Andelman S.J. & Fagan W.F. (2000) Umbrellas and flagships: efficient conservation surrogates or expensive mistakes? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97, 5954–5959.
Berger J. (1997) Population constraints associated with the use of black rhinos as an umbrella species for desert herbivores. Conservation Biology, 11, 69–78.
Betrus C.J., Fleishman E. & Blair R.B. (2005) Cross-taxonomic potential and spatial transferability of an umbrella species index. Journal of Environmental Management, 74, 79–87.
Bifolchi A. & Lodé T. (2005) Efficiency of conservation shortcuts: an investigation with otters as umbrella species. Biological Conservation, 126, 523–527.
Cardoso P., Silva I., de Oliveira N.G. & Serrano A.R.M. (2004) Higher taxa surrogates of spider (Araneae) diversity and their efficiency in conservation. Biological Conservation, 117, 453–459.
Caro T.M. (2001) Species richness and abundance of small mammals inside and outside an African national park. Biological Conservation, 98, 251–257.
Caro T.M. (2003) Umbrella species: critique and lessons from East Africa. Animal Conservation, 6, 171–181.
Caro T., Englis A. Jr, Fitzherbert E. & Gardner T. (2004) Preliminary assessment of the flagship species concept at a small scale. Animal Conservation, 7, 63–70.
Caro T.M. & O'Doherty G. (1999) On the use of surrogate species in conservation biology. Conservation Biology, 13, 805–814.
Carrete M. & Donázar J.A. (2005) Application of central-place foraging theory shows the importance of Mediterranean dehesas for the conservation of the cinereous vulture Aegypius monachus. Biological Conservation, 126, 582–590.
Chouteau P. (2004) The impacts of logging on the microhabitats used by two species of couas in the western forest of Madagascar. Comptes rendus Biologies, 327, 1157–1170.
Clark M.R. (2004) Using the spectacled bear as a conservation tool in the Condor Bioreserve, Ecuador. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 18, 223–236.
Das A., Krishnaswamy J., Bawa K.S., Kiran M.C., Srinivas V., Kumar N.S. & Karanth K.U. (2006) Prioritisation of conservation areas in the Western Ghats, India. Biological Conservation, 133, 16–31.
Dilks P., Willans M., Pryde M. & Fraser I. (2003) Large scale stoat control to protect mohua (Mohoua ochrocephala) and kaka (Nestor meridionalis) in the Eglinton Valley, Fiordland, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 27, 1–9.
Fleishman E., Murphy D.D. & Blair R.B. (2001) Selecting effective umbrella species. Conservation in Practice, 2, 17–23.
Fleishman E., Murphy D.D. & Brussard P.F. (2000) A new method for selection of umbrella species for conservation planning. Ecological Applications, 10, 569–579.
Hitt N.P. & Frissell C.A. (2004) A case study of surrogate species in aquatic conservation planning. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 14, 625–633.
Jones J., McLeish W.J. & Robertson R.J. (2004) Predicting the effects of cerulean warbler, Dendroica cerulea, management on eastern Ontario bird species. The Canadian Field Naturalist, 118, 229–234.
King C.M. (ed.) (2005) The Handbook of New Zealand Mammals. Oxford University Press, Melbourne, Australia.
Lambeck R.J. (1997) Focal species: a multi-species umbrella for nature conservation. Conservation Biology, 11, 849–856.
Lindenmayer D.B. & Fischer J. (2003) Sound science, or social hook – a response to Brooker's application of the focal species approach. Landscape and Urban Planning, 62, 149–158.
Martikainen P., Kaila L. & Haila Y. (1998) Threatened beetles in white-backed woodpecker habitats. Conservation Biology, 12, 293–301.
Mildenstein T.L., Stier S.C., Nuevo-Diego C.E. & Mills L.S. (2005) Habitat selection of endangered and endemic large flying-foxes in Subic Bay, Philippines. Biological Conservation, 126, 93–102.
Moran-Lopez R., Sanchez J.M., Costillo E., Corbacho C. & Villegas A. (2006) Spatial variation in anthropic and natural factors regulating the breeding success of the cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus) in the SW Iberian Peninsula. Biological Conservation, 130, 169–182.
Morris W.F. & Doak D.F. (2002) Quantitative Conservation Biology. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, USA.
Noon B.R. & Dale V.H. (2002) Broad-scale ecological science and its application. In Applying Landscape Ecology in Biological Conservation (ed. Gutzwiller K.J.), pp. 34–52. Springer-Verlag, New York, USA.
Noss R.F., O'Connell M.A. & Murphy D.D. (1997) The Science of Conservation Planning. Island Press, Washington, DC, USA.
O'Donnell C.F.J. & Rasch G. (1991) Conservation of Kaka in New Zealand. A Review of Status, Threats, Priorities for Research and Implications for Management. , Department of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand.
Ozaki K., Isono M., Kawahara T., Iida S., Kudo T. & Fukuyama K. (2006) A mechanistic approach to evaluation of umbrella species as conservation surrogates. Conservation Biology, 20, 1507–1515.
Poiani K.A., Merrill M.D. & Chapman K.A. (2001) Identifying conservation-priority areas in a fragmented Minnesota landscape based on the umbrella species concept and selection of large patches of natural vegetation. Conservation Biology, 15, 513–522.
Roberge J.M. & Angelstam P. (2004) Usefulness of the umbrella species concept as a conservation tool. Conservation Biology, 18, 76–85.
Rowland M.M., Wisdom M.J., Suring L.H. & Meinke C.W. (2006) Greater sage-grouse as an umbrella species for sagebrush-associated vertebrates. Biological Conservation, 129, 323–335.
Rubinoff D. (2001) Evaluating the California gnatcatcher as an umbrella species for conservation of southern California sage scrub. Conservation Biology, 15, 1374–1383.
Saunders A. & Norton D.A. (2001) Ecological restoration at Mainland Islands in New Zealand. Biological Conservation, 99, 109–119.
Sergio F., Newton I., Marchesi L. & Pedrini P. (2006) Ecologically justified charisma: preservation of top predators delivers biodiversity conservation. Journal of Applied Ecology, 43, 1049–1055.
Simberloff D. (1998) Flagships, umbrellas, and keystones: is single-species management passé in the landscape era? Biological Conservation, 83, 247–257.
Suter W., Graf R.F. & Hess R. (2002) Capercaillie (Tetrao urgallus) and avian biodiversity: testing the umbrella-species concept. Conservation Biology, 16, 778–788.
Thomas C.D. (1990) What do real population dynamics tell us about minimum viable population sizes? Conservation Biology, 4, 324–327.
Thorne J.H., Cameron D. & Quinn J.F. (2006) A conservation design for the central coast of California and the evaluation of mountain lion as an umbrella species. Natural Areas Journal, 26, 137–148.
Wallis de Vries M.F. (1995) Large herbivores and the design of large-scale nature reserves in Western Europe. Conservation Biology, 9, 25–33.
Wilcove D.S. (1994) Turning conservation goals into tangible results: the case of the spotted owl and old-growth forests. In Large-scale Ecology and Conservation Biology (eds Edwards P.J., May R.M. & Webb N.R.), pp. 313–329. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK.