Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Explaining the Religion Gap in Support for Radical Right Parties in Europe

  • Kathleen A. Montgomery (a1) and Ryan Winter (a1)
Abstract

Across Europe populist radical right (PRR) parties advertise themselves as defenders of Christian identity and values, but they do not seem to strongly attract religious Christian voters. This article tests a general framework for understanding this religion gap in 13 countries. Findings extend earlier research on religiosity and radical right attitudes, provide insight on East-West differences in the PRR phenomenon, and lend conditional support to the notion of a “vaccine effect” suggested by prior research.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Kathleen A. Montgomery, Political Science, Illinois Wesleyan University, Bloomington, IL 61702-2900. E-mail: kmontgom@iwu.edu
References
Hide All
Abts, Koen, and Rummens, Stefan. 2007. “Populism versus Democracy.” Political Studies 55:405424.
Adorno, Theodor W., Frenkel-Brunswik, Else, Levinson, Daniel J., and Sanford, R. Nevitt. 1950. The Authoritarian Personality. New York, NY: Harper and Row.
Altemeyer, Bob. 2003. “Research: Why Do Religious Fundamentalists Tend to be Prejudiced?The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 13:1728.
Arendt, Hannah. 1951. The Origins of Totalitarianism. New York, NY, 462.
Arzheimer, Kai, and Carter, Elisabeth. 2003. Explaining Variation in the Extreme Right Vote: The Individual and the Political Environment. Keele European Parties Research Unit: Working Paper 19.
Arzheimer, Kai, and Carter, Elisabeth. 2009. “Christian Religiosity and Voting for West European Radical Right Parties.” West European Politics 32:9851011.
Aspelund, Anna, Lindeman, Marjaana, and Verkasalo, Markku. 2013. “Political Conservatism and Left–Right Orientation in 28 Eastern and Western European Countries.” Political Psychology 34:409417.
Bale, Tim, Green, Christoffer, Pedersen, André Krouwel, Luther, Kurt Richard, and Sitter, Nick. 2010. “If You Can't Beat Them, Join Them? Explaining Social Democratic Responses to the Challenge from the Populist Radical Right in Western Europe.” Political Studies 58:410426.
Betz, Hans-Georg. 1994. Radical right-wing populism in Western Europe. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
Betz, Hans-Georg, and Johnson, Carol. 2004. “Against the Current—Stemming the Tide: The Nostalgic Ideology of the Contemporary Radical Populist Right.” Journal of Political Ideologies 9:311327.
Bíró-Nagy, András, and Róna, Dániel. 2012. “Rational Radicalism: Jobbik's Road to the Hungarian Parliament, 2003–2010.” In Alternative Politics? The Rise of New Parties in Central Europe, eds. Mesežnikov, Grigorij, Gyárfášová, Olga, and Bútorová, Zora. Bratislava: Institute for Public Affairs, 149185.
Billiet, Jaak B. 1995. “Church Involvement, Ethnocentrism, and Voting for a Radical Right-Wing Party: Diverging Behavioral Outcomes of Equal Attitudinal Dispositions.” Sociology of Religion 56:303326.
Broughton, David, and ten Napel, Hans-Martien, eds. 2000. Religion and Mass Electoral Behaviour in Europe. New York, NY: Routledge.
Bugajski, Janusz. 2011. “Poland's Progress: Where Warsaw Fits in Europe.” Current History 110:103109.
Campbell, David E., and Putnam, Robert D.. 2010. American Grace: How Religion Divides and Unites Us. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
Cassanova, José. 2006. “Religion, European Secular Identities, and European Integration.” In Religion in an Expanding Europe, eds. Byrnes, Timothy A., and Katzenstein, Peter J.. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 6592.
Cutts, David, Ford, Robert, and Goodwin, Matthew J. 2011. “Anti-Immigrant, Politically Disaffected or Still Racist After All? Examining the Attitudinal Drivers of Extreme Right Support in Britain in the 2009 European Elections.” European Journal of Political Research 50:418440.
Dalton, Russell J. 2013. Citizen Politics: Public Opinion and Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies. Washington, DC: CQ Press.
Eisinga, Rob, Felling, Albert, and Peters, Jan. 1990. “Church Involvement, Prejudice and Nationalism: A Research Note on the Curvilinear Relationship Between Church Involvement and Ethnocentrism in the Netherlands.” Review of Religious Research 29:417433.
Eisinga, Rob, Billiet, Jaak, and Felling, Albert. 1999. “Christian Religion and Ethnic Prejudice in Cross-National Perspective.” International Journal of Comparative Sociology 40:375393.
ESS Round 5: European Social Survey Round 5 Data. 2010. Data file edition 3.1. Norwegian Social Science Data Services, Norway — Data Archive and distributor of ESS data.
Givens, Terri E. 2004. “The Radical Right Gender Gap.” Comparative Political Studies 37:3054.
Guerra, Simon. 2012. “Eurosceptic Allies or Euroenthusiast Friends? The Political Discourse of the Roman Catholic Church in Poland.” In Representing Religion in the European Union: Does God Matter? ed. Leustean, Lucian. New York, NY: Routledge, 139151.
Hale-Williams, Michelle. 2010. “Can Leopards Change their Spots? Between Xenophobia and Trans-Ethnic Populism Among West European Far Right Parties.” Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 16:111134.
Hockenos, Paul. 2013. Free to Hate: The Rise of the Right in Post-communist Eastern Europe. New York, NY: Routledge.
Hosmer, David W. Jr, and Lemeshow, Stanley. 2004. Applied logistic regression. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Inglehart, Ronald, and Norris, Pippa. 2003. Rising Tide: Gender Equality and Cultural Change Around the World. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Knutsen, Oddbjørn. 2004. “Religious Denomination and Party Choice in Western Europe: A Comparative Longitudinal Study from Eight Countries, 1970–97.” International Political Science Review 25:97128.
Lubbers, Marcel, Gijsberts, Mérove, and Scheepers, Peer. 2002. “Extreme Right-Wing Voting in Western Europe.” European Journal of Political Research 41:345378.
Mayer, Nonna. 2013. “From Jean-Marie to Marine Le Pen: Electoral Change on the Far Right.” Parliamentary Affairs 66:160178.
Mayer, Nonna, and Moreau, Patrick. 1995. “Electoral Support for the German Republikaner and the French National Front (1989–1994).” In Workshop on Racist Parties in Europe of the ECPR Joint Sessions of Workshops, Bordeaux, vol. 27.
Minkenberg, Michael. 2002. “The Radical Right in Post-socialist Central and Eastern Europe: Comparative Observations and Interpretations.” East European Politics & Societies 16:335362.
Mostov, Julie. 1999. “Women and the Radical Right: Ethnocracy and Body Politics.” In The Radical Right in Eastern Europe, ed. Ramet, Sabrina P.University Park, PA: Penn State University Press.
Mudde, Cas. 2004. “The Populist Zeitgeist.” Government and Opposition 39:542563.
Mudde, Cas. 2005. “Racist Extremism in Central and Eastern Europe.” East European Politics & Societies 19:161184.
Mudde, Cas. 2007. Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Mudde, Cas. 2010. “The Populist Radical Right: A Pathological Normalcy.” West European Politics 33:11671186.
Norris, Pippa. 2005. Radical Right: Voters and Parties in the Electoral Market. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Norris, Pippa, and Inglehart, Ronald. 2011. Sacred and Secular: Religion and Politics Worldwide. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Pankowski, Rafal. 2012. “Right-Wing Extremism in Poland.” International Policy Analysis. Berlin. Freidrich-Ebert Stiftung.
Ramet, Sabrina P. 2006. “Thy Will Be Done: The Catholic Church and Politics in Poland Since 1989.” In Religion in an Expanding Europe, eds. Byrnes, Timothy A., and Katzenstein, Peter J.. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 117147.
Ramet, Sabrina P. 2006. “The Way We Were — And Should Be Again? European Orthodox Churches and the ‘Idyllic Past’.” In Religion in an Expanding Europe. Byrnes, Timothy A., and Katzenstein, Peter J.. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 148175.
Rippeyoung, Phyllis L.F. 2007. “When Women are Right: the Influence of Gender, Work and Values on European Far-Right Party Support.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 9:379397.
Rooduijn, Matthijs. 2013. “Vox Populismus: A Populist Radical Right Attitude Among the Public?Nations and Nationalism 20:8092.
Rose, Richard, and Munro, Neil. 2009. Parties and Elections in New European Democracies. Colchester: ECPR Press.
Rummens, Stefan, and Abts, Koen. 2010. “Defending Democracy: The Concentric Containment of Political Extremism.” Political Studies 58:649665.
Stan, Lavinia, and Turcescu, Lucian. 2011. Church, State, and Democracy in Expanding Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Stanley, Ben. 2008. “The Thin Ideology of Populism.” Journal of Political Ideologies 13:95110.
Tavits, Margit, and Letki, Natalia. 2009. “When Left is Right: Party Ideology and Policy in Post-Communist Europe.” American Political Science Review 103:555569.
Van der Brug, Wouter, and Van Spanje, Joost. 2009. “Immigration, Europe and the ‘New’ Cultural Dimension.” European Journal of Political Research 48:309334.
Van der Brug, Wouter, and Fennema, Meindert. 2003. “Protest or Mainstream? How the European Anti-Immigrant Parties Have Developed into Two Separate Groups by 1999.” European Journal of Political Research 42:5576.
Van der Brug, Wouter, Fennema, Meindert, and Tillie, Jean. 2000. “Anti-Immigrant Parties in Europe: Ideological or Protest Vote?European Journal of Political Research 37:77102.
Vermeersch, Peter. 2013. “Nationalism and Political Competition in Central Europe: The Case of Poland.” Nationalities Papers: The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity 41:128145.
Wittenberg, Jason. 2006. Crucibles of Political Loyalty: Church Institutions and Electoral Continuity in Hungary. Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Politics and Religion
  • ISSN: 1755-0483
  • EISSN: 1755-0491
  • URL: /core/journals/politics-and-religion
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed