Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Cautious Democrats: Religious Actors and Democratization Processes in Senegal

  • Leonardo A. Villalón (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

This article analyzes the role of religious actors at different stages in the long and gradual processes of democratization in Senegal. It examines the transformations in their political influence from pillars of the stable (but non-democratic) post-independence state, to a more ambiguous posture in the decade of democratic opening. A discussion of the interactive relationship between religious change and the transition to democracy over the course of the 1990s leads us to an analysis of the role of religious actors in debating the substantive content of Senegalese democracy in the decade that followed. The article concludes that while procedurally religious actors are playing an important role in the development of the democratic system in Senegal, substantively they are doing so in part by calling into question some understandings of what democracy entails. The ultimate evaluation of their contribution to the consolidation of democracy hinges at least in part on our conceptualization of democracy itself.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Leonardo A. Villalón, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. E-mail: villalon@ufl.edu
References
Hide All
Audrain Xavier. 2004. “Du ‘ndigël avorté’ au Parti de la Verité: Evolution du rapport religion/politique à travers le parcours de Cheikh Modou Kara (1999–2004) (From ‘aborted ndigël’ to the Party of Truth: The Evolution of the Religion/Politics relationship via the Trajectory of Cheikh Modou Kara (1990–2004))”. Politique Africaine 96:99118.
Augis Erin. 2005. “Dakar's Sunnite Women: The Politics of Person.” In L'Islam politique au sud du Sahara: Identités, discours et enjeux (Political Islam South of the Sahara: Identities, Discourses and Stakes), ed. Gomez-Perez Muriel. Paris: Karthala: 309326.
Babou Cheikh Anta. 2007. Fighting the Greater Jihad: Amadu Bamba and the Founding of the Muridiyya of Senegal, 1853–1913. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press.
Babou Cheikh Anta. 2013. “Entre Dieu et César: Abdoulaye Wade, la Mouridiyya et le pouvoir (Between God and Cesar: Aboulaye Wade, the Muridiyya, and Power).” In Le Sénégal Sous Abdoulaye Wade: le Sopi à l'épreuve du pouvoir (Senegal under Abdoulaye Wade: Sopi and the Challenge of Power), ed. Diop Momar-Coumba. Paris: Karthala, 297318.
Babou Cheikh Anta. forthcoming. “Negotiating the Boundaries of Power: Abdoulaye Wade, the Muridiyya, and State Politics in Senegal, 2000–2012.Journal of West African History.
Brossier Marie. 2004. “Les Débats sur la reforme du Code de la Famille au Sénégal: La Redéfinition de la laïcité comme enjeu du processus de démocratisation (The Debates on Family Code Reform in Senegal: The Redefinition of laïcité as Stake in the Process of Democratization).” Unpublished mémoire (thesis) for DEA in Etudes Africaines, option Science Politique. Université Paris I.
Copans Jean. 1980. Les Marabouts de l'arachide: La Confrérie Mouride et les paysans du Sénégal (The Peanut Marabouts: The Mouride Brotherhood and the Peasants of Senegal). Paris: Le Sycomore.
Cruise O'Brien Donal B. 1986. “Wails and Whispers: The People's Voice in West African Muslim Politics.” In Political Domination in Africa: Reflections on the Limits of Power, ed. Chabal Patrick. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 7183.
Cruise O'Brien Donal B. 1971. The Mourides of Senegal: The Political and Economic Organization of an Islamic Brotherhood. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Cruise O'Brien Donal B. 2003. Symbolic Confrontations: Muslims Imagining the State in Africa. New York, NY: Palgrave.
Dione Maurice Soudieck. “De la Réception-Réappropriation du concept de laïcité au Sénégal, ou la specificité d'une laïcité de collaboration entre le politique et le religieux (On the Reception/Re-appropriation of the Concept of laïcité in Senegal, or the Specificity of a Collaborative laïcité between the Political and the Religious).” In L'Afrique des Laïcités: Etat, Religion et Pouvoirs au Sud du Sahara (African Secularisms: State, Religion and Power South of the Sahara), eds. Holder Gilles, and Sow Moussa. Bamako, Mali: Editions Tombouctou/Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, 111124.
Diouf Mamadou. 2013. “Préface. Abdoulaye Wade et le régime liberal à l'examen: Réalisations, mirages et abus d'une alternance démocratique (Preface: Abdoulaye Wade and the Liberal Regime Examined: Accomplishments, Mirages, and Abuses of a Democratic Transition).” In Le Sénégal Sous Abdoulaye Wade: le Sopi à l'épreuve du pouvoir (Senegal under Abdoulaye Wade: Sopi and the Challenge of Power), ed. Diop Momar-Coumba. Paris: Karthala, 1320.
Gellar Sheldon. 2005. Democracy in Senegal: Tocquevillian Analytics in Africa. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillian.
Gomez-Perez Muriel. 2005Généalogie de l'islam réformiste au Sénégal des années 50 à nos jours : figures, savoirs et réseaux (Genealogy of Reformist Islam in Senegal from the 1950s to Today: Personalities, Knowledge and Networks).” In Entreprises religieuses transnationales en Afrique de l'Ouest (Transnational Religious Enterprises in West Africa), eds. Mary André, Fourchard L., and Otayek R.. Paris, Karthala, 193222.
Holder Gilles, and Sow Moussa, eds. 2013. L'Afrique des Laïcités: Etat, Religion et Pouvoirs au Sud du Sahara (African Secularisms: State, Religion and Power South of the Sahara). Bamako, Mali: Editions Tombouctou/Institut de Recherche pour le Développement.
Kane Ousmane, and Villalón Leonardo A.. 1995. “Entre Confrérisme, Réformisme et Islamisme: Les Mustarshidin du Sénégal. Analyse et Traduction Commentée du Discours Electoral de Moustapha Sy et Réponse de Abdou Aziz Sy Junior (Between Brotherhood, Reformism and Islamism: The Moustarchidine of Senegal. An Analysis and Annotated Translation of the Electoral Speech of Moustapha Sy and the Response of Abdou Aziz Junior).Islam et Sociétés au Sud du Sahara 9:119202.
Loimeier Roman. 2009. “Dialectics of Religion and Politics in Senegal.” In New Perspectives on Islam in Senegal: Conversion, Migration, Wealth, Power and Femininity, eds. Diouf Mamadou, and Leichtman Mara. New York: Palgrave MacMillan: 237256.
Ndoye Doudou. 2001. La Constitution sénégalaise du 7 Janvier 2001 commentée, et ses pactes internationaux annexés (The Senegalese Constitution of 7 January 2001 Annotated, and its International Pacts as Annexes). Dakar: Les Editions Juridiques Africaines.
Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. 2010. “Tolerance and Tension: Islam and Christianity in Sub-Saharan Africa.” http://features.pewforum.org/africa/ (Accessed on March 20, 2015).
Robinson David. 2000. 2000. Paths of Accommodation: Muslim Societies and French Colonial Authorities in Senegal and Mauritania, 1880–1920. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press.
Sall DocteurAl Mansour Mouhamadou. 2001 Le Soufisme: Avantages et Inconvenients (Sufism: Advantages and Inconveniences). Dakar: NIS, Nouvelle Imprimerie du Sénégal.
Samb Djibril. 2005. Comprendre la laïcité (Understanding Laïcité). Dakar: Les Nouvelles Editions Africaines du Sénégal.
Samson Fabienne. 2005. Les Marabouts de l'islam politique: Le Dahiratoul Moustarchidina wal Moustarchidaty, un movement néo-confrérique sénégalais (The Marabouts of Political Islam: The Dahiratoul Moustarchidina wal Moustarchidaty, a Senegalese neo-Brotherhood Movement). Paris: Karthala.
Samson Fabienne. 2009. “Islam, Protest, and Citizen Mobilization: New Sufi Movements.” In New Perspectives on Islam in Senegal: Conversion, Migration, Wealth, Power and Femininity, eds. Diouf Mamadou, and Leichtman Mara. New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 257272.
Schmitter Philippe C., and Lynn Karl Terry. 1991. “What Democracy Is, and Is Not.The Journal of Democracy 2:7588.
Seck Abdourahmane. 2012. “Le Sénégal sous Wade ou l'incertain retour de la question laïque (Senegal under Wade, or the Uncertain Return of the Secular Question).” In Islam et Sociétés en Afrique subsaharienne à l'épreuve de l'histoire (Islam and Societies in Sub-Saharan Africa at the Test of History), eds. Georg Odile, and Pondopoulo Anna. Paris: Karthala, 355378.
Sene Ibra. 2003. “Islam as a Site of Agency, Mediation, and Resistance: Hizbut Tarqiyya (Senegal), 1975–2002”. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the African Studies Association, Washington, D.C.
Smith Etienne. 2013. “Religious and Cultural Pluralism in Senegal: Accommodation through ‘Proportional Equidistance’?” In Tolerance, Democracy, and Sufis in Senegal, ed. Diouf Mamadou. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 147179.
Soares Benjamin. 2009. “The Attempt to Reform Family Law in Mali.Die Welt des Islams 49:398428.
Stepan Alfred. 2013. “Stateness, Democracy and Respect: Senegal in Comparative Perspective.” In Tolerance, Democracy, and Sufis in Senegal, ed. Diouf Mamadou. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 205238.
Stepan Alfred. 2001. “The World's Religious Systems and Democracy: Crafting the ‘Twin Tolerations.’” In Arguing Comparative Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 213253.
Triaud Jean-Louis, and Robinson David, eds. 2000. La Tijaniyya: une confrérie musulmane à la conquête de l'Afrique (The Tijaniyya: A Muslim Brotherhood Seeking the Conquest of Africa). Paris: Karthala.
Villalón Leonardo A. 1995. Islamic Society and State Power in Senegal: Disciples and Citizens in Fatick. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Villalón Leonardo A. 1994. “Democratizing a (Quasi)democracy: The Senegalese elections of 1993.African Affairs 93:163193.
Villalón Leonardo A. 1999. “Generational Changes, Political Stagnation, and the Evolving Dynamics of Religion and Politics in Senegal.Africa Today 46:129147.
Villalón Leonardo A. 2000. “The Moustarchidine of Senegal: The Family Politics of a Contemporary Tijan Movement.” In La Tijâniyya: Une confrérie musulmane à la conquête de l'Afrique (The Tijaniyya: A Muslim Brotherhood Seeking the Conquest of Africa), eds. Triaud Jean-Louis, and Robinson David. Paris: Karthala, 469497.
Villalón Leonardo A. 2007. “Senegal: Shades of Islamism on a Sufi landscape?” In Political Islam in West Africa: State-Society Relations Transformed, ed. Miles William F. S.Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 161182.
Villalón Leonardo A. 2010. “From Argument to Negotiation: Constructing Democracies in Muslim West Africa.Comparative Politics 42:375393.
Villalón Leonardo A., and Bodian Mamadou. 2012. “Religion, demande sociale, et reformes éducatifs au Sénégal: Quand l'Etat introduit l'éducation arabo-islamique dans l'enseignement publique pour concurrencer l'école franco-arabe et capturer les daara (Religion, Social Demand, and Educational Reforms in Senegal: When the State Introduces Arabo-Islamic Instruction into Public Education to Rival the Franco-Arabic Schools and to Capture the daaras).” http://www.institutions-africa.org/page/religious-education (Accessed on March 20, 2015).
Villalón Leonardo A., and Kane Ousmane. 1998. “Senegal: The Crisis of Democracy and the Emergence of an Islamic Opposition.” In The African State at a Critical Juncture: Between Disintegration and Reconfiguration, eds. Villalón Leonardo A., and Huxtable Phillip A.. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 143166.
Young Crawford, and Kanté Babacar. 1992. “Governance, Democracy, and the 1988 Senegalese Elections.” In Governance and Politics in Africa, eds. Hyden Goran, and Bratton Michael. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 5774.
Zakaria Fareed. 1997. “The Rise of Illiberal Democracy.Foreign Affairs 76:2243.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Politics and Religion
  • ISSN: 1755-0483
  • EISSN: 1755-0491
  • URL: /core/journals/politics-and-religion
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 3
Total number of PDF views: 74 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 466 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 26th February 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.