Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Standards of English and politics of inclusion

  • Adrian Holliday (a1)
Abstract

Standards of English for English language teacher education need to consider political as well as linguistic factors. Any definition of such standards on the basis of speakerhood would immediately fall into the trap of native-speakerist discrimination, which is intensified by unspoken associations with ‘ethnicity’. Who can be recognized as ‘native speaker’ or ‘near-native speaker’ is not simply a matter of language. Any definition of English standards must therefore acknowledge an alternative established belief that all users of English can claim ownership of the language. This factor is, however, complicated by the recent suggestions that there can be a non-aligned, international English lingua franca, themselves being perceived as Centre-driven. Standards must therefore be convincingly de-Centred, and must allow those who consider themselves Periphery to take Centre-stage. They must be cosmopolitan, non-centred, professional, earned, prestigious and cultured.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Amin N. 1999. Minority women teachers of ESL: Negotiating white English. In Braine G. (ed.), Non-native educators in English language teaching. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 93104.
Anderson C. 2003. The dominant discourse in British EFL: The methodological contradictions of a professional culture. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Language Studies, Canterbury Christ Church University.
Beck U. & Sznaider N. 2006. Unpacking cosmopolitanism for the social sciences: A research agenda. The British Journal of Sociology 57.1, 123.
Bhabha H. 1994. The location of culture. London: Routledge.
Braine G. 1999. Non-native educators in English language teaching. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Canagarajah S. 1999. On EFL teachers, awareness and agency. ELT Journal 53.3, 207214.
Canagarajah S. 2006. Changing communicative needs, revised assessment objectives: Testing English as an international language. Language Assessment Quarterly 3.3, 229242.
Crane D. 1994. Introduction: The challenge of the sociology of culture to sociology as discipline. In Crane (ed.) (1994a), 119.
Crane D. (ed.) 1994a. The sociology of culture. Oxford: Blackwell.
Davies A. 2006. The native speaker in applied linguistics. In Davies A. & Elder C. (eds.), The handbook of applied linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell, 431450.
Delanty G. 2006. The cosmopolitan imagination: Critical cosmopolitanism and social theory. British Journal of Sociology 57.1, 2547.
Grande E. 2006. Cosmopolitan political science. The British Journal of Sociology 57.1, 87111.
Holliday A. 1994. Appropriate methodology and social context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Holliday A. 1999. Small cultures. Applied Linguistics 20.2, 237264.
Holliday A. 2005. The struggle to teach English as an international language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Jenkins J. 2000. The phonology of English as an international language: New models, new norms, new goals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Jenkins J. 2006. Global intelligibility and local diversity: Possibility or paradox? In Rudby R. & Saraceni M. (eds.), English in the world. London: Continuum, 3239.
Kabbani R. 1988. Devise and rule: Europe's myths of orient. London: Pandora Press.
Kamal A. 2006. The challenges and experiences of teaching in Kuwait. Presented at Cutting Edges: Classrooms, People and Cultures; Department of Language Studies, Canterbury Christ Church University.
Kubota R. 2002. (Un)ravelling racism in a nice field like TESOL. TESOL Quarterly 36.1, 8492.
Kubota R., Bashir-Ali K., Canagarajah S., Kamhi-Stein L., Lee E. & Shin H. 2005. Race and (non)nativeness in English language teaching: A brief report. NNEST Newsletter 7.2.
Kumaravadivelu B. 2003. Problematizing cultural stereotypes in TESOL. TESOL Quarterly 37.4, 709719.
Kumaravadivelu B. 2007. Cultural globalization and language education. Yale, CT: Yale University Press.
Kuo I-C. 2006. Addressing the issue of teaching English as a lingua franca. ELT Journal 60.3, 213–21.
Lankshear C., Gee P. J., Knobel M. & Searle C. 1997. Changing literacies. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Latour B. 2006. War of the worlds – what about peace? <http://www.btgjapan.org/catalysts/bruno.html> accessed 17/7/07.
Maley A. 2006. Questions of English. English Teaching Professional 46, 46.
Nayar B. 2002. Ideological binarism in the identities of native and non-native English speakers. In Duszac A. (ed.), Us and others: Social identities across languages, discourse and cultures. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 463480.
Pennycook A. 1998. English and the discourses of colonialism. London: Routledge.
Pennycook A. (2003). Global Englishes, Rip Slyme, and performativity. Journal of Sociolinguistics 7.4, 513533.
Petrić B. 2006. ‘[I thought I was an Easterner; it turns out I am a Westerner!’: Migrant teachers in changing educational contexts. Presented at Cutting Edges: Classrooms, Cultures and People; Department of Language Studies, Canterbury Christ Church University.
Rajagopalan K. 1999. Of EFL teachers, conscience and cowardice. ELT Journal 53.3, 200206.
Said E. 1978. Orientalism. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Said E. 2003. Preface to Orientalism. Al-Ahram weekly online: 7 – 13 August Issue No. 650. <http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2003/650/op11.htm> accessed 1/6/03.
Saraceni M. 2007. What is English? – A critique of the relocation of English. Presented at the 41st IATEFL Annual Conference, Aberdeen.
Schudson M. 1994. Culture and the integration of national societies. In Crane (ed.) (1994a), 1–3.
Seidlhofer B. 2002. Habeas corpus and divide et empera: ‘Global’ English and applied linguistics. In Miller K. Spellman & Thompson P. (eds.), Unity and diversity in language use. London: BAAL and Continuum, 198220.
Seidlhofer B. 2006. English as a lingua franca in the expanding circle: What it isn't. In Rubdy R. & Saraceni M. (eds.), English in the world. London: Continuum, 4050.
Shao T. 2005. Teaching English in China: NNESTS need not apply. NNEST Newsletter 7.2.
Shuck G. 2002. Constructing the non-native speaker in everyday discourse. Presented at the AAAL Annual Conference (Re)interpreting Applied Linguistics, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Language Teaching
  • ISSN: 0261-4448
  • EISSN: 1475-3049
  • URL: /core/journals/language-teaching
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 9
Total number of PDF views: 212 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 477 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.