Skip to main content

A new perspective on Punctelia subrudecta (Parmeliaceae) in North America: previously rejected morphological characters corroborate molecular phylogenetic evidence and provide insight into an old problem

  • James C. LENDEMER (a1) and Brendan P. HODKINSON (a2)

In North America the names Punctelia subrudecta and P. perreticulata have variously been applied to corticolous sorediate Punctelia specimens with lecanoric acid and a pale lower surface. ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2 sequence data were generated from a geographically and morphologically broad sampling from within these specimens, and a molecular phylogeny was inferred. A combined approach using morphology, geography, and phylogeny was used to circumscribe three distinct species in North America, one of which is described as new to science (P. caseana), one of which is finally confirmed for the continent (P. jeckeri), and one whose original circumscription is validated (P. perreticulata). The phylogeny inferred from ITS sequence data supports the taxonomic value of the following morphological characters for distinguishing species in this group: presence/absence of pruina; conidium type and length (although see discussion of P. jeckeri), and presence/absence of scrobiculae on the upper surface. A key to the North American species of Punctelia is provided.

Hide All
Adler, M. T. & Ahti, T. (1996) The distinction of Punctelia perreticulata and P. subrudecta (Parmeliaceae, Lecanorales). Lichenologist 28: 431436.
Altschul, S., Madden, T. L., Schaffer, A. A., Zhang, J., Zhang, Z., Miller, W. & Lipman, D. J. (1997) Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Research 25: 33893402.
Aptroot, A. (2003) A new perspective on the sorediate Punctelia (Parmeliaceae) species of North America. Bryologist 106: 317319.
Bouly de Lesdain, M. (1942). Lichens de l'Etat de New Mexico (USA) recueillis par le Frère G. Arsène Brouard. Revue Bryologique et Lichénologique 12: 4466.
Brodo, I. M., Sharnoff, S. D. & Sharnoff, S. (2001) Lichens of North America. New Haven & London: Yale University Press.
Crespo, A., Divakar, P. K., Argüello, A., Gasca, C. & Hawksworth, D. L. (2004) Molecular studies on Punctelia species of the Iberian Peninsula, with an emphasis on specimens newly colonizing Madrid. Lichenologist, 36: 299308.
Culberson, W. L. & Culberson, C. F. (1980) Microconidial dimorphism in the lichen genus Parmelia. Mycologia 72: 127135.
Culberson, C. F. & Kristinsson, H. (1970) A standardized method for the indentification of lichen products. Journal of Chromatography, 46: 8593.
Egan, R. S. (2002) Revised catalog of the lichens and lichenicolous fungi of New Mexico. Evansia 19: 4168.
Egan, R. S. & Aptroot, A. (2004) Punctelia. In Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 2 (Nash, T. H. III, Ryan, B. D., Diederich, P., Gries, C. & Bungartz, F., eds.): 431436. Tempe, Arizona: Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University.
Felsenstein, J. (1985) Confidence limits on phylogenies: An approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39: 783791.
Flenniken, D. G. (1999) The Macrolichens in West Virginia. Wooster, Ohio: published by the author.
Gaya, E., Lutzoni, F., Zoller, S. & Navarro-Rosinés, P. (2003) Phylogenetic study of Fulgensia and allied Caloplaca, and Xanthoria species (Teloschistaceae, lichen-forming Ascomycota). American Journal of Botany 90: 10951103.
Gaya, E., Navarro-Rosinés, P., Llimona, X., Hladun, N. & Lutzoni, F. (2008) Phylogenetic reassessment of the Teloschistaceae (lichen-forming Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes). Mycological Research 112: 528546.
Hale, M. E. Jr. (1979) How to Know the Lichens. 2nd ed. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Co.
Harris, R.C. & Ladd, D. (2005) Preliminary Draft: Ozark Lichens. Enumerating the Lichens of the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas, Illinois, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. Prepared for the 14th Tuckerman Lichen Workshop, Eureka Springs, AK.
Hillis, D. M., Morritz, C. & Mabel, B. K. (1996). Molecular Systematics 2nd ed.. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates Inc.
Hinds, J. W. & Hinds, P. L. (2007) The Macrolichens of New England. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden No. 96. Bronx, New York: New York Botanical Garden Press.
Hodkinson, B. P. & Lutzoni, F. (2009) A microbiotic survey of lichen-associated bacteria reveals a new lineage from the Rhizobiales. Symbiosis 49: 163180.
Kalb, K. (2007) New or otherwise interesting lichens. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 95: 297316.
Kauff, F., Miądlikowska, J. & Lutzoni, F. (2003) Arc – a Program for Ambiguous Region Coding. v.1.5. Duke University, Durham.
Krog, H. (1982) Punctelia, a new lichen genus in the Parmeliaceae. Nordic Journal of Botany 2: 287292.
Larkin, M. A., Blackshields, G., Brown, N. P., Chenna, R., McGettigan, P. A., McWilliam, H., Valentin, F., Wallace, I. M., Wilm, A., Lopez, R., et al. (2007) ClustalW and ClustalX version 2. Bioinformatics, 23: 29472948.
Lendemer, J. C. (2004) Lichens of Eastern North America exsiccati. Fascicle III, nos. 101–150. Opuscula Philolichenum 1: 4154.
Lendemer, J. C. & Hodkinson, B. P. (2009). The wisdom of fools: new molecular and morphological insights into the North American apodetiate species of Cladonia. Opuscula Philolichenum 7: 79100.
Lutzoni, F., Wagner, P., Reeb, V. & Zoller, S. (2000) Integrating ambiguously aligned regions of DNA sequences in phylogenetic analyses without violating positional homology. Systematic Biology 49: 628651.
Maddison, W. P. & Maddison, D. R. (2009) Mesquite: a Modular System for Evolutionary Analysis. version 2.6.
Miądlikowska, J., Lutzoni, F., Goward, T., Zoller, S. & Posada, D. (2003) New approach to an old problem: incorporating signal from gap-rich regions of ITS and nrDNA large subunit into phylogenetic analyses to resolve the Peltigera canina species complex. Mycologia 95: 11811203.
Miądlikowska, J., McCune, B. & Lutzoni, F. (2002) Pseudocyphellaria perpetua, a new lichen from Western North America. Bryologist 105: 110.
Nelsen, M. P., Lücking, R., Umaña, L., Trest, M. T., Will-Wolf, S., Chaves, J. L. & Gargas, A. (2007) Multiclavula ichthyiformis (Fungi: Basidiomycota: Cantharellales: Clavulinaceae), a remarkable new basidiolichen from Costa Rica. American Journal of Botany, 94: 12891296.
Reeb, V., Lutzoni, F. & Roux, C. (2004) Contribution of RPB2 to multilocus phylogenetic studies of the euascomycetes (Pezizomycotina, Fungi) with special emphasis on the lichen-forming Acarosporaceae and evolution of polyspory. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 10361060.
St. Clair, L. L. (1999) Common Rocky Mountain Lichens. Provo, UT: M. L. Bean Life Science Museum of Brigham Young University.
Showman, R. E. & Flenniken, D. G. (2004) The Macrolichens of Ohio. Bulletin of the Ohio Biological Survey, New Series, 14(3): 1279pp.
Swofford, D. L. (2001) PAUP*. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and Other Methods). Version 4. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates.
Thell, A., Herber, B., Aptroot, A., Adler, M. T., Feuerer, T. & Kärnefelt, E. I. (2005) A preliminary phylogeographic study of Flavopunctelia and Punctelia inferred from rDNA ITS-sequences. Folia Cryptogamica Estonica 41: 115121.
Tucker, S. C., Knudsen, K. & Robertson, J. (2006) Additional lichen collections from Pinnacles National Monument, San Benito County, California. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 13: 69.
van Herk, K. & Aptroot, A. (2000) The sorediate Punctelia species with lecanoric acid in Europe. Lichenologist 32: 233246.
Wetmore, C. M. (1976) Macrolichens of Big Bend National Park, Texas. Bryologist 79: 296313.
White, T. J., Bruns, T. D., Lee, S. & Taylor, J. (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In PCR Protocols: a Guide to Methods and Applications (Innis, M. A., Gelfand, D. H., Sninsky, J. J. & White, T. J., eds): 315322. San Diego: Academic Press.
Wilhelm, G. & Ladd, D. (1987) Punctelia perreticulata, a distinct lichen species. Mycotaxon 28: 249250.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Lichenologist
  • ISSN: 0024-2829
  • EISSN: 1096-1135
  • URL: /core/journals/lichenologist
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed