Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Improving the bioavailability of nutrients in plant foods at the household level

  • Rosalind S. Gibson (a1), Leah Perlas and Christine Hotz
Abstract

Plant foods are the major staples of diets in developing countries, in which the consumption of animal-source foods is often low because of economic and/or religious concerns. However, such plant-based diets are often associated with micronutrient deficits, exacerbated in part by poor micronutrient bioavailability. Diet-related factors in plant foods that affect bioavailability include: the chemical form of the nutrient in food and/or nature of the food matrix; interactions between nutrients and other organic components (e.g. phytate, polyphenols, dietary fibre, oxalic acid, protein, fat, ascorbic acid); pretreatment of food as a result of processing and/or preparation practices. Consequently, household strategies that reduce the content or counteract the inhibiting effects of these factors on micronutrient bioavailability are urgently needed in developing-country settings. Examples of such strategies include: germination, microbial fermentation or soaking to reduce the phytate and polyphenol content of unrefined cereal porridges used for young child feeding; addition of ascorbic acid-containing fruits to enhance non-haem-Fe absorption; heating to destroy heat-labile anti-nutritional factors (e.g. goitrogens, thiaminases) or disrupt carotenoid–protein complexes. Such strategies have been employed in both experimental isotope-absorption and community-based studies. Increases in Fe, Zn and Ca absorption have been reported in adults fed dephytinized cereals compared with cereals containing their native phytate. In community-based studies in rural Malawi improvements in dietary quality and arm-muscle area and reductions in the incidence of anaemia and common infections in young children have been observed.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Improving the bioavailability of nutrients in plant foods at the household level
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Improving the bioavailability of nutrients in plant foods at the household level
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Improving the bioavailability of nutrients in plant foods at the household level
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Professor R. S. Gibson, fax +64 3 479 7958, email Rosalind.Gibson@stonebow.otago.ac.nz
Present address: Food and Nutrition Research Institute, Department of Science and Technology, Bicutan, Taguig, Metro Manila, Philippines
Present address: HarvestPlus, c/o International Food Policy Research Institute, 2003 K Street, NW, Washington DC 20006-1002, USA
References
Hide All
Bjorn-Rasmussen, E Hallberg, L (1979) Effect of animal proteins on the absorption of food iron in man Nutrition and Metabolism 23 192202.
Bravo, L (1998) Polyphenols: chemistry, dietary sources, metabolism, and nutritional significance Nutrition Reviews 56 317333.
Brune, ML Rossander, L Hallberg, L (1989) No intestinal adaptation to a high-phytate diet American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49 542545.
Camacho, L Sierra, C Campos, R, Guzman, E Marcus, D (1992) Nutritional changes caused by germination of legumes commonly eaten in Chile Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion 42 283290.
Castenmiller, JJM van de Poll West, CE Brouwer, IA, Thomas, CMG van Dusseldorp, M (2000) Bioavailability of folate from processed spinach in humans Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 44 163169.
Chang, R Schwimmer, S Burr, HK (1977) Phytate: removal from whole dry beans by enzymatic hydrolysis and diffusion. Journal of Food Science 42 10981101.
Charlton, RW (1983) The effects of organic acids, phytates and polyphenols on the absorption of iron from vegetables British Journal of Nutrition 49 331342.
Cheryan, M (1980) Phytic acid interactions in food systems CRC Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 13 297335.
De Boland, AR Garner, GB & O'Dell, BL (1975) Identification and properties of phytate in cereal grains and oilseed products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 23 11861189.
Demigne, C Levrat, MA Younes, H Remesy, C (1995) Interactions between large intestine fermentation and dietary calcium European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 3, Suppl. S235S238.
Dewey, KG Romero-Abal, ME Quan de Serrano, J Bulux, J, Peerson, JM Engle, P Solomons, N (1997) Effects of discontinuing coffee intake on iron status of iron-deficient Guatemalan toddlers: A randomized intervention study American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 66 168176.
Diaz, M Rosado, JL Allen, LH, Abrams, SA Garcia, OP (2003) The efficacy of a local ascorbic-acid rich food to improve iron absorption from Mexican diets: a field study using stable isotopes American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 78 436440.
Egli, I Davidsson, L Juillerat, M-A, Barclay, D Hurrell, RF (2002) The influence of soaking and germination on the phytase activity and phytic acid content of grains and seeds potentially useful for complementary feeding. Journal of Food Science 67 34843488.
Egli, I Davidsson, L Juillerat, M-A, Barclay, D Hurrell, RF (2003) Phytic acid degradation in complementary foods using phytases naturally occurring in whole grain cereals. Journal of Food Science 68 18551859.
Egli, I Davidsson, L Zeder, C, Walczyk, T Hurrell, R (2004) Dephytinization of a complementary food based on wheat and soy increases zinc, but not copper apparent absorption in adults. Journal of Nutrition 134 10771080.
Erdman, JW & Pneros-Schneier, AG (1994) Factors affecting nutritive value in processed foods. In Nutrition in Health and Disease, pp. 15691578 [Shils, ME, Olson, JA and Shile, M, editors]. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger.
Ezeji, C Ojimelukwe, PC (1993) Effect of fermentation on the nutritional quality and functional properties of infant food formulations prepared from bamarra-groundnut, fluted-pumpkin and millet seeds Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 44 267276.
Fairweather-Tait, S Hurrell, RF (1996) Bioavailability of minerals and trace elements Nutrition Research 9 295324.
Gaitan, E (1990) Goitrogens in food and water Annual Review of Nutrition 10 2139.
Gallagher, DD & Schneeman, BO (2001) Dietary fiber. In Present Knowledge in Nutrition, pp. 8391 [Bowman, BA and Russell, RM, editors]. Washington, DC: International Life Sciences Institute.
Garcia, OP Diaz, M Rosado, JL Allen, LH (2003) Ascorbic acid from lime juice does not improve the iron status of iron-deficient women in rural Mexico American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 78 267273.
Gibson, RS & Ferguson, EL (1998) Food processing methods for improving the zinc content and bioavailability of home-based and commercially available complementary foods. Micronutrient Interactions: Impact on Child Health and Nutrition, pp. 5057. Washington, DC: International Life Sciences Institute Press.
Gibson, RS Yeudall, F Drost, N, Mitimuni, B Cullinan, T (1998) Dietary interventions to prevent zinc deficiency American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68 484S487S.
Gibson, RS Yeudall, F Drost, N, Mitimuni, BM Cullinan, TR (2003) Experiences of a community-based dietary intervention to enhance micronutrient adequacy of diets low in animal source foods and high in phytate: a case study in rural Malawian children. Journal of Nutrition 133 3992S3999S.
Hallberg, L (1981) Bioavailability of dietary iron in man Annual Review of Nutrition 1 123147.
Hallberg, L Brune, M Erlandsson, M, Sandberg, AS Rossander-Hulten, L (1991) Calcium: effect of different amounts on nonheme and heme-iron absorption in humans American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53 112119.
Hallberg, L Brune, M Rossander, L (1989) Iron absorption in man: ascorbic acid and dose-dependent inhibition by phytate American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49 140144.
Han, O Failla, ML Hill, AD, Morris, ER Smith, JC (1994) Inositol phosphates inhibit uptake and transport of iron and zinc by a human intestinal cell line. Journal of Nutrition 124 580587.
Hazell, T Johnson, IT (1987) In vitro estimation of iron availability from a range of plant foods: influence of phytate, ascorbate and citrate British Journal of Nutrition 57 223233.
Heaney, RP (2000) Dietary protein and phosphorus do not affect calcium absorption American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 72 758761.
Heaney, RP Weaver, CM Fitzsimmons, ML (1991) Soybean phytate content: effect on calcium absorption American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53 745747.
Hilker, DM Somogyi, JC (1982) Antithiamins of plant origin: their chemical nature and mode of action Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 378 137145.
Hotz, C Gibson, RS (2001) Assessment of home-based processing methods to reduce phytate content and phytate/zinc molar ratios of white maize (Zea mays). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49 692698.
Hotz, C Gibson, RS (2005) A participatory nutrition education intervention improves the adequacy of complementary diets of rural Malawian children: a pilot study European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59 226237.
Hurrell, RF (2003) Influence of vegetable protein sources on trace element and mineral bioavailability. Journal of Nutrition 133 2973S2977S.
Hurrell, RF Juillerat, MA Reddy, MB, Lynch, SR Dassenko, SA, Cook, JD (1992) Soy protein, phytate, and iron absorption in humans American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56 573578.
Hurrell, RF Lynch, S Bothwell, T, Cori, H Glahn, R, Hertrampf, E et al. (2004) Enhancing the absorption of fortification iron. A SUSTAIN Task Force report International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research 74 387401.
Hurrell, RF Reddy, MB Burri, J Cook, JD (2002) Phytate degradation determines the effect of industrial processing and home cooking on iron absorption from cereal-based foods British Journal of Nutrition 88 117123.
Hurrell, RF Reddy, MB Juillerat, M-A, Cook, JD (2003) Degradation of phytic acid in cereal porridges improves iron absorption by human subjects American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 77 12131219.
Jackson, M (1997) The assessment of bioavailability of micronutrients: introduction European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51 S1S2.
Jood, S Kapoor, AC (1997) Improvement in bioavailability of minerals of chickpea and blackgram cultivars through processing and cooking methods International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 48 307312.
Kataria, A Chauhan, BM Gandhi, S (1989) Antinutrients and protein digestibility (in vitro) of mungbean as affected by domestic processing and cooking Food Chemistry 32 917.
Khan, N Zaman, R Elahi, M (1991) Effect of heat treatment on the phytic acid content of maize products. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 54 153156.
Latunde-Dada, GO Bianchi, MLP de Oliviera, JED (1998) On the methods for studying the mechanisms and bioavailability of iron Nutrition Reviews 56 7680.
Levander, OA (1987) A global view of human selenium nutrition Annual Review of Nutrition 7 227250.
Lönnerdal, B (2000) Dietary factors influencing zinc absorption. Journal of Nutrition 130 1378S1383S.
Lönnerdal, B Sandberg, A-S, Sandström, B Kunz, C (1989) Inhibitory effects of phytic acid and other inositol phosphates on zinc and calcium absorption in suckling rats. Journal of Nutrition 119 211214.
McNulty, H Pentieva, K (2004) Folate bioavailability Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 63 529536.
Maenz, DD Engele-Schaan, CM Newkirk, RW, Classen, HL (1999) The effect of mineral chelators on the formation of phytase-resistant and phytase-susceptible forms of phytic acid in solution and in slurry of canola meal Animal Feed Science and Technology 81 177192.
Mamiro, PS Kolsteren, PW van Camp, JH Roberfroid, DA, Tatala, S Opsomer, AS (2004) Processed complementary food does not improve growth or hemoglobin status of rural Tanzanian infants from 6–12 months of age in Kilosa District, Tanzania. Journal of Nutrition 134 10841090.
Manary, MJ Hotz, C Krebs, NF Gibson, RS, Westcott, JE Arnold, T Broadhead, RL Hambidge, KM (2000) Dietary phytate reduction improves zinc absorption in Malawian children recovering from tuberculosis but not in well children. Journal of Nutrition 130 29592964.
Manary, MJ Hotz, C Krebs, NF Gibson, RS, Westcott, JE Broadhead, RL, Hambidge, KM (2002a) Zinc homeostasis in Malawian children consuming a high-phytate, maize-based diet American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 75 10571061.
Manary, MJ Krebs, NF Gibson, RS, Broadhead, RL Hambidge, KM (2002b) Community-based dietary phytate reduction and its effect on iron status in Malawian children Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 22 133136.
Marfo, EK Simpson, BK Idowu, JS, Oke, OL (1990) Effect of local food processing on phytate levels in cassava, cocoyam, yam, maize, sorghum, rice, cowpea, and soybean. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 38 15801585.
Matuschek, E & Svanberg, U (2004) Enzymatic treatment of high-tannin sorghum increases the bioaccessibility of iron. Abstr Th37. Report of the 2004 International Nutritional Anemia Consultative Group Symposium: Iron Deficiency in Early Life: Challenges and Progress, Lima, Peru, p. 60. Washington, DC: INACG; available at http://inacg.ilsi.org/file/INACGPeru-FINALREPORT.pdf
Mbithi-Mwikya, S van Camp, J Mamiro, PRS Ooghe, W Kolsteren, P, Huyghebaert, A (2002) Evaluation of the nutritional characteristics of a finger millet based complementary food. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50 30303036.
Morris, ER & Ellis, R (1985) Bioavailability of dietary calcium. In Nutritional Bioavailability of Calcium, pp. 6372 [Kies, C, editor]. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society.
Murray-Kolb, LE Welch, R Theil, EC Beard, JL (2003) Women with low iron stores absorb iron from soybeans American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 77 180184.
Mutanen, M Mykkanen, HM (1985) Effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on selenium bioavailability in humans Human Nutrition Clinical Nutrition 39 221226.
Navert, B Sandstrom, B Cederblad, A (1985) Reduction of the phytate content of bran by leavening in bread and its effect on zinc absorption in man British Journal of Nutrition 53 4753.
Nnam, NM (1999) Nitrogen and mineral utilization of young children fed blends of fermented or unfermented corn (Zea may. L), African yam bean (Spenostylis stenocarpa) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Ecology of Food and Nutrition 38 2134.
Oberleas, D Harland, BF (1981) Phytate content of foods: effect on dietary zinc bioavailability. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 79 433436.
O'Dell, BL de Bowland, AR Koirtyohann, SR (1972) Distribution of phytate and nutritionally important elements among the morphological components of cereal grains. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 20 718721.
Odunfa, SA (1985) African fermented foods. In Microbiology of Food Fermentations, pp. 151191 [Wood, BJB, editor]. London: Applied Science Publishers.
Offenbacher, E (1994) Promotion of chromium absorption by ascorbic acid Trace Elements and Electrolytes 11 178181.
Perlas, L Gibson, RS (2002) Use of soaking to enhance the bioavailability of iron and zinc from rice-based complementary foods used in the Philippines. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 82 11151124.
Porres, JM Etcheverry, P Miller, DD (2001) Phytate and citric acid supplementation in whole-wheat bread improves phytate-phosphorus release and iron dialyzability. Journal of Food Science 66 614619.
Rock, CL Lovalvo, JL Emenhiser, C Ruffin, MT Flatt, SW, Schwartz, SJ (1998) Bioavailability of β-carotene is lower in raw than in processed carrots and spinach in women. Journal of Nutrition 128 913916.
Ruel, MT (2001) Can Food-based Strategies Help to Reduce Vitamin A and Iron Deficiencies? A Review of Recent Evidence. Food Policy Review no. 5. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.
Sandberg, A-S (1991) The effect of food processing on phytate hydrolysis and availability of iron and zinc. In Nutritional and Toxicological Consequences of Food Processing, pp. 499508 [Friedman, M, editor]. New York: Plenum Press.
Sandberg, A-S Brune, M Carlsson, N-G, Hallberg, L Skoglund, E, Rossander-Hulthen, L (1999) Inositol phosphates with different numbers of phosphate groups influence iron absorption in humans American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70 240246.
Sandström, B (1997) Bioavailability of zinc European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51 S17S19.
Sandström, B (2001) Micronutrient interactions: effects on absorption and bioavailability British Journal of Nutrition 85 S181S185.
Sandström, B Davidsson, L Cederblad, A, Lönnerdal, B (1985) Oral iron, dietary ligands and zinc absorption. Journal of Nutrition 115 411414.
Sandström, B, Madsen, E & Cederblad, A (1993) Rate of endo-genous zinc excretion at high phytate intake. In Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Trace Elements in Man and Animals, pp. 620624 [Anke, M, Meissner, D and Mills, CF, editors]. Gersdorf, Germany: Verlag Media Touristik.
Sanni, A Onilude, AA Ibidapo, OT (1999) Biochemical composition of infant weaning food fabricated from fermented blends of cereal and soybean Food Chemistry 65 3539.
Savage, GP (2002) Oxalates in human foods Proceedings of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 27 424.
Sharma, A Khetarpaul, N (1998) Development of products incorporating fermented rice-legume-whey blends: effect on phytic acid content and availability (in vitro) of calcium and iron Ecology of Food and Nutrition 36 491500.
Svanberg, U Lorri, W Sandberg, A-S (1993) Lactic fermentation of non-tannin and high-tannin cereals: effects on in vitro estimation of iron availability and phytate hydrolysis. Journal of Food Science 58 408412.
Temple, L Gibson, RS Hotz, C (2002) Use of soaking and enrichment for improving the content and bioavailability of calcium, iron and zinc in complementary foods and diets of rural Malawian weanlings. Journal of Food Science 67 19261932.
Teucher, B Olivares, M Cori, H (2004) Enhancers of iron absorption: ascorbic acid and other organic acids International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 74 403419.
Turnlund, JR Swanson, CA King, JC (1983) Copper absorption and retention in pregnant women fed diets based on animal and plant proteins. Journal of Nutrition 113 23462352.
Van Campen, DR Glahn, RP (1999) Micronutrient bioavailability techniques: accuracy, problems and limitations Field Crops Research 60 93113.
van het Hof, KH de Boer, BCJ Tijburg, LBM, Lucius, BRHM Zijp, I West, CE Hautvast, JGAJ Weststrate, JA (2000) Carotenoid bioavailability in humans from tomatoes processed in different ways determined from the carotenoid response in the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fraction of plasma after a single consumption and in plasma after four days of consumption. Journal of Nutrition 130 11891196.
Walter, A Rimbach, G Most, E, Pallauf, J (1998) Effect of citric acid supplements to a maize-soya diet on the in vitro availability of minerals, trace elements, and heavy metals Zentralblatt Veterinarmedizin 45A 517524.
Wortley, G Leusner, S Good, C, Gugger, E Glahn, R (2005) Iron availability of a fortified processed wheat cereal: a comparison of fourteen iron forms using an in vitro digestion/human colonic adenocarcinoma (CaCo-2) cell model British Journal of Nutrition 93 6571.
Yeudall, F Gibson, RS Cullinan, TR, Mitimuni, B (2005) Efficacy of a community-based dietary intervention to enhance micronutrient adequacy of high-phytate maize-based diets of rural Malawian children Public Health Nutrition 8 826836.
Yeudall, F Kayira, C Umar, E, Gibson, RS (2002) Impact of a community-based dietary intervention on selected biochemical and functional outcomes in rural Malawian children European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56 11761185.
Yeum, K-J Russell, RM (2002) Carotenoid bioavailability and bioconversion Annual Review of Nutrition 22 483504.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • ISSN: 0029-6651
  • EISSN: 1475-2719
  • URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 9
Total number of PDF views: 1598 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 2557 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 18th July 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.