Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Pulmonic ingressive phonation: Diachronic and synchronic characteristics, distribution and function in animal and human sound production and in human speech

  • Robert Eklund (a1)
Abstract

This paper looks at the phenomenon of ingressive speech, i.e. speech produced on a pulmonic ingressive airstream, set in the context of human and animal ingressive phonation. The literature on ingressive speech and phonation spanning several centuries is reviewed, as well as contemporary reports of their incidence and characteristics from both functional and acoustic perspectives. Ingressive phonation has been used as a deliberate means of speech or sound production for hundreds of years in order to achieve specific effects, and it is still used for the same purposes, by e.g. shamans and ventriloquists. In normal spoken conversation – contrary to what is often claimed – present-day ingressive speech is not limited to Scandinavia or Nordic languages, but is found on all continents, in genetically unrelated languages. Where ingressive speech occurs, it serves more or less the same paralinguistic functions, such as a feedback marker in a dialog. Since pulmonic ingressive phonation is also common in the calls of monkeys and apes, thus exhibiting a biological basis, it is suggested that ingressive speech might constitute a neglected universal phenomenon, rather than being highly marked, which is how it is commonly described in the literature.

Copyright
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Jens Allwood . 2000. The structure of dialog. In Martin M. Taylor , Françoise Néel & Don G. Bouwhuis (eds.), Structure of multimodal dialog II, 324. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Jens Allwood , Leif Grönqvist , Elisabeth Ahlsén & Magnus Gunnarsson . 2001b. Annotations and tools for an activity based spoken language corpus. In Jan van Kuppevelt & Ronnie Smith (eds.), 2nd SIGdial Workshop on Discourse and Dialogue, 110. Aalborg.

Adam Clark Arcadi . 1996. Phrase structure of wild chimpanzee hoots: Patterns of production and interpopulation variability. American Journal of Primatology 39, 159178.

Martin J. Ball 1991a. Recent developments in the transcription of non-normal speech. Journal of Communication Disorders 24, 5978.

Martin J. Ball 1991b. Computer coding of the IPA: Extensions to the IPA. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 21 (1), 3641.

Martin J. Ball , Chris Code , Joan Rahilly & Diane Hazlett . 1994. Non-segmental aspects of disordered speech: Developments in transcription. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 8 (1), 6783.

Martin J. Ball , John H. Esling & Craig Dickson . 1995. The VoQS system for the transcription of voice quality. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2), 7180.

Martin J. Ball & Orla Lowry . 2001. Methods in clinical phonetics. London: Whurr Publishers.

Martin J. Ball & Nicole Müller . 2007. Non-pulmonic-egressive speech in clinical data: A brief review. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics 21 (11–12), 869874.

Jonathan Beard . 2005. Whistle spoken here. Scientific American Mind 16 (2), 6.

Barbara Bernhardt & Martin J. Ball . 1993. Characteristics of atypical speech currently not included in the extensions to the IPA. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (1), 3538.

Gary G. Berntson , Sarah T. Boysen , Harold R. Bauer & Michael S. Torello . 1989. Conspecific screams and laughter: Cardiac and behavioral reactions of infant chimpanzees. Developmental Psychobiology 22 (8), 771787.

Juliette Blevins . 2004. Evolutionary phonology: The emergence of sounds patterns. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Anete Branco , Mara Behlau & Maria Inês Rehder . 2005. The neonate cry after cesarean section and vaginal delivery during the first minutes of life. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 69, 681689.

Anete Branco , Saskia M. W. Fekete , Ligia M. S. S. Rugolo & Maria Inês Rehder . 2007. The newborn pain cry: Descriptive acoustic spectrographic analysis. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 71 (4), 539–46.

Laurel J. Brinton 2000. The structure of modern English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

H. Myron Bromley . 1961. The phonology of Lower Grand Valley Dani: A comparative structural study of skewed phonemic patterns (Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, deel 34). 's–Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff.

René-Guy Busnel & André Classe . 1976. Whistled languages (Communication and Cybernetics 13). Berlin: Springer.

Manuel Carreiras , Jorge Lopez , Francisco Rivero & David Carina . 2005. Neural processing of a whistled language. Nature 433, 3132.

Steven B. Chin . 2003. Children's consonant inventories after extended cochlear implant use. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 46 (4), 849862.

Chul-Hwa Chung & Kyung-Ja Chung . 1993. Back ground [sic] study. Ms., Summer Institute of Linguistics, Papua New Guinea.

André Classe . 1957. The whistled language of La Gomera. Scientific American 196, 111120.

André Classe . 1976a. The phonetics of the Silbo Gomero. In Sebeok & Umiker-Sebeok (eds.), 966–982.

Jennifer Coates . 1986. Women, men and language: A sociolinguistic account of gender differences in language. London: Longman.

Steven Connor . 2000. Dumbstruck: A cultural history of ventriloquism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kay Coombes . 1987. Speech therapy. In William Yule & Michael Rutter (eds.), Language development and disorders, 350366. Oxford: Mac Keith Press & Blackwell.

Michael J. Corwin & Howard L. Golub . 1985. Medical applications of infant cry analysis. In Aubrey Milunsky , Emanuel A. Friedman & Louis Gluck (eds.), Advances in perinatal medicine, vol. 4, 163188. New York: Plenum Press.

George M. Cowan 1972. Segmental features of Tepehua whistle speech. In André Rigault & René Charbonneau (eds.), 7th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS), Montreal (Janua Linguarum, series maior 57), 695698. The Hague: Mouton.

George M. Cowan 1976a. Whistled Tepehua. In Sebeok & Umiker-Sebeok (eds.), 1400–1409.

Douglas E. Cross & Harold L. Luper . 1983. Relation between finger reaction time and voice reaction time in stuttering and nonstuttering children and adults. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 26, 356361.

Alan Cruttenden . 1986. Intonation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Alan Cruttenden (ed.). 2001. Gimson's Pronunciation of English, 6th edn. London: Arnold.

Marina Davila Ross & Thomas Geissmann . 2007. Call diversity of wild male orangutans: A phylogenetic approach. American Journal of Primatology 69, 305324.

K. Dedouch , J. Horáček , T. Vampola , J. G. Švec , P. Kršek & R. Havlik . 2002. Acoustic modal analysis of male vocal tract for Czech vowels. In I. Zolotarev (ed.), Interaction and Feedbacks 2002, 1319. Prague: Institute of Thermodynamic AS CR.

Alan F. Dixson 1998. Primate sexuality: Comparative studies of the promisians, monkeys, apes, and human beings. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

F. Eboué 1935. La clef musicale des langages tambourines et sifflés. Bulletin du Comité d'Ètudes Historiques et Scientifiques de l'Afrique Occidentale Française 18 (2–3), 353360.

Nick Evans [Nicholas]. 1995. Current issues in the phonology of Australian languages. In John A. Goldsmith (ed.), The handbook of phonological theory, 723761. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Leila Susana Finger & Carla Aparecida Cielo . 2007. Reverse phonation – physiologic and clinical aspects of this speech voice therapy modality. Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology 73 (2), 271277.

Eli Fischer-Jørgensen . 1962. Almen Fonetik, 3rd edn. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde og Bagger.

Len Fisher . 2005. Why and how do cats purr? BBC Focus 152, 41.

T. Frint & A. Kelemen . 1969. Inspiratorische Stimmbildung psychogenen Ursprunges. Folia Phoniatrica 21 (2), 105111.

Abbot S. Gaunt & Sandra L. L. Gaunt . 1977. Mechanics of the syrinx in Gallus gallus, part II: Electromyographic studies of ad libitum vocalizations. Journal of Morphology 152 (1), 120.

Michael Fuller . 1990. Pulmonic ingressive fricatives in Tsou. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 20 (2), 914.

Thomas Geissmann . 1984. Inheritance of song parameters in the gibbon song, analysed in 2 hybrid gibbons (Hylobates pileatus × H. lar). Folia Primatologica 42, 216235.

Thomas Geissmann . 2000. Gibbon song and human music from an evolutionary perspective. In Wallin (eds.), 103–123.

Thomas Geissmann & R. Dallmann . 2002. Die Gesäng der Gibbons und die Evolution der Musik. Praxis der Naturwissenschaften 51 (1), 2129.

Thomas Geissmann & Vincent Nijman . 2006. Calling in wild silvery gibbons (Hylobates moloch) in Java (Indonesia): Behavior, phylogeny, and conservation. American Journal of Primatology 68, 119.

David Gil . 2005. Paralinguistic usages of clicks. In Martin Haspelmath , Matthew Dryer , David Gil & Bernard Comrie (eds.), The world atlas of language structures, 570573. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Steven Gillis , Karen Schauwers & Paul J. Govaerts . 2002. Babbling milestones and beyond: Early speech development in CI children. In Karen Schauwers , Paul J. Govaerts & Steven Gillis (eds.), Language acquisition in very young children with a cochlear implant (Antwerp Papers in Linguistics 102), 2339. Antwerp: University of Antwerp.

Howard L. Golub & Michael J. Corwin . 1982. Infant cry: A clue to diagnosos. Pediatrics 69 (2), 197201.

Jane Goodall . 1986. The chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of behavior. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University.

Wilbur J. Gould & Hiroshi Okamura . 1974. Interrelationships between voice and laryngeal mucosal reflexes. In Wyke (ed.), 347–369.

Terry Gunnell . 1995. The origins of drama in Scandinavia. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer.

Hermann Gutzmann . 1909. Physiologie der Stimme und Sprache. Braunschweig: Druck und Verlag von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn.

Herbert Halpert . 1969. A typology of mumming. In Halpert & Story (eds.), 35–61.

Franciscus Mercurius B. van Helmont . 1657. Alphabeti vere Naturalis Hebraici. . . Sulzbaci: Typis Abrahami Lichtenthaleri.

Jeannette D Hoit . & Thomas J. Hixon . 1987. Age and speech breathing. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 30, 351366.

Janet Holmes . 1984. Hedging your bets and sitting on the fence: Some evidence for hedges as support structures. Te Reo 27, 4762.

Philip Hoole . 1999. Einsatz der elektromagnetischen Artikulographie bei der Analyse lingualer Sprechbewegungen. In V. Hahn , C. Schneider & H. Hahn (eds.), Schauplatz Mund: Das orofaziale System als Sensomotorische Einheit, 101114. Munich: Verlag Arbeitskreis für myofunktionelle Therapie.

Philip Hoole , Kevin Munhall & Christine Mooshammer . 1998. Do airstream mechanisms influence tongue movement paths? Phonetica 55, 131146.

William M. Hurley 1976. The Kickapoo whistle system: A speech surrogate. In Sebeok & Umiker-Sebeok (eds.), 1426–1433.

Dell Hymes . 1993. Fivefold fanfare for coyote. In William Bright (ed.), A coyote reader, 5055. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Junichiro Itani . 1963. Vocal communication of the wild Japanese monkey. Primates 4 (2), 1166.

Howard Jackson . 1980. Analyzing English: An introduction to descriptive linguistics. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Gail Jefferson . 1984b. On stepwise transition from talk about a trouble to inappropriately next-positioned matters. In Atkinson & Heritage (eds.), 191–222.

Mary Ritchie Key . 1975b. Male/female language. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press.

Christian Gottlieb Kratzenstein [Christiani Theophili]. 1781. Tentamen resolvendi problema ab. . . St. Petersburg: Typis Academiae Scientiarum.

Peter Ladefoged . 1971. Preliminaries to linguistic phonetics. Chicago, IL & London: University of Chicago Press.

Peter Ladefoged & Anthony Traill . 1984. Linguistic phonetic descriptions of clicks. Language 60 (1), 120.

M. Lajard 1976. Le langage sifflée des Canaries. In Sebeok & Umiker-Sebeok (eds.), 954–965.

William Lamb . 2003. Scottish Gaelic, 2nd edn. Munich: Lincom Europa.

John Laver . 2000. Linguistic phonetics. In Mark Aronoff & Janie Rees-Miller (eds.), The handbook of linguistics, 150179. Oxford: Blackwell.

Ellouise Leadbeater , Franz Goller & Katharina Riebel . 2005. Unusual phonation, covarying song characteristics and song preferences in female zebra finches. Animal Behavior 70, 909919.

Quentin H. Lehmann 1965. Reverse phonation: A new maneuver for examining the larynx. Radiology 84, 215222.

Pierre R. Léon 1993. Phonétisme et prononciations du français. Paris: Nathan Université.

John Local & Gareth Walker . To appear. Stance and affect in conversation: On the interplay of sequential and phonetic resources. Text & Talk.

Michael K. C. MacMahon 2006. English phonetics. In Bas Aarts & April McMahon (eds.), The handbook of English linguistics, 359381. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

F. Magendie 1838. [See Revere 1855 entry below.]

Senko K. Maynard 1986. On back-channel behavior in Japanese and English casual communication. Linguistics 24, 10791108.

Senko K. Maynard 1990. An introduction to Japanese grammar and communication strategies. Tokyo: The Japan Times.

David H. McFarland 2001. Respiratory markers of conversational interaction. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 44, 128143.

Carl. Ludwig Merkel . 1857. Anatomie und Physiologie des menschlichen Stimm- und Sprach-organs (Anthropophonik). Leipzig: Verlag von Ambrosius Abel.

Julien Meyer . 2004. Bioacoustics of human whistled languages: An alternative approach to the cognitive processes of language. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 76 (2), 405412.

Julien Meyer . 2008. Typology and acoustic strategies of whistled languages: Phonetic comparison and perceptual cues of whistled vowels. Journal of the International Phonetic Assocation 38 (1), 6994.

A. G. Mitchell 1957. Spoken English. London: MacMillan & Co.

Paul Moore & Hans Von Leden . 1958. Dynamic variations of the vibratory pattern in the normal larynx. Folia Phoniatrica 10, 205238.

Donald E. Mowrer , Leonard L LaPointe & James Case . 1987. Analysis of five acoustic correlates of laughter. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 11 (3), 191199.

J. Müller 1843. Elements of physiology. Philadelphia, PA: Lea and Blanchard.

Donna Jo Napoli . 1996. Linguistics: Theory and problems. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jean-Jacques. Nattiez 1983a. The rekkukara of the Ainu (Japan) and the katajjaq of the Inuit (Canada): A comparison. The world of music: Information bulletin of the Conseil international de la musique 25, 3344. Wilhelmshaven Noetzel: Heinrichshofen Books.

Tomás Navarro Tomás . 1945. Cuestionario lingüistico hispoamericano. I. Fonética, morfología, sintaxis, 2nd edn. Buenos Aires: Facultad de Filosofía y Letras de la Universidad de Buenos Aires.

No[l]let, abbé [Jean Antoine]. 1754–1765. Leçons de physique experimentale, vol. 3. Amsterdam & Leipzig: Chez Arkstée & Merkus.

Eva E. Nwokah , Hui-Chin Hsu , Patricia Davies & Alan Fogel . 1999. The integration of laughter and speech in vocal communication: A Dynamic Systems perspective. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 42, 880894.

K. R. Nyrop 1924. Manuel phonétique du français parlé, 4th edn. Copenhague & Kristiania: Gyldendalske Boghandel, Nordisk Forlag.

John J. Ohala 1983. The origin of sound patterns in vocal tract constraints. In Peter MacNeilage (ed.), The production of speech, 189216. New York: Springer. [Also in Charles W. Kreidler (ed.), Phonology: Critical concepts, vol. IV: From rules to constraints, 5–31. London: Routledge.]

John J. Ohala , Alexandra Dunn & Ronald Sprouse . 2004. Prosody and phonology. Speech Prosody 2004, Nara, 161–163. http://www.isca-speech.org/archive/.

Mary E. O'Regan & J. Keith Brown . 2001. The neurology of speech and language disorders in children, part II: Disorders of speech. In Helen Cockerill & Lesley Carroll-Few (eds.), Communicating without speech: Practical augmentative & alternative communication, 3364. London: Mac Keith Press.

Harold Paddock . 1981. A dialect survey of Carbonear, Newfoundland (Publication of the American Dialect Society/PADS 68/1982). University of Alabama Press. [Revised version of 1966 M.A. thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland.]

Benjamin Peirce . 1836. An elementary treatise on sound. Boston, MA: James Munroe and Company.

W. E. Powers , S. Holtz & J. Ogura . 1964. Contrast examination of the larynx and pharynx. American Journal of Roentgenology, Radium Therapy and Nuclear Medicine 92 (1), 4042.

PRDS (Phonetic Representation of Disordered Speech). 1983. The phonetic representation of disordered speech (Final Report of the PRDS Working Party; King's Fund Project Paper 38). London: The King's Fund.

Athanassios Protopapas . 1993. An assessment of the perceptual role of individual acoustic features of infant cries. M.A. dissertation, Brown University.

Byron Reeves & Clifford Nass . 1996. The media equation: How people treat computers, television, and new media like real people and places. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.

A. Réthi 1965. Über die Heilung des Stotterns und der Dysphonia spastica mittels inspiratorisch-exspiratorischer Stimmbildung. Monatsschrift für Ohrenheilkunde und Laryngo-Rhinologie 99, 240246.

John Revere . 1855. An elementary treatise on human physiology, 5th edn.New York: Harper & Brothers. [An enlarged translation of F. Magendie's Précis elémentaire de physiologie, 1838.]

M. Le Baron Richerand [Anthelme Balthasar]. 1837. Nouveaux éléments de physiologie. Bruxelles: H. Dumont.

John R. Rickford & Angela E. Rickford . 1976. Cut-eye and suck-teeth: African words and gestures in New World guise. The Journal of American Folklore 89 (353), 294309.

A. C. M. Rietveld & V. J. van Heuven . 1997. Algemene fonetiek. Bussum: Dick Coutinho.

Walter Rip[p]man . 1910/1918. Elements of phonetics: English, French & German, 7th edn. London: J. M. Dent & Sons. [Translation of Viëtor 1884; 1st edn. in 1899, 7th edn. in 1910.]

Walter Ripman . 1933?. English phonetics and specimens of English. London: J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd.

Ross J. Roeser , Donise W. Pearson & Emily A. Tobey . 1998. Speech–language pathology desk reference. New York: Thieme.

Henry Rogers . 2000. The sounds of language: An introduction to phonetics. Harlow: Pearson.

B. S. Rosner & J. B. Pickering . 1994. Vowel perception and production. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Linus Jonatan Salö . 2007. .jo – en studie i användning av ett ingressivt talfenomen. Ms., term paper, Umeå University.

Thomas A. Sebeok & Donna Jean Umiker-Sebeok (eds.). 1976. Speech surrogates: Drums and whistle systems. The Hague & Paris: Mouton.

Christine H. Shadle 1991. The effect of geometry on source mechanisms of fricative consonants. Journal of Phonetics 19, 409424.

Christine H. Shadle & Celia Scully . 1995. An articulatory-acoustic-aerodynamic analysis of [s] in VCV sequences. Journal of Phonetics 23, 5366.

Keisuke Shiba , Shiroh Isono & Ken Nakazawa . 2007. Paradoxical vocal cord motion: A review focused on multiple system atrophy. Auris Nasus Larynx 34, 443452.

Graham Shorrocks . 2003. Pulmonic ingressive speech in Newfoundland English: A case of Irish-English influence? In Hildegard L. C. Tristram (ed.), The Celtic Englishes III, 374478. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag C. Winter.

Ryan Shosted . 2006. Whistled fricatives [] in Bantu: Acoustic origins. Presented at the Linguistic Society of America Meeting, Albuquerque, NM; 7 January 2006.

Gerald M. Sider 1976. Christmas mumming and the New Year in outport Newfoundland. Past and Present 71, 102125.

Benjamin Silliman . 1861. Principles of physics, 2nd edn. Philadelphia, PA: H. C. Peck & Theo. Bliss.

Elaine T. Stathopoulos , Jeannette D. Hoit , Thomas J. Hixon , Peter J. Watson & Nancy Pearl Solomon 1991. Respiratory and laryngeal function during whispering. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 34, 761767.

Theodore Stern . 1955. Drum and whistle ‘languages’: An analysis of speech surrogates. American Anthropologist 59 (3), 487506.

Kenneth N. Stevens 1998. Acoustic phonetics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Marianne Stølen . 1994. Gender-related use of the ingressive Ja in informal conversation among native speakers of Danish. In Mary Bucholtz , A. C. Liang , Laurel A. Sutton & Caitlin Hines (eds.), Cultural performances: The Third Berkeley Women and Language Conference, University of California, Berkeley, 668677. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press

Eleanor Josette Thom . 2005. The Gaelic gasp and its North Atlantic cousins: A study of ingressive pulmonic speech in Scotland. M.A. dissertation, University College London.

James A. Till , Alan Reich , Stanley Dickey & James Seiber . 1983. Phonatory and manual reaction times of stuttering and nonstuttering children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 26, 171180.

George L. Trager 1964. Paralanguage: A first approximation. In Dell Hymes (ed.), Language in culture and society, 274288. New York: Harper and Row.

H. M. Truby & John Lind . 1965. Cry sounds of the newborn infant. In John Lind (ed.), Newborn Infant Cry, 759. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell.

J. Vendryes 1950. Le Langage. Introduction linguistique à l'histoire. Paris: Éditions Albin Michel.

Wilhelm Viëtor . n.d.aElemente der Phonetik, 6th edn. Leipzig: O. R. Reisland.

Nils L. Wallin , Björn Merker & Steven Brown (eds.). 2000. The origins of music. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Clyde E. Williams 1969. Janneying in ‘Coughlin Cove’. In Halpert & Story (eds.), 209–215.

Alison L. Winkworth , Pamela J. Davis , Roger D. Adams & Elizabeth Ellis . 1995. Breathing patterns during spontaneous speech. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 38, 124144.

Howard B. Woods 1999. The Ottawa Survey of Canadian English. Kingston, Ontario: Strathy Language Unit, Queen's University.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Phonetic Association
  • ISSN: 0025-1003
  • EISSN: 1475-3502
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-phonetic-association
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 23
Total number of PDF views: 75 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 647 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th August 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.