstream mechanisms influence tongue movement paths? Phonetica 55, 131146.
Hornaday, William T. 1922. The minds and manners of wild animals. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
HunterMalcolm L, Jr. Malcolm L, Jr. 1980. Vocalization during inhalation in a nightjar. Condor 82, 101103.
Hurley, William M. 1976. The Kickapoo whistle system: A speech surrogate. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 1426–1433.
Hussel, Lothar. 1949. Beitrag zur Physiologie des Schnurrens der Hauskatze. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Leipzig.
Hymes, Dell. 1993. Fivefold fanfare for coyote. In Bright, William (ed.), A coyote reader, 5055. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Ingram, David & Terselic, Barbara. 1983. Final ingression: A case of deviant child phonology. Topics in Language Disorders 3 (2), 4550.
Ingram, David & Ingram, Kelly D.. 2001. A whole-word approach to phonological analysis and intervention. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools 32, 271283.
IPA (International Phonetic Association). 1999. Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Itani, Junichiro. 1963. Vocal communication of the wild Japanese monkey. Primates 4 (2), 1166.
Jackson, Howard. 1980. Analyzing English: An introduction to descriptive linguistics. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Jefferson, Gail. 1984a. Transcript notation. In Atkinson, & Heritage, (eds.), ix–xvi. [NB: Jefferson is not indicated as the author of the chapter, but it is mentioned that she has developed the conventions described therein.]
Jefferson, Gail. 1984b. On stepwise transition from talk about a trouble to inappropriately next-positioned matters. In Atkinson, & Heritage, (eds.), 191–222.
Jefferson, Gail. 1984c. On the organization of laughter in talk about troubles. In Atkinson, & Heritage, (eds.), 346–369.
Jespersen, Otto. 1922. Language: Its nature development and origin. London: George Allen & Unwin.
Jespersen, Otto. 1926. Lehrbuch der Phonetik. Leipzig: Verlag von B. G. Teubner.
Jespersen, Otto. 1966. Modersmålets fonetik, 3rd edn.. Copenhagen: Gyldendal. [1st edn. in 1906.]
Johnson, L. G. 1962. Laurence Williamson. Scottish Studies 6, 4959.
Johnson, Pam. 1994. Twisted whiskers: Solving your cat's behavior problems. Berkeley, CA: The Crossing Press.
Johnson, Sally. 1998. Exploring the German language. London: Arnold.
Johnson, Steven. 2007. Laughter. Discover [magazine] – The Brain: An owner's manual Spring 2007, 58–61.
Kappmeier, Kathy Lee & Ambrosini, Diane M.. 2006. Instructing Hatha Yoga. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers.
Kelkar, Ashok R. 1991/1992. Prosodies and their functions in Marathi. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post Graduate & Research Institute 51–52, 289–302.
Kelly, Cheri Lee & Fischer, Kimberly V.. 1999. Stroboscopic and acoustic measures of inspiratory phonation. Journal of Voice 13 (3), 389402.
Kempelen, Wolfgang von. 1791. Mechanismus der menschlichen Sprache nebst der Beschreibung seiner sprechenden Maschine. Wien: J. B. Degen. [Facsimile edition in 1970, Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt: Friedrich Frommann Verlag (Günther Holzboog).]
Key, Mary Ritchie. 1975a. Paralanguage and kinesics. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press.
Key, Mary Ritchie. 1975b. Male/female language. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press.
Kirwin, William J. 1971. Ingressive speech reported in Newfoundland ‘mummer talk’. Regional Language Studies Newfoundland 3, 24.
Kitchen, J. M. W. 1885. The diaphragm and its functions, considered specially in its relations to respiration and the production of voice. New York: Edgar S. Werner.
Klinghardt, H. 1914. Artikulations- und Hörübungen. Cöthen: Verlag von Otto Schulze.
Kobayashi, Nazuki. 2001. Ingressivt “Ja”: Ja på innpust – ikke tegn på overraskelse eller dårlig hjerte. M.A. dissertation, Bergen University.
Kodman, F. Jr. 1955. Ventriloquism – An area for research. Laryngoscope 11, 10651070.
Kohler, Klaus. 1998. The development of sound systems in human language. In Hurford, James R., Studdert-Kennedy, Michael & Night, Chris (eds.), Approaches to the evolution of language, 265278. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kollár, A. 1973. Inspiratorische Phonation bei der Behandlung von Stimmstörungen. Folia Phoniatrica 25, 221224.
Koopmans-van Beinum, Florien J., Clement, Chris J. & van den Dikkenberg-Pot, Ineke. 2001. AMSTIVOC (Amsterdam System for Transcription of Infant VOCalisations) applied to utterances of deaf and normally hearing infants. Eurospeech, Aalborg, 1471–1474.
Kratzenstein, Christian Gottlieb [Christiani Theophili]. 1781. Tentamen resolvendi problema ab. . . St. Petersburg: Typis Academiae Scientiarum.
Kratzenstein, Christian Gottlieb [Christiani Theophili]. 1782. Sur la naissance & la formation des voyelles. Journal de Physique 21, 358380.
Kreidler, Charles W. 2004. The pronunciation of English: A course book, 2nd edn. Oxford: Blackwell.
Kurath, Hans, Hanley, Miles L., Bloch, Bernard, Lowman, Guy S. Jr. & Hansen, Marcus L.. 1943. Linguistic atlas of New England (LANE), vol. III, part I, maps 492602. Providence, RI: Brown University.
Ladefoged, Peter. 1971. Preliminaries to linguistic phonetics. Chicago, IL & London: University of Chicago Press.
Ladefoged, Peter & Loeb, Gerald. 2001. Preliminary studies on respiratory function in speech. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 110 (5), part 2, 2737.
Ladefoged, Peter & Maddieson, Ian. 1996. The sounds of the world's languages. Oxford: Blackwell.
Ladefoged, Peter & Traill, Anthony. 1984. Linguistic phonetic descriptions of clicks. Language 60 (1), 120.
Ladefoged, Peter & Zeitoun, Elizabeth. 1993. Pulmonic ingressive phones do not occur in Tsou. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (1), 1315.
Lajard, M. 1976. Le langage sifflée des Canaries. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 954–965.
Lamb, William. 2003. Scottish Gaelic, 2nd edn. Munich: Lincom Europa.
Landqvist, Håkan. 1999. “Ja på inandning” i GIC-samtalens rådgivningssekvenser. Presented at OFTI 17 (Områdes-gruppen för forskning om tal och interaktion), Stockholm.
Landqvist, Håkan. 2001. Råd och ruelse: Moral och samtalsstrategier i Giftinformationscentralens telefonrådgivning. Ph.D. dissertation, Uppsala University.
Laughren, Mary. 1984. Warlpiri baby talk. Australian Journal of Linguistics 4, 7388.
Laver, John. 1994. Principles of phonetics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Laver, John. 2000. Linguistic phonetics. In Aronoff, Mark & Rees-Miller, Janie (eds.), The handbook of linguistics, 150179. Oxford: Blackwell.
Leadbeater, Ellouise, Goller, Franz & Riebel, Katharina. 2005. Unusual phonation, covarying song characteristics and song preferences in female zebra finches. Animal Behavior 70, 909919.
Lederman, Dror. 2002. Automatic classification of infants' cry. M.A. dissertation, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.
Lehmann, Quentin H. 1965. Reverse phonation: A new maneuver for examining the larynx. Radiology 84, 215222.
Lenneberg, E. H. 1976. An acoustic analysis of the Turkish whistling language of Kusköy. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 1042–1056.
Léon, Pierre R. 1993. Phonétisme et prononciations du français. Paris: Nathan Université.
Leonard, Laurence B. 1997. Phonological impairment. In Fletcher, Paul & MacWhinney, Brian (eds.), The handbook of child language, 573602. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Leonard, Laurence B. 2000. Children with specific language impairment. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Leroy, C. 1976a. Étude de phonétique comparative de la langue Turque sifflée et parlée. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 1128–1173.
Leroy, C. 1976b. An ecological study. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 1031–1042.
Lindahl, Ingrid. 2001. Språklig återkoppling i spontana dialoger. Term paper, Lund University.
Lindström, Eva. 2002. Topics in the grammar of Kuot, a non-Austronesian language of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea. Ph.D. dissertation, Stockholm University.
Lipton, Edgar L. 1983. On ventriloquism. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 38, 601616.
Liskovius, Karl Friedrich Salomon. 1846. Physiologie der menchlichen Stimme. Leipzig: Joh. Amb. Barth.
Liston, Jerry L. 1971. On defining the interjection in contemporary Russian. The Slavic and East European Journal 15 (4), 479489.
Local, John & Walker, Gareth. 2005. ‘Mind the gap’: Further resources in the production of multi-unit, multi-action turns. In Hicks, Glyn & Walker, Gareth (eds.), York Papers in Linguistics, series 2, issue 3, 133143. The University of York.
Local, John & Walker, Gareth. To appear. Stance and affect in conversation: On the interplay of sequential and phonetic resources. Text & Talk.
Luchsinger, R. 1948. Über die Bauchrednerstimme. Folia Phoniatrica 1 (3/4), 117123.
Macklin, Charles C. 1925. X-ray studies on bronchial movements. The American Journal of Anatomy 35 (2), 303329.
MacMahon, Michael K. C. 2006. English phonetics. In Aarts, Bas & McMahon, April (eds.), The handbook of English linguistics, 359381. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Magendie, F. 1838. [See Revere 1855 entry below.]
Malmberg, Bertil. 1968. Manual of phonetics. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Marler, Peter. 1969. Vocalizations of wild chimpanzees. 2nd International Congress on Primatology, Atlanta, vol. 1, 94100.
Marler, Peter. 2000. Origins of music and speech: Insights from animals. In Wallin, et al. (eds.), 31–48.
Marshall, Andrew J., Wrangham, Richard W. & Arcadi, Adam Clark. 1999. Does learning affect the structure of vocalizations in chimpanzees? Animal Behaviour 59, 825830.
Marwick, Ernest W. 1975. The folklore of Orkney and Shetland. London: B. T. Batsford.
Maryn, Youri, De Bodt, Marc S. & Van Cauwenberge, Paul. 2003. Ventricular dysphonia: Clinical aspects and therapeutic Options. The Laryngoscope 113, 859866.
Masataka, Nobuo. 2007. Music, evolution and language. Developmental Science 10 (1), 3539.
Maynard, Senko K. 1986. On back-channel behavior in Japanese and English casual communication. Linguistics 24, 10791108.
Maynard, Senko K. 1990. An introduction to Japanese grammar and communication strategies. Tokyo: The Japan Times.
McFarland, David H. 2001. Respiratory markers of conversational interaction. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 44, 128143.
McMahon, April. 2002. An introduction to English phonology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Merkel, Carl. Ludwig. 1857. Anatomie und Physiologie des menschlichen Stimm- und Sprach-organs (Anthropophonik). Leipzig: Verlag von Ambrosius Abel.
Merkel, Carl. Ludwig. 1866. Physiologie der menschlichen Sprache (physiologische Laletik). Leipzig: Otto Wigand.
Mey, Jacob L. 1993. Pragmatics: An introduction. Oxford: Blackwell.
Meyer, Georg Hermann von. 1884. The organs of speech and their application in the formation of articulate sounds. New York: D. Appleton and Company.
Meyer, Julien. 2004. Bioacoustics of human whistled languages: An alternative approach to the cognitive processes of language. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 76 (2), 405412.
Meyer, Julien. 2005. Description typologique et intelligibilité des langues siffleés, approche linguistique et bioacoustique. Ph.D. dissertation, Institut des Sciences de l'Homme.
Meyer, Julien. 2008. Typology and acoustic strategies of whistled languages: Phonetic comparison and perceptual cues of whistled vowels. Journal of the International Phonetic Assocation 38 (1), 6994.
Miller, Donald G., Sulter, Arend M., Schutte, Harm K. & Wolf, Rienhart F.. 1997. Comparison of vocal tract formants in singing and nonperiodic phonation. Journal of Voice 11 (1), 111.
Milne-Edwards, Henri. 1876–1877. Leçons sur la physiologie et l'anatomie comparée de l'homme et des animaux, vol. 12. Paris: G. Masson.
Mitchell, A. G. 1957. Spoken English. London: MacMillan & Co.
Mitchinson, A. G. & Yoffey, J. M.. 1947. Respiratory displacement of larynx, hyoid bone and tongue. Journal of Anatomy 81 (1), 118121.
Moelk, Mildred. 1944. Vocalizing in the house-cat: A phonetic and functional study. The American Journal of Psychology 57 (2), 184205.
Moles, A. 1976. Étude socio-linguistique de la langue sifflée de Kusköy. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 1090–1127.
Moore, Paul & Von Leden, Hans. 1958. Dynamic variations of the vibratory pattern in the normal larynx. Folia Phoniatrica 10, 205238.
Morris Jones, Bob. 1999. The Welsh answering system (Trends in Linguistics, Studies and Monographs 120). The Hague: Mouton de Gruyter.
Mowrer, Donald E., LaPointe, Leonard L & Case, James. 1987. Analysis of five acoustic correlates of laughter. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 11 (3), 191199.
Müller, J. 1843. Elements of physiology. Philadelphia, PA: Lea and Blanchard.
Napoli, Donna Jo. 1996. Linguistics: Theory and problems. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nardi, Ricardo L. J. 1958. Habla popular. Renca: Folklore puntano, 153155. Buenos Aires: Instituto Nacional de Filología y Folklore, anexo a la Academia Argentina de Letras.
Nardi, Ricardo L. J. 1960. El habla en inspiración. Cuadernos del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Folklóricas 1, 217228.
Nathani, Suneet, Ertmer, David J. & Stark, Rachel E.. 2006. Assessing vocal development in infants and toddlers. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics 20 (5), 351369.
Nattiez, Jean-Jacques. 1982. Comparisons within a culture: The example of the katajjaq of the Inuit. In Falck, Robert & Rice, Timothy (eds.), Cross-cultural perspectives on music, 134140. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Nattiez, Jean-Jacques. 1983a. The rekkukara of the Ainu (Japan) and the katajjaq of the Inuit (Canada): A comparison. The world of music: Information bulletin of the Conseil international de la musique 25, 3344. Wilhelmshaven Noetzel: Heinrichshofen Books.
Nattiez, Jean-Jacques 1983b. Some aspects of Inuit vocal games. Ethnomusicology 27, 457475.
Natural Philosophy. 1850. Chamber's Educational Course, fourth treatise. Edinburgh: William and Robert Chambers.
Navarro Tomás, Tomás. 1945. Cuestionario lingüistico hispoamericano. I. Fonética, morfología, sintaxis, 2nd edn. Buenos Aires: Facultad de Filosofía y Letras de la Universidad de Buenos Aires.
Negus, Victor Ewings. 1929. The mechanism of the larynx. London: WM. Heinemann (Medical Books).
Nicodem, Monique Vitório, Seara, Rui & Pacheco, Fernando Santana. 2005. Reducing the natural click effect within database for high quality corpus-based speech synthesis. 8th International Symposium on Signal Processing and its Applications (ISSPA 2005), Sydney, 607610. New York: IEEE.
Nivre, Joakim, Allwood, Jens & Ahlsén, Elisabeth. 1999. Interactive Communication Management: Coding manual V1.0. In A platform for multimodal spoken language corpora (Project report for Swedish Dialogue Systems (SDS), HSFR/NUTEK). Göteborg: Göteborg University.
No[l]let, abbé [Jean Antoine]. 1754–1765. Leçons de physique experimentale, vol. 3. Amsterdam & Leipzig: Chez Arkstée & Merkus.
Norrick, Neal R. 2005. Contextualizing and recontextualizing interlaced stories in conversation. In Joanna Thornborrow & Jennifes Coates (eds.), The sociolinguistics of narrative (Studies in Narrative 6). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Notman, Hugh & Randall, Drew. 2005. Contextual variation in chimpanzee pant hoots and its implications for referential communication. Animal Behaviour 70, 177190.
Nwokah, Eva E., Hsu, Hui-Chin, Davies, Patricia & Fogel, Alan. 1999. The integration of laughter and speech in vocal communication: A Dynamic Systems perspective. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 42, 880894.
Nyrop, K. R. 1924. Manuel phonétique du français parlé, 4th edn. Copenhague & Kristiania: Gyldendalske Boghandel, Nordisk Forlag.
Ohala, John J. 1983. The origin of sound patterns in vocal tract constraints. In MacNeilage, Peter (ed.), The production of speech, 189216. New York: Springer. [Also in Kreidler, Charles W. (ed.), Phonology: Critical concepts, vol. IV: From rules to constraints, 5–31. London: Routledge.]
Ohala, John J. 1990. Respiratory activity in speech. In Hardcastle, William J. & Marchal, Alain (eds.), Speech production and speech modelling, 2353. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Ohala, John J., Dunn, Alexandra & Sprouse, Ronald. 2004. Prosody and phonology. Speech Prosody 2004, Nara, 161–163.
Oller, D. Kimbrough & Eilers, Rebecca E.. 1992. Development of vocal signaling in human infants: Toward a methodology for cross-species vocalization comparisons. In Papousek, Hanuš, Jürgens, Uwe & Papoušek, Mechtild (eds.), Nonverbal vocal communication, 174191. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
O'Regan, Mary E. & Brown, J. Keith. 2001. The neurology of speech and language disorders in children, part II: Disorders of speech. In Cockerill, Helen & Carroll-Few, Lesley (eds.), Communicating without speech: Practical augmentative & alternative communication, 3364. London: Mac Keith Press.
Orlikoff, Robert F., Baken, R. J. & Kraus, Dennis H.. 1997. Acoustic and physiologic characteristics of inspiratory phonation. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 102 (3), 18381845.
Otis, Arthur B. 1988. Two functions of breathing: Respiration and sound production. In Mathew, Oommen P. & Sant'Ambrogio, Giuseppe (eds.), Respiratory function of the upper airway, 519534. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Packer, Craig & West, Peyton. n.d.
Paddock, Harold. 1981. A dialect survey of Carbonear, Newfoundland (Publication of the American Dialect Society/PADS 68/1982). University of Alabama Press. [Revised version of 1966 M.A. thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland.]
Palmatier, Robert A. 2000. Food: A dictionary of literal and nonliteral terms. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Panconcelli-Calzia, G. 1914. Einführung in die angewandte Phonetik. Berlin: Fischer's Medicinische Buchhandlung.
Panconcelli-Calzia, G. 1921. Experimentelle Phonetik. Berlin & Leipzig: Vereinigung wissenshaftlicher Verleger Walter de Gruyter & Co.
Panconcelli-Calzia, G. 1924. Die experimentelle Phonetik in ihrer Anwendung auf die Sprachwissenschaft. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co.
Papoušek, Hanuš, Papoušek, Mechtild & Koester, Lynne Sanford. 1986. Sharing emotionality and sharing knowledge: A microanalytic approach to parent–infant communication. In Izard, Carroll E. & Read, Peter B. (eds.), Measuring emotions in infants and children, vol. 2, 93–123. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Partin Vinson, Betsy. 2000. Essentials for speech–language pathologists. San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing Group.
Passy, Paul. 1895. Les sons du français. Paris: Libraire Firmin Didot.
Passy, Paul. 1912. Petite phonétique comparée. Leipzig and Berlin: B. G. Teubner Libraire-Éditeur.
Patrick, Peter L. & Figueroa, Esther. 2002. Kiss-teeth. American Speech 77 (4), 383397.
Patterson, Bruce D. 2004. The lions of Tsavo: Exploring the legacy of Africa's notorious man-eaters. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies.
Pätzold, Matthias & Simpson, Adrian. 1995. An acoustic analysis of hesitation particles in German. 13th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS), Stockholm, vol. 3, 512515.
Peirce, Benjamin. 1836. An elementary treatise on sound. Boston, MA: James Munroe and Company.
Peters, Francis Joseph. 1981. The paralinguistic sympathetic ingressive affirmative in English and the Scandinavian languages. Ph.D. dissertation, New York University.
Peterson, Gordon E. & Harary, Frank. 1980. Foundations in Phonemic Theory. In Jakobson, Roman (ed.), Structure of language and its mathematical aspects: Symposia in Applied Mathematics, vol. XII, 139165. Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society, 139165. [First published in 1961; symposium held 14–15 April 1960 in New York City.]
Pike, Eunice V. 1963. Dictation exercises in phonetics. Summer Institute of Linguistics, Santa Ana, CA.
Pike, Kenneth L. 1943. Phonetics. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Pike, Kenneth L. 1947. Phonemics: A technique for reducing language to writing. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Pitschmann, Louis A. 1987. The linguistic use of the ingressive air-stream in German and the Scandinavian languages. General Linguistics 27 (3), 153161.
Powers, W. E., Holtz, S. & Ogura, J.. 1964. Contrast examination of the larynx and pharynx. American Journal of Roentgenology, Radium Therapy and Nuclear Medicine 92 (1), 4042.
Poyatos, Fernando. 2002. Nonverbal communication across disciplines, vol. III: Narrative literature, theater, cinema, translation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Pratt, T. K. 1988. Dictionary of Prince Edward Island English. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
PRDS (Phonetic Representation of Disordered Speech). 1980. Progress report. British Journal of Disorders of Communication 15, 215220.
PRDS (Phonetic Representation of Disordered Speech). 1983. The phonetic representation of disordered speech (Final Report of the PRDS Working Party; King's Fund Project Paper 38). London: The King's Fund.
Pressman, Joel J. & Kelemen, George. 1955. Physiology of the larynx. Physiological Reviews 35, 506554.
Protopapas, Athanassios. 1993. An assessment of the perceptual role of individual acoustic features of infant cries. M.A. dissertation, Brown University.
Pullum, Geoffrey K. & Ladusaw, William A.. 1996. Phonetic symbol guide, 2nd edn. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Quedenfeldt, H. M. 1976. Pfeifsprache auf der Insel Gomera. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 937–953. [Reprinted from Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 19 (1887), 731–741.]
Rammage, Linda, Morrison, Murray & Nichol, Hamish. 2000. Management of the voice and its disorders, 2nd edn. San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing Group.
Reeves, Byron & Nass, Clifford. 1996. The media equation: How people treat computers, television, and new media like real people and places. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
Reich, Alan & Till, James. 1983. Phonatory and manual reaction times of women with idiopathic spasmodic dysphonia. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 26, 1018.
Reich, Alan, Till, James & Goldsmith, Howard. 1981. Laryngeal and manual reaction times of stuttering and nonstuttering adults. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 24, 192196.
Remmers, J. E. & Gautier, H.. 1972. Neural and mechanical mechanisms of feline purring. Respiration Physiology 16, 351361.
Réthi, A. 1965. Über die Heilung des Stotterns und der Dysphonia spastica mittels inspiratorisch-exspiratorischer Stimmbildung. Monatsschrift für Ohrenheilkunde und Laryngo-Rhinologie 99, 240246.
Revere, John. 1855. An elementary treatise on human physiology, 5th edn. New York: Harper & Brothers. [An enlarged translation of F. Magendie's Précis elémentaire de physiologie, 1838.]
Richerand, M. Le Baron [Anthelme Balthasar]. 1837. Nouveaux éléments de physiologie. Bruxelles: H. Dumont.
Richman, Bruce. 1976. Some vocal distinctive features used by gelada monkeys. Journal of the Acoustic Society of America 60 (3), 718724.
Richman, Bruce. 1978. The synchronization of voices by gelada monkeys. Primates 19 (3), 569581.
Richman, Bruce. 1993. On the evolution of speech: Singing as the middle term. Current Anthropology 34 (5), 721722.
Rickford, John R. & Rickford, Angela E.. 1976. Cut-eye and suck-teeth: African words and gestures in New World guise. The Journal of American Folklore 89 (353), 294309.
Rietveld, A. C. M. & van Heuven, V. J.. 1997. Algemene fonetiek. Bussum: Dick Coutinho.
Rip[p]man, Walter. 1910/1918. Elements of phonetics: English, French & German, 7th edn. London: J. M. Dent & Sons. [Translation of Viëtor 1884; 1st edn. in 1899, 7th edn. in 1910.]
Ripman, Walter. 1933?. English phonetics and specimens of English. London: J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd.
Ripman, Walter. 1947?. English phonetics, 2nd edn. London: J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd. [Revised version of The sounds of spoken English; 1st edn. in 1931.]
Ritzenthaler, R. E. & Peterson, F. A.. 1976. Courtship whistling of the Mexican Kickapoo indians. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 1410–1411.
Roach, Peter. 1992. Introducing phonetics. London: Penguin.
Roach, Peter. 2000. Techniques for the phonetic description of emotional speech. ISCA Workshop on Speech and Emotion, Newcastle, 53–59.
Roach, Peter. 2002. A little encyclopedia of phonetics.
Robb, Michael P., Chen, Yang, Gilbert, Harvey R. & Lerman, Jay W.. 2001. Acoustic comparison of vowel articulation in normal and reverse phonation. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 44, 118127.
Robb, Michael P. & Goberman, Alexander M.. 1997. Application of an acoustic cry template to evaluate at-risk newborns: Preliminary findings. Biology of the Neonate 71 (2), 131136.
Robb, Michael P., Goberman, Alexander M. & Cacace, Anthony T.. 1997. An acoustic template of newborn infant crying. Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica 49 (1), 3541.
Roeser, Ross J., Pearson, Donise W. & Tobey, Emily A.. 1998. Speech–language pathology desk reference. New York: Thieme.
Rogers, Henry. 2000. The sounds of language: An introduction to phonetics. Harlow: Pearson.
Rosner, B. S. & Pickering, J. B.. 1994. Vowel perception and production. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rousselot, abbé P.-J. 1924. Principes de phonétique expérimentale. Paris: H. Didier.
Sacleux, Le P. Ch. 1905. Essai de phonétique avec son application a l'étude des idioms africains. Paris: H. Welter.
Salö, Linus Jonatan. 2007. .jo – en studie i användning av ett ingressivt talfenomen. Ms., term paper, Umeå University.
Sampson, Rodney. 1999. Nasal vowel reduction in Romance. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Scheiner, Elisabeth, Hammerschmidt, Kurt, Jürgens, Uwe & Zwirner, Petra. 2002. Acoustic analyses of developmental changes and emotional expression in the preverbal vocalizations of infants. Journal of Voice 16 (4), 509529.
Schneider, Hans. 1988. Peripheral and central mechanisms of vocalization. In Frisch, B., Ryan, M. J., Wilczynski, W., Hetherington, T. E. & Walkowiak, W. (eds.), The evolution of the amphibian auditory system, 537558. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Schulman, Susan. 1993. Symptom modification for abductor spasmodic dysphonia. In Stemple, Joseph C. (ed.), Voice therapy: Clinical studies, 128131. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Sebeok, Thomas A. & Umiker-Sebeok, Donna Jean (eds.). 1976. Speech surrogates: Drums and whistle systems. The Hague & Paris: Mouton.
Segond, Dr [Charles Robin]. 1848. Mémoire sur la voix inspiratoire (Extrait des Archives générales de medicine, sér. 2, t. XVII). Paris: Rignoux.
Shadle, Christine H. 1983. Experiments on the acoustics of whistling. The Physics Teacher 21 (3), 148154.
Shadle, Christine H. 1991. The effect of geometry on source mechanisms of fricative consonants. Journal of Phonetics 19, 409424.
Shadle, Christine H. 1997. The aerodynamics of speech. In Hardcastle, William J. & Laver, John (eds.), The handbook of phonetic sciences, 3364. Oxford: Blackwell.
Shadle, Christine H. & Scully, Celia. 1995. An articulatory-acoustic-aerodynamic analysis of [s] in VCV sequences. Journal of Phonetics 23, 5366.
Shell, Marc. 2004. Animals that talk; or, stutter. Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 15 (1), 84107.
Shell, Marc. 2005. Stutter. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Shiba, Keisuke, Isono, Shiroh & Nakazawa, Ken. 2007. Paradoxical vocal cord motion: A review focused on multiple system atrophy. Auris Nasus Larynx 34, 443452.
Shorrocks, Graham. 2003. Pulmonic ingressive speech in Newfoundland English: A case of Irish-English influence? In Tristram, Hildegard L. C. (ed.), The Celtic Englishes III, 374478. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag C. Winter.
Shosted, Ryan. 2006. Whistled fricatives [ ] in Bantu: Acoustic origins. Presented at the Linguistic Society of America Meeting, Albuquerque, NM; 7 January 2006.
Sider, Gerald M. 1976. Christmas mumming and the New Year in outport Newfoundland. Past and Present 71, 102125.
Sider, Gerald M. 2003. Between history and tomorrow: Making and breaking everyday life in rural Newfoundland. Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press.
Sievers, Eduard. 1885. Grundzüge der Phonetik, 3rd edn. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel.
Silliman, Benjamin. 1861. Principles of physics, 2nd edn. Philadelphia, PA: H. C. Peck & Theo. Bliss.
Sipma, Pieter. 1913/1966. Phonology & grammar of modern West Frisian with phonetic texts and glossary. Ljouwert: Fryske Akademie. [Reprinted in 1966, Oxford: Oxford University Press.]
Sipma, Pieter. 1949. Ta it frysk. Ljouwert: R. Van Der Velde.
Smalley, William A. 1963. Manual of articulatory phonetics, revised edn. New York: Tarrytown.
Solé, Maria-Josep. 2002. Aerodynamic characteristics of trills and phonological patterning. Journal of Phonetics 30, 655688.
Spencer, Andrew. 1996. Phonology. Oxford: Blackwell.
Stark, Rachel E. 1986. Prespeech segmental feature development. In Fletcher, Paul & Garman, Michael (eds.), Language acquisition: Studies in first language development, 2nd edn, 149173. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Stathopoulos, Elaine T., Hoit, Jeannette D., Hixon, Thomas J., Watson, Peter J. & Solomon, Nancy Pearl 1991. Respiratory and laryngeal function during whispering. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 34, 761767.
Steinbergs, Rita. 1993. The use of the paralinguistic sympathetic ingressive affirmative in speakers of English in the St. John's, Newfoundland area. M.A. dissertation, Memorial University.
Stern, Theodore. 1955. Drum and whistle ‘languages’: An analysis of speech surrogates. American Anthropologist 59 (3), 487506.
Stevens, Kenneth N. 1998. Acoustic phonetics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Stewart, R. B. 1968. By Ear Alone. American Annals of the Deaf 113, 147155.
Stølen, Marianne. 1994. Gender-related use of the ingressive Ja in informal conversation among native speakers of Danish. In Bucholtz, Mary, Liang, A. C., Sutton, Laurel A. & Hines, Caitlin (eds.), Cultural performances: The Third Berkeley Women and Language Conference, University of California, Berkeley, 668677. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press
Stølen, Marianne. 1995. Multi-functional ja: An analysis of the Danish affirmative ingressive ja as conversation structuring device in informal conversations. Nordlyd: Tromsø University Working Papers on Language and Linguistics 23, 217229.
Stopa, Roman. 1935. Die Schnalze, ihre Natur, Entwicklung und Ursprung. Kraków: Nakładem Polskiej Akademji Umiejetności.
Story, George Morley, Kirwin, W. J. & Widdowson, J. D. A.. 1982. Dictionary of Newfoundland English. Toronto, Buffalo & London: University of Toronto Press. [2nd edn. in 1990.]
Sunquist, Mel & Sunquist, Fiona. 2002. Wild cats of the world. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Szwed, John F. 1969. The mask of friendship: Mumming as a ritual of social relations. In Halpert, & Story, (eds.), 105–118.
Tchernichovski, Ofer, Mitra, Partha P., Lints, Thierry & Nottebohm, Fernando. 2001. Dynamics of the vocal imitation process: How a zebra finch learns its song. Science 291, 25642569.
Tenaza, Richard R. 1989. Intergroup calls of male pig-tailed langurs (Simias concolor). Primates 30 (2), 199206.
Thieberger, Nicholas Augustus. 2004. Topics in the grammar and documentation of South Efate, an Oceanic language of Central Vanuatu. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Melbourne.
Thom, Eleanor Josette. 2005. The Gaelic gasp and its North Atlantic cousins: A study of ingressive pulmonic speech in Scotland. M.A. dissertation, University College London.
Till, James A., Reich, Alan, Dickey, Stanley & Seiber, James. 1983. Phonatory and manual reaction times of stuttering and nonstuttering children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 26, 171180.
Toff, Nancy. 1996. The flute book: A complete guide for students and performers, 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [1st edn. in 1985.]
Trager, George L. 1958. Paralanguage: A first approximation. Studies in Linguistics 13 (1–2), 113.
Trager, George L. 1964. Paralanguage: A first approximation. In Dell Hymes (ed.), Language in culture and society, 274288. New York: Harper and Row.
Traill, Anthony. 1991. Pulmonic control, nasal venting, and aspiration in Khoisan languages. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 21 (1), 1318.
Trall, R. T. 1875. The human voice: Its anatomy, physiology, pathology, therapeutics, and training. New York: S. R. Wells & Company.
Trask, R. L. 1999. Key concepts in language and linguistics. London: Routledge.
Truby, H. M. & Lind, John. 1965. Cry sounds of the newborn infant. In Lind, John (ed.), Newborn Infant Cry, 759. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell.
Turner, William. 1857. Hand-book to atlas of human anatomy and physiology. Edinburgh: W. & A. K. Johnston.
Ursin, Markku. 2002. Triphone clustering in Finnish continuous speech recognition. M.A. dissertation, Helsinki University of Technology.
van den Berg, Jw., Zantema, J. T. & Doornenbal, P.. 1957. On the air resistance and the Bernoulli effect on the human larynx. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 29 (5), 626631.
Van Riper, Charles. 1982. The nature of stuttering, 2nd edn. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. [1st edn. in 1971.]
Vendryes, J. 1950. Le Langage. Introduction linguistique à l'histoire. Paris: Éditions Albin Michel.
Vendryes, J. 2003. Language: A linguistic introduction to history. London: Kegan Paul. [Translation of Vendryes 1950.]
Venkatagiri, Horabail S. 1981. Reaction time for voiced and whispered /a/ in stutterers and nonstutterers. Journal of Fluency Disorders 6, 265271.
Vidal de Battini, Berta Elena. 1949. El habla rural de San Luis, parte I: Fonética, Morfología, Sintaxis. Buenos Aires: Universidad de Buenos Aires, Faculdad de Filosofía y Letras, Instituto de Filología: Seccion Románica.
Viëtor, Wilhelm. n.d.a Elemente der Phonetik, 6th edn. Leipzig: O. R. Reisland.
Viëtor, Wilhelm. n.d.b Elemente der Phonetik, 14th edn. Leipzig: O. R. Reisland.
Viëtor, Wilhelm. 1884. Elemente der Phonetik und Orthoepie. Heilbronn: Verlag von Gebr. Henninger.
Voegelin, C. F. & Voegelin, F. M.. 1959. Guide for transcribing unwritten languages in field work. Anthropological Linguistics 1 (6), 128.
Voltaire [François-Marie Arouet]. 1734. Lettres philosophiques. Amsterdam: Chez E. Lucas.
Voltaire [François-Marie Arouet]. 1856. Philosophical dictionary, vol. II. Boston, MA: J. P. Mendum.
Voltaire [François-Marie Arouet]. 1880. Œuvres completes de Voltaire. Paris: Garnier Frères.
Voorhuis, Paul H. 1976. Notes on Kickapoo whistle speech. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 1434–1443.
Vox, Valentine. 1981. I can see your lips moving: The history and art of ventriloquism. London: Kaye & Ward.
Vroomen, Jean, Bertelson, Paul & de Gelder, Beatrice. 2001a. The ventriloquist effect does not depend on the direction of automatic visual attention. Perception & Psychophysics 43 (4), 651659.
Vroomen, Jean, Bertelson, Paul & de Gelder, Beatrice. 2001b. Directing spatial attention towards the illusory location of a ventriloquized sound. Acta Psychologica 108 (1), 2133.
Waller, Augustus D. 1891/1896. An introduction to human physiology, 1st/3rd edns. London: Longmans, Green, And Co.
Wallin, Nils L., Merker, Björn & Brown, Steven (eds.). 2000. The origins of music. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Ward, Nigel. 2000. The challenge of non-lexical speech sounds. International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP) 2000, Beijing, vol. 2, 571574.
Waugh, Alice C. 1995. Hale hopes to preserve languages. MIT Tech Talk 39 (29). [A revised version at]
Weber, Ernst. 1974. Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Bioakustik von Discoglossus pictus, OTTH 1837 und Discoglossus sardus, TSCHUDI 1837 (Discoglossidae, Anura). Zoologische Jahrbuch für Physiologie 78, 4084.
Weismer, Gary. 1985. Speech breathing: Contemporary views and findings. In Daniloff, Raymond G. (ed.), Speech science: Recent advances, 4772. London: Taylor & Francis.
Wells, John C. & Coulson, Greta. 1971. Practical phonetics. London: Pitman.
Westbury, John R. & Weiss, Clarissa J.. 2003. Articulator movements in ventriloquists' speech. 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS), Barcelona, 1037–1040.
Whiteley, H. Ellen. 2006. Understanding and training your cat or kitten. New York: Crown Trade Paperbacks.
Wiik, Kalevi. 1981. Fonetiikan perustet. Porvoo–Helsinki–Juva: Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö.
Wilczynski, W., McClelland, B. E. & Rand, A. S.. 1993. Acoustic, auditory, and morphological divergence in three species of neotropical frog. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 172, 425438.
Wild, J. M., Goller, Franz & Suthers, R. A.. 1998. Inspiratory muscle activity during bird song. Journal of Neurobiology 36, 441453.
Williams, Clyde E. 1969. Janneying in ‘Coughlin Cove’. In Halpert, & Story, (eds.), 209–215.
Winkworth, Alison L., Davis, Pamela J., Adams, Roger D. & Ellis, Elizabeth. 1995. Breathing patterns during spontaneous speech. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 38, 124144.
Winteler, J. 1876. Die Kerenzer Mundart des Kantons Glarus. Leipzig & Heidelberg: C. F. Winter'sche Verlagshandlung.
Woods, Howard B. 1999. The Ottawa Survey of Canadian English. Kingston, Ontario: Strathy Language Unit, Queen's University.
Wootton, Anthony. 1997. Speech to and from a severely retarded young Down's Syndrome child. In Beveridge, Michael, Conti-Ramsdem, Gina & Leudar, Ivan (eds.), Language and communication in people with learning disabilities, 157184. London: Routledge.
Wyke, Barry (ed.). 1974. Ventilatory and phonatory systems. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Zwaardemaker, H. 1909. La phonétique experimentale considérée au point de vue medical. Paris: Librarie J.-B. Baillière et fils.
Zwaardemaker, H. & Eijkman, L. P. H.. 1928. Leerboek der Phonetiek. Haarlem: De Erven F. Bohn N.