1.Van Assche G, Dignass A, Panes J et al. (2010) The second European evidence-based consensus on the diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease: Definitions and diagnosis. J Crohns Colitis 4, 7–27.
2.Stange EF, Travis SP, Vermeire S et al. (2008) European evidence-based consensus on the diagnosis and management of ulcerative colitis: Definitions and diagnosis. J Crohns Colitis 2, 1–23.
3.Xavier RJ & Podolsky DK (2007) Unravelling the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Nature 448, 427–434.
4.Scaldaferri F & Fiocchi C (2007) Inflammatory bowel disease: Progress and current concepts of etiopathogenesis. J Dig Dis 8, 171–178.
5.Chapman-Kiddell CA, Davies PS, Gillen L et al. . (2010) Role of diet in the development of inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 16, 137–151.
6.Jayanthi V, Probert CS, Pinder D et al. . (1992) Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in Indian migrants and the indigenous population in Leicestershire. Q J Med 82, 125–138.
7.Molodecky NA & Kaplan GG (2010) Environmental risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterol Hepatol 16, 339–346.
8.Sartor RB (2008) Microbial influences in inflammatory bowel diseases. Gastroenterology 134, 577–594.
9.Karlinger K, Gyorke T, Mako E et al. . (2000) The epidemiology and the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Eur J Radiol 35, 154–167.
10.Molodecky NA, Panaccione R, Ghosh S et al. . (2010) Challenges associated with identifying the environmental determinants of the inflammatory bowel diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis Epublication ahead of print.
11.Porro GB & Panza E (1985) Smoking, sugar, and inflammatory bowel disease. Br Med J 291, 971–972.
12.Reif S, Klein I, Lubin F et al. . (1997) Pre-illness dietary factors in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 40, 754–760.
13.Sakamoto N, Kono S, Wakai K et al. (2005) Dietary risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease: A multicenter case-control study in Japan. Inflamm Bowel Dis 11, 154–163.
14.Thornton JR, Emmett PM & Heaton KW (1979) Diet and Crohn's disease: Characteristics of the pre-illness diet. Br Med J 2, 762–764.
15.Tragnone A, Valpiani D, Miglio F et al. (1995) Dietary habits as risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 7, 47–51.
16.Gassull MA (2001) Dietary fat intake and inflammatory bowel disease. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 3, 358–361.
17.Belluzzi A, Brignola C, Campieri M et al. . (1996) Effect of an enteric-coated fish-oil preparation on relapses in Crohn's disease. N Engl J Med 334, 1557–1560.
18.Trebble TM, Stroud MA, Wootton SA et al. (2005) High-dose fish oil and antioxidants in Crohn's disease and the response of bone turnover: A randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr 94, 253–261.
19.Shoda R, Matsueda K, Yamato S et al. . (1996) Epidemiologic analysis of Crohn disease in Japan: Increased dietary intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and animal protein relates to the increased incidence of Crohn disease in Japan. Am J Clin Nutr 63, 741–745.
20.Epidemiological Group of the Research Committee of IBD in Japan (1994) Dietary and other risk factors of ulcerative colitis. A case-control study in Japan. Epidemiology group of the research committee of inflammatory Bowel disease in Japan. J Clin Gastroenterol 19, 166–171.
21.Hart AR, Luben R, Olsen A et al. (2008) Diet in the aetiology of ulcerative colitis: A European prospective cohort study. Digestion 77, 57–64.
22.Tjonneland A, Overvad K, Bergmann MM et al. (2009) Linoleic acid, a dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, and the aetiology of ulcerative colitis: A nested case-control study within a European prospective cohort study. Gut 58, 1606–1611.
23.Jowett SL, Seal CJ, Pearce MS et al. (2004) Influence of dietary factors on the clinical course of ulcerative colitis: A prospective cohort study. Gut 53, 1479–1484.
24.Jantchou P, Morois S, Clavel-Chapelon F et al. . (2010) Animal protein intake and risk of inflammatory bowel disease: The E3N prospective study. Am J Gastroenterol 105, 2195–2201.
25.Persson PG, Ahlbom A & Hellers G (1992) Diet and inflammatory bowel disease: A case-control study. Epidemiology 3, 47–52.
26.Lomer MC, Thompson RP & Powell JJ (2002) Fine and ultrafine particles of the diet: Influence on the mucosal immune response and association with Crohn's disease. Proc Nutr Soc 61, 123–130.
27.Lomer MC, Grainger SL, Ede R et al. (2005) Lack of efficacy of a reduced microparticle diet in a multi-centred trial of patients with active Crohn's disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 17, 377–384.
28.Bannerman E, Davidson I, Conway C et al. . (2001) Altered subjective appetite parameters in Crohn's disease patients. Clin Nutr 20, 399–405.
29.Gassull MA & Cabre E (2001) Nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 4, 561–569.
31.Lomer MCE (2009) National UK audits in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) highlight a deficit of dietitians in gastroenterology: A priority for improvement supported by national IBD standards. J Hum Nutr Diet 22, 287–289.
32.Gourgey R, Whelan K & Lomer MCE (2009) Dietetic assessment and management of enteral nutrition in patients with Crohn's disease: Current practice in the United Kingdom. J Hum Nutr Diet (In the Press).
35.Prince A, Moose A, Whelan K et al. . (2010) Patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis have similar food and nutrition problems and share views on research priorities in inflammatory bowel disease. J Hum Nutr Diet 23, 460–461.
36.Lomer MC, Kodjabashia K, Hutchinson C et al. . (2004) Intake of dietary iron is low in patients with Crohn's disease: A case-control study. Br J Nutr 91, 141–148.
37.Vagianos K, Bector S, McConnell J et al. . (2007) Nutrition assessment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 31, 311–319.
38.Geerling BJ, Stockbrugger RW & Brummer RJ (1999) Nutrition and inflammatory bowel disease: An update. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 230, 95–105.
39.Valentini L, Schaper L, Buning C et al. (2008) Malnutrition and impaired muscle strength in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in remission. Nutrition 24, 694–702.
40.Mijac DD, Jankovic GL, Jorga J et al. . (2010) Nutritional status in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease: Prevalence of malnutrition and methods for routine nutritional assessment. Eur J Intern Med 21, 315–319.
41.Geerling BJ, Badart-Smook A, Stockbrugger RW et al. . (1998) Comprehensive nutritional status in patients with long-standing Crohn disease currently in remission. Am J Clin Nutr 67, 919–926.
42.O'Sullivan M & O'Morain C (2006) Nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 20, 561–573.
43.Bernstein CN, Blanchard JF, Leslie W et al. . (2000) The incidence of fracture among patients with inflammatory bowel disease. A population-based cohort study. Ann Intern Med 133, 795–799.
44.van Staa TP, Cooper C, Brusse LS et al. . (2003) Inflammatory bowel disease and the risk of fracture. Gastroenterology 125, 1591–1597.
45.Tilg H, Moschen AR, Kaser A et al. . (2008) Gut, inflammation and osteoporosis: Basic and clinical concepts. Gut 57, 684–694.
47.Dignass A, Assche GV, Lindsay JO et al. (2010) The second European evidence-based consensus on the diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease: Current management. J Crohns Colitis 4, 28–62.
48.Compston J (2003) Osteoporosis in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 52, 63–64.
49.Kulnigg S & Gasche C (2006) Systematic review: Managing anaemia in Crohn's disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 24, 1507–1523.
50.Gasche C, Lomer MC, Cavill I et al. . (2004) Iron, anaemia, and inflammatory bowel diseases. Gut 53, 1190–1197.
51.Gasche C, Berstad A, Befrits R et al. (2007) Guidelines on the diagnosis and management of iron deficiency and anemia in inflammatory bowel diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis 13, 1545–1553.
52.Stein J, Hartmann F & Dignass AU (2010) Diagnosis and management of iron deficiency anemia in patients with IBD. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 7, 599–610.
53.Yakut M, Ustun Y, Kabacam G et al. . (2010) Serum vitamin B12 and folate status in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Eur J Intern Med 21, 320–323.
54.Driscoll RH Jr & Rosenberg IH (1978) Total parenteral nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease. Med Clin North Am 62, 185–201.
55.Ostro MJ, Greenberg GR & Jeejeebhoy KN (1985) Total parenteral nutrition and complete bowel rest in the management of Crohn's disease. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 9, 280–287.
56.Griffiths AM, Ohlsson A, Sherman PM et al. . (1995) Metaanalysis of enteral nutrition as a primary-treatment of active Crohns-disease. Gastroenterology 108, 1056–1067.
57.Zachos M, Tondeur M & Griffiths AM (2007) Enteral nutritional therapy for induction of remission in Crohn's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3, CD000542.
58.Bamba T, Shimoyama T, Sasaki M et al. (2003) Dietary fat attenuates the benefits of an elemental diet in active Crohn's disease: A randomized, controlled trial. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 15, 151–157.
59.Gassull MA, Fernandez-Banares F, Cabre E et al. (2002) Fat composition may be a clue to explain the primary therapeutic effect of enteral nutrition in Crohn's disease: Results of a double blind randomised multicentre European trial. Gut 51, 164–168.
60.Gorard DA (2003) Enteral nutrition in Crohn's disease: Fat in the formula. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 15, 115–118.
61.Leiper K, Woolner J, Mullan MM et al. (2001) A randomised controlled trial of high versus low long chain triglyceride whole protein feed in active Crohn's disease. Gut 49, 790–794.
62.Giaffer MH, North G & Holdsworth CD (1990) Controlled trial of polymeric versus elemental diet in treatment of active Crohn's disease. Lancet 335, 816–819.
63.Fell JM, Paintin M, Arnaud-Battandier F et al. (2000) Mucosal healing and a fall in mucosal pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA induced by a specific oral polymeric diet in paediatric Crohn's disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 14, 281–289.
64.Yamamoto T, Nakahigashi M, Umegae S et al. . (2007) Impact of long-term enteral nutrition on clinical and endoscopic recurrence after resection for Crohn's disease: A prospective, non-randomized, parallel, controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 25, 67–72.
65.Gonzalez-Huix F, Fernandez-Banares F, Esteve-Comas M et al. (1993) Enteral versus parenteral nutrition as adjunct therapy in acute ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol 88, 227–232.
66.Riordan AM, Hunter JO, Cowan RE et al. (1993) Treatment of active Crohn's disease by exclusion diet: East Anglian multicentre controlled trial. Lancet 342, 1131–1134.
67.Woolner JT, Parker TJ, Kirby GA et al. . (1998) The development and evaluation of a diet for maintaining remission in Crohn's disease. J Hum Nutr Diet 11, 1–11.
68.Akobeng AK & Thomas AG (2007) Enteral nutrition for maintaenance of remission in Crohn's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3, CD005984.
69.Ballegaard M, Bjergstrom A, Brondum S et al. . (1997) Self-reported food intolerance in chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Scand J Gastroenterol 32, 569–571.
70.Meier R & Gassull M (2004) Consensus recommendations on the effects and benefits of fibre in clinical practice. Clin Nutr Suppl 1, 73–80.
71.Lomer MCE (2011) Dietary considerations in IBD. In Inflammatory Bowel Disease Nursing, pp. 139–159 [Whayman K, Duncan J and O'Connor M.]. Quay Books: London.
72.Raouf AH, Hildrey V, Daniel J et al. (1991) Enteral feeding as sole treatment for Crohns-disease – controlled trial of whole protein upsilon-amino acid based feed and a case-study of dietary challenge. Gut 32, 702–707.
73.Hedin C, Whelan K & Lindsay JO (2007) Evidence for the use of probiotics and prebiotics in inflammatory bowel disease: A review of clinical trials. Proc Nutr Soc 66, 307–315.
74.Mimura T, Rizzello F, Helwig U et al. (2004) Once daily high dose probiotic therapy (VSL#3) for maintaining remission in recurrent or refractory pouchitis. Gut 53, 108–114.
75.Gionchetti P, Rizzello F, Venturi A et al. (2000) Oral bacteriotherapy as maintenance treatment in patients with chronic pouchitis: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Gastroenterology 119, 305–309.
76.Gionchetti P, Rizzello F, Helwig U et al. (2003) Prophylaxis of pouchitis onset with probiotic therapy: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Gastroenterology 124, 1202–1209.
77.Kruis W, Schutz E, Fric P et al. . (1997) Double-blind comparison of an oral Escherichia coli preparation and mesalazine in maintaining remission of ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 11, 853–858.
78.Kruis W, Fric P, Pokrotnieks J et al. (2004) Maintaining remission of ulcerative colitis with the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 is as effective as with standard mesalazine. Gut 53, 1617–1623.
79.Rembacken BJ, Snelling AM, Hawkey PM et al. . (1999) Non-pathogenic Escherichia coli versus mesalazine for the treatment of ulcerative colitis: A randomised trial. Lancet 354, 635–639.
80.Butterworth AD, Thomas AG & Akobeng AK (2008) Probiotics for induction of remission in Crohn's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3, CD006634.
81.Mallon P, McKay D, Kirk S et al. . (2007) Probiotics for induction of remission in ulcerative colitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4, CD005573.
82.Simren M, Axelsson J, Gillberg R et al. . (2002) Quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease in remission: The impact of IBS-like symptoms and associated psychological factors. Am J Gastroenterol 97, 389–396.
83.Shepherd SJ, Parker FC, Muir JG et al. . (2008) Dietary triggers of abdominal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: Randomized placebo-controlled evidence. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 6, 765–771.
84.Barrett JS, Gearry RB, Muir JG et al. (2010) Dietary poorly absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates increase delivery of water and fermentable substrates to the proximal colon. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 31, 874–882.
85.Ong DK, Mitchell SB, Barrett JS et al. (2010) Manipulation of dietary short chain carbohydrates alters the pattern of gas production and genesis of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 25, 1366–1373.
86.Gearry RB, Irving PM, Barrett JS et al. . (2009) Reduction of dietary poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates (FODMAPs) improves abdominal symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. J Crohns Colitis 3, 8–14.
87.Barrett JS & Gibson PR (2007) Clinical ramifications of malabsorption of fructose and other short chain carbohydrates. Pract Gastroenterol 53, 51–65.
88.Gibson PR & Shepherd SJ (2010) Evidence-based dietary management of functional gastrointestinal symptoms: The FODMAP approach. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 25, 252–258.
89.Krok KL & Lichtenstein GR (2003) Nutrition in Crohn disease. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 19, 148–153.