The endemic Mediterranean yelkouan shearwater Puffinus yelkouan, elevated to the rank of species in 2002, is poorly monitored and studied. Despite this lack of data and the susceptibility of closely related species to threats at breeding sites and foraging areas, the yelkouan shearwater is currently considered to be at low risk of extinction. This review, based on published documents, personal communications with scientists and our own observations, summarizes available data on range, population size and trends, and on threats to the species' existence. Breeding sites range from the Marseille islands (France) to Bulgarian islands in the Black Sea but many are not confirmed. The estimated global population is 11,355-54,524 pairs but most censuses are probably overestimates and the global population could be only a few thousand breeding pairs. There is evidence of a population decline and susceptibility to introduced mammals, particularly feral cats Felis catus and ship rats Rattus rattus, and to accidental bycatch in fishing gear. We highlight the lack of accurate and regular censuses of the species, and the alarming situation suggested by the little data available. We recommend that the yelkouan shearwater be categorized as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List, encourage collaborative work to clarify its status, and make a plea for more data on the species’ demography and ecology, and for the evaluation of terrestrial and marine threats.