This is an overview of research on foreign language (FL) teaching published by Polish researchers in the years of 2000–2006. We begin with an outline of the history and the current sociopolitical situation of FL teaching in Poland, which prepares the ground for further discussion. Next, we focus on studies concerned with the evaluation of the recent teaching methodology. The analysis of bilingual programmes and multilingual competence is discussed in ‘Bilingual education and multilingualism’, the process of learning different aspects of language competence is explored in ‘FL learning and second language acquisition’, and cultural issues under a separate heading, ‘Cultural awareness’. In ‘The language learner’, we review studies investigating learner variables which have an important impact on language learning. With new educational directives from the Ministry of Education, emphasising the need for a more reliable assessment, new concepts and studies evaluating them are discussed in ‘Testing and evaluation’. The availability of computers has produced studies assessing various uses of computers in fostering language learning, presented in ‘Application of new technologies’. Finally, in ‘Teacher education’, we report on studies related to FL teacher development.