3. Bhutta, ZA, Das, JK, Rizvi, A, et al. (2013) Evidence-based interventions for improvement of maternal and child nutrition: what can be done and at what cost? Lancet 382, 452–477.
4. Roohani, N, Hurrell, R, Kelishadi, R, et al. (2013) Zinc and its importance for human health: an integrative review. J Res Med Sci 18, 144–157.
5. Kumar, R (1992) Anti-nutritional factors, the potential risks of toxicity and methods to alleviate them. In Legume Trees and Other Fodder Trees as Protein Sources for Livestock, pp 145–160 [A Speedy and P Pugliese, editors]. Rome: FAO.
6. Wieser, S, Plessow, R, Eichler, K, et al. (2013) Burden of micronutrient deficiencies by socio-economic strata in children aged 6 months to 5 years in the Philippines. BMC Public Health 13, 1167.
8. Kassebaum, NJ, Arora, M, Barber, RM, et al. (2016) Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet 388, 1603–1658.
9. Mwangi, MN, Roth, JM, Smit, MR, et al. (2015) Effect of daily antenatal iron supplementation on Plasmodium infection in Kenyan women: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 314, 1009–1020.
10. International Food Policy Research Institute (2016) Global Nutrition Report 2016: From Promise to Impact: Ending Malnutrition by 2030. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.
11. Longo, DL & Camaschella, C (2015) Iron-deficiency anemia. N Engl J Med 372, 1832–1843.
13. Prasad, AS (2012) Discovery of human zinc deficiency: 50 years later. J Trace Elem Med Biol 26, 66–69.
14. Wessells, KR, Singh, GM & Brown, KH (2012) Estimating the global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake from national food balance sheets: effects of methodological assumptions. PLOS ONE 7, e50565.
15. Kumar, P & Clark, ML (2009) Clark’s Clinical Medicine. Edinburgh: Saunders Elsevier.
16. Takeda, A (2000) Movement of zinc and its functional significance in the brain. Brain Res Rev 34, 137–148.
18. Finke, MD & Oonincx, DGAB (2013) Insects as food for insectivores. In Mass Production of Beneficial Organisms: Invertebrates and Entomopathogens, pp. 583–616 [JA Morales-Ramos, M Guadalupe Rojas and DI Shapiro-Ilanm, editors]. London, Waltham, MA and San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
19. Barker, D, Fitzpatrick, MP & Dierenfeld, ES (1998) Nutrient composition of selected whole invertebrates. Zoo Biol 17, 123–134.
20. Finke, MD (2002) Complete nutrient composition of commercially raised invertebrates used as food for insectivores. Zoo Biol 21, 269–285.
21. Oonincx, DGAB & Van der Poel, AFB (2011) Effects of diet on the chemical composition of migratory locusts (Locusta migratoria). Zoo Biol 30, 9–16.
22. Zielińska, E, Baraniak, B, Karaś, M, et al. (2015) Selected species of edible insects as a source of nutrient composition. Food Res Int 77, 460–466.
23. Bernard, JB & Allen, ME (1997) Feeding captive insectivorous animals: nutritional aspects of insects as food. Nutrition Advisory Group Handbook, August 1997, fact sheet 3, pp. 1–7.
24. Ghosh, S, Lee, SM, Jung, C, et al. (2017) Nutritional composition of five commercial edible insects in South Korea. J Asia-Pac Entomol 20, 686–694.
25. Finke, MD (2015) Complete nutrient content of four species of commercially available feeder insects fed enhanced diets during growth. Zoo Biol 34, 554–564.
26. Punzo, F (2003) Nutrient composition of some insects and arachnids. Fla Sci 66, 84–98.
27. Banjo, AD, Lawal, OA & Songonuga, EA (2006) The nutritional value of fourteen species of edible insects in southwestern Nigeria. Afr J Biotechnol 5, 298–301.
28. Igwe, CU, Ujowundu, CO, Nwaogu, LA, et al. (2011) Chemical analysis of an edible African termite Macrotermes nigeriensis, a potential antidote to food security problem. Biochem Anal Biochem 1, 1000105.
29. Niaba, KP, Gbogouri, GA & Gnakri, D (2011) Potentialités nutritionnelles du reproducteur ailé du termite Macrotermes subhyalinus capturé à Abobo-doumé, Côte d’Ivoire (Nutritional potential of the winged breeder of the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus captured in Abobo-doumé, Ivory Coast). J Appl Biosci 40, 2706–2714.
30. Kinyuru, JN, Kenji, GM & Muhoho, SN (2010) Nutritional potential of Longhorn grasshopper (Ruspolia differens) consumed in Siaya district, Kenya. J Agr Sci Tech 12, 32–46.
31. Oonincx, DGAB & Dierenfeld, ES (2012) An investigation into the chemical composition of alternative invertebrate prey. Zoo Biol 31, 40–54.
32. Oonincx, DGAB, Van Broekhoven, S, Van Huis, A, et al. (2015) Feed conversion, survival and development, and composition of four insect species on diets composed of food by-products. PLOS ONE 10, e0144601.
33. Van Broekhoven, S, Oonincx, DGAB, Van Huis, A, et al. (2015) Growth performance and feed conversion efficiency of three edible mealworm species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on diets composed of organic by-products. J Insect Physiol 73, 1–10.
34. Bednarska, AJ, Opyd, M, Żurawicz, E, et al. (2015) Regulation of body metal concentrations: toxicokinetics of cadmium and zinc in crickets. Ecotox Envir Saf 119, 9–14.
35. Locke, M & Nichol, H (1992) Iron economy in insects: transport, metabolism, and storage. Ann Rev Entomol 37, 195–215.
36. Vallee, BL & Falchuk, KH (1993) The biochemical basis of zinc physiology. Physiol Rev 73, 79–118.
37. Nichol, H, Law, JH & Winzerling, JJ (2002) Iron metabolism in insects. Ann Rev Entomol 47, 535–559.
38. Pham, DQD & Winzerling, JJ (2010) Insect ferritins: typical or atypical? Biochim Biophys Acta 1800, 824–833.
39. Nichol, H & Locke, M (1990) The localization of ferritin in insects. Tissue Cell 22, 767–777.
40. Lye, JC, Richards, CD, Dechen, K, et al. (2012) Systematic functional characterization of putative zinc transport genes and identification of zinc toxicosis phenotypes in Drosophila melanogaster
. J Exp Biol 215, 3254–3265.
41. Yepiskoposyan, H, Egli, D, Fergestad, T, et al. (2006) Transcriptome response to heavy metal stress in Drosophila reveals a new zinc transporter that confers resistance to zinc. Nucl Acids Res 34, 4866–4877.
42. Qin, Q, Wang, X & Zhou, B (2013) Functional studies of Drosophila zinc transporters reveal the mechanism for dietary zinc absorption and regulation. BMC Biol 11, 101.
43. Jones, MWM, de Jonge, MD, James, SA, et al. (2015) Elemental mapping of the entire intact Drosophila gastrointestinal tract. J Biol Inorg Chem 20, 979–987.
44. Hurrell, R & Egli, I (2010) Iron bioavailability and dietary reference values. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 1461S–1467S.
45. Aggett, PJ (2010) Population reference intakes and micronutrient bioavailability: a European perspective. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 1433S–1437S.
46. Beard, JL, Dawson, H & Piñero, DJ (1996) Iron metabolism: a comprehensive review. Nutr Rev 54, 295–317.
47. Murray-Kolb, LE, Welch, R, Theil, EC, et al. (2003) Women with low iron stores absorb iron from soybeans. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 180–184.
48. Layrisse, M, MartInez-Torres, C, Renzy, M, et al. (1975) Ferritin iron absorption in man. Blood 45, 689–698.
49. Lynch, SR, Beard, JL, Dassenko, SA, et al. (1984) Iron absorption from legumes in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 40, 42–47.
50. Sayers, MH, Lynch, SR, Jacobs, P, et al. (1973) The effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on the absorption of iron in maize, wheat and soya. Br J Haematol 24, 209–218.
51. Lönnerdal, B, Bryant, A, Liu, X, et al. (2006) Iron absorption from soybean ferritin in nonanemic women. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 103–107.
52. Hoppler, M, Schönbächler, A, Meile, L, et al. (2008) Ferritin-iron is released during boiling and in vitro gastric digestion. J Nutr 138, 878–884.
53. San Martin, CD, Garri, C, Pizarro, F, et al. (2008) Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells absorb soybean ferritin by μ2 subunit (AP2)-dependent endocytosis. J Nutr 138, 659–666.
54. Holst, B & Williamson, G (2008) Nutrients and phytochemicals: from bioavailability to bioefficacy beyond antioxidants. Curr Opin Biotechnol 19, 73–82.
55. Lönnerdal, BO (2000) Dietary factors influencing zinc absorption. J Nutr 130, 1378S–1383S.
56. Latunde-Dada, GO, Yang, W & Vera Aviles, M (2016)
In vitro iron availability from insects and sirloin beef. J Agric Food Chem 64, 8420–8424.
57. Bauserman, M, Lokangaka, A, Gado, J, et al. (2015) A cluster-randomized trial determining the efficacy of caterpillar cereal as a locally available and sustainable complementary food to prevent stunting and anaemia. Public Health Nutr 18, 1785–1792.
58. Atwood, T, Cammack, R, Atwood, T, et al. (2006) Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
59. Schlemmer, U, Frølich, W, Prieto, RM, et al. (2009) Phytate in foods and significance for humans: food sources, intake, processing, bioavailability, protective role and analysis. Mol Nutr Food Res 53, 330–375.
60. Zhou, JR & Erdman, JW Jr (1995) Phytic acid in health and disease. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutri 35, 495–508.
61. Gibson, RS (2007) The role of diet- and host-related factors in nutrient bioavailability and thus in nutrient-based dietary requirement estimates. Food Nutr Bull 28, S77–S100.
62. Lynch, SR (2007) Influence of infection/inflammation, thalassemia and nutritional status on iron absorption. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 77, 217–223.
63. Severi, S, Bedogni, G, Manzieri, AM, et al. (1997) Effects of cooking and storage methods on the micronutrient content of foods. Eur J Cancer Prev 6, S21–S24.
64. Kimura, M & Itokawa, Y (1990) Cooking losses of minerals in foods and its nutritional significance. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 36, S25–S33.
66. De Moura, FF, Palmer, AC, Finkelstein, JL, et al. (2014) Are biofortified staple food crops improving vitamin A and iron status in women and children? New evidence from efficacy trials. Adv Nutr 5, 568–570.
67. Bouis, HE & Saltzman, A (2017) Improving nutrition through biofortification: a review of evidence from HarvestPlus, 2003 through 2016. Glob Food Sec 12, 49–58.
68. Haas, JD, Luna, SV, Lung’aho, MG, et al. (2016) Consuming iron biofortified beans increases iron status in Rwandan women after 128 days in a randomized controlled feeding trial. J Nutr 146, 1586–1592.
69. King, JC, Brown, KH, Gibson, RS, et al. (2016) Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) – zinc review. J Nutr 146, 858S–885S.
71. Van Huis, A, Van Itterbeeck, J, Klunder, H, et al. (2013) Edible Insects: Future Prospects for Food and Feed Security, FAO Forestry Paper no. 171]. Rome: FAO.
72. Van Huis, A (2013) Potential of insects as food and feed in assuring food security. Ann Rev Entomol 58, 563–583.
73. Lizot, J (1977) Population, resources and warfare among the Yanomami. Man 12, 497–517.
74. Dufour, DL (1987) Insects as food: a case study from the northwest Amazon. Am Anthropol 89, 383–397.
75. Paoletti, MG & Dreon, AL (2005) Minilivestock, environment, sustainability, and local knowledge disappearance. In Ecological Implications of Minilivestock: Potential of Insects, Rodents, Frogs, and Snails, pp. 1–18 [MG Paoletti, editor]. Enfield, NH: Science Publishers Inc.
76. Raubenheimer, D & Rothman, JM (2013) Nutritional ecology of entomophagy in humans and other primates. Annu Rev Entomol 58, 141–160.
77. Kitsa, K (1989) Contribution des insectes comestibles à l’amélioration de la ration alimentaire au Kasaï-Occidental (Contribution of edible insects to the improvement of food rations in Kasaï-Occidental). Zaïre-Afrique 29, 511–519.
78. Food and Agriculture Organization on the United Nations (2015) ) The State of Food Insecurity in the World: Meeting the 2015 International Hunger Targets: Taking Stock of Uneven Progress. Rome: FAO.
79. Hedenus, F, Wirsenius, S & Johansson, DJA (2014) The importance of reduced meat and dairy consumption for meeting stringent climate change targets. Clim Change 124, 79–91.
80. Oonincx, DGAB & De Boer, IJM (2012) Environmental impact of the production of mealworms as a protein source for humans – a life cycle assessment. PLOS ONE 7, e51145.
81. Glover, D & Sexton, A (2015) ) Edible Insects and the Future of Food: A Foresight Scenario Exercise on Entomophagy and Global Food Security
. Brighton: IDS (Institute of Development Studies).
82. Collavo, A, Glew, RH, Huang, Y-S, et al. (2005) House cricket small-scale farming. In Ecological Implications of Minilivestock: Potential of Insects, Rodents, Frogs and Snails, pp. 519–544 [MG Paoletti, editor]. Enfield, NH: Science Publishers, Inc.
83. Despins, JL & Axtell, RC (1995) Feeding behavior and growth of broiler chicks fed larvae of the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus
. Poultr Sci 74, 331–336.
84. Rao, PU (1994) Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation of spent silk worm pupae. J Agric Food Chem 42, 2201–2203.
85. Dierenfeld, ES (2002) Some preliminary observations on herbivorous insect composition: nutrient advantages from a green leaf diet? In Symposium of the Comparative Nutrition Society. Antwerp Zoo: Antwerp, Belgium.
86. Bird, DM, Ho, S-K & Paré, D (1982) Nutritive values of three common prey items of the American kestrel. Comp Biochem Physiol A Physiol 73, 513–515.
87. Kinyuru, JN, Konyole, SO, Roos, N, et al. (2013) Nutrient composition of four species of winged termites consumed in western Kenya. J Food Compos Anal 30, 120–124.
88. Oyarzun, SE, Crawshaw, GJ & Valdes, EV (1996) Nutrition of the Tamandua: I. Nutrient composition of termites (Nasutitermes). Zoo Biol 15, 509–524.
89. Cerda, H, Martinez, R, Briceno, N, et al. (2001) Palm worm: (Rhynchophorous palmarum) traditional food in Amazonas, Venezuela – nutritional composition, small scale production and tourist palatibility. Ecol Food Nutr 40, 13–32.
90. Ohtsuka, R, Kawabe, T, Inaoka, T, et al. (1984) Composition of local and purchased foods consumed by the Gidra in Lowland Papua. Ecol Food Nutr 15, 159–169.
91. Ramos-Elorduy, J, Moreno, JMP & Camacho, VHM (2012) Could grasshoppers be a nutritive meal? Food Nutr Sci 3, 164–175.