This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
5 B Armstrong , R Doll . Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices. International Journal of Cancer 1975; 15: 617–31.
9 WC Willett . Nutritional Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
11 DM Parkin , F Bray , J Ferlay , P Pisani . Estimating the world cancer burden: Globocan 2000. International Journal of Cancer 2001; 94: 153–6.
13 LM Brown , CA Swanson , G Gridley , Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus: role of obesity and diet. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1995; 87: 104–9.
17 KA Steinmetz , JD Potter . Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1996; 96: 1027–39.
18 L Sharp , CE Chilvers , KK Cheng , Risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus in women: a case-control study. British Journal of Cancer 2001; 85: 1667–70.
19 WJ Blot , JY Li , PR Taylor , Nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China: supplementation with specific vitamin/ mineral combinations, cancer incidence, and disease-specific mortality in the general population. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1993; 85: 1483–92.
20 JY Li , PR Taylor , B Li , Nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China: multiple vitamin/mineral supplementation, cancer incidence, and disease-specific mortality among adults with esophageal dysplasia. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1993; 85: 1492–8.
25Helicobacter and Cancer Collaborative Group. Gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori: a combined analysis of 12 case control studies nested within prospective cohorts. Gut 2001; 49: 347–53.
28 AA Botterweck , PA van den Brandt , RA Goldbohm . A prospective cohort study on vegetable and fruit consumption and stomach cancer risk in The Netherlands. American Journal of Epidemiology 1998; 148: 842–53.
29 P Correa , ET Fontham , JC Bravo , Chemoprevention of gastric dysplasia: randomized trial of antioxidant supplements and anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2000; 92: 1881–8.
30 JH Cummings , SA Bingham . Diet and the prevention of cancer. British Medical Journal 1998; 317: 1636–40.
32 NJ Gooderham , S Murray , AM Lynch , Assessing human risk to heterocyclic amines. Mutation Research 1997; 376: 53–60.
33 N Kazerouni , R Sinha , CH Hsu , A Greenberg , N Rothman . Analysis of 200 food items for benzo[a]pyrene and estimation of its intake in an epidemiologic study. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 2001; 39: 423–36.
34 SA Bingham , B Pignatelli , JR Pollock , Does increased endogenous formation of N -nitroso compounds in the human colon explain the association between red meat and colon cancer? Carcinogenesis 1996; 17: 515–23.
36 T Norat , A Lukanova , P Ferrari , E Riboli . Meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk: a dose–response meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. International Journal of Cancer 2002; 98: 241–56.
38 GR Howe , KJ Aronson , E Benito , The relationship between dietary fat intake and risk of colorectal cancer: evidence from the combined analysis of 13 case-control studies. Cancer Causes & Control 1997; 8: 215–28.
40 C La Vecchia . Diet and human cancer: a review. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 2001; 10: 177–81.
41 A Hague , DJ Elder , DJ Hicks , C Paraskeva . Apoptosis in colorectal tumour cells: induction by the short chain fatty acids butyrate, propionate and acetate and by the bile salt deoxycholate. International Journal of Cancer 1995; 60: 400–6.
44 DRJ Jacobs , L Marquart , J Slavin , LH Kushi . Whole-grain intake and cancer: an expanded review and meta-analysis. Nutrition and Cancer 1998; 30: 85–96.
46 CS Fuchs , EL Giovannucci , GA Colditz , Dietary fiber and the risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma in women. New England Journal of Medicine 1999; 340: 169–76.
47 KB Michels , G Edward , KJ Joshipura , Prospective study of fruit and vegetable consumption and incidence of colon and rectal cancers. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2000; 92: 1740–52.
48 A Schatzkin , E Lanza , D Corle , Lack of effect of a low-fat, high-fiber diet on the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. Polyp Prevention Trial Study Group. New England Journal of Medicine 2000; 342: 1149–55.
49 DS Alberts , ME Martinez , DJ Roe , Lack of effect of a high-fiber cereal supplement on the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. Phoenix Colon Cancer Prevention Physicians' Network. New England Journal of Medicine 2000; 342: 1156–62.
50 C Bonithon-Kopp , O Kronborg , A Giacosa , U Rath , J Faivre . Calcium and fibre supplementation in prevention of colorectal adenoma recurrence: a randomised intervention trial. European Cancer Prevention Organisation Study Group. Lancet 2000; 356: 1300–6.
51 P Terry , E Giovannucci , KB Michels , Fruit, vegetables, dietary fiber, and risk of colorectal cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2001; 93: 525–33.
54 E Giovannucci , EB Rimm , A Ascherio , MJ Stampfer , GA Colditz , WC Willett . Alcohol, low-methionine, low-folate diets, and risk of colon cancer in men. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1995; 87: 265–73.
55 SA Glynn , D Albanes , P Pietinen , Alcohol consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in a cohort of Finnish men. Cancer Causes & Control 1996; 7: 214–23.
56 E Giovannucci , MJ Stampfer , GA Colditz , Multivitamin use, folate, and colon cancer in women in the Nurses' Health Study. Annals of Internal Medicine 1998; 129: 517–24.
58 JD Potter . Colorectal cancer: molecules and populations. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1999; 91: 916–32.
59 BC Blount , MM Mack , CM Wehr , Folate deficiency causes uracil misincorporation into human DNA and chromosome breakage: implications for cancer and neuronal damage. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1997; 94: 3290–5.
61 AL Sesink , DS Termont , JH Kleibeuker , R Van Der Meer . Red meat and colon cancer: dietary haem-induced colonic cytotoxicity and epithelial hyperproliferation are inhibited by calcium. Carcinogenesis 2001; 22: 1653–9.
62 JA Baron , M Beach , JS Mandel , Calcium supplements and colorectal adenomas. Polyp Prevention Study Group. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1999; 889: 138–45.
64 G Saracco . Primary liver cancer is of multifactorial origin: importance of hepatitis B virus infection and dietary aflatoxin. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 1995; 10: 604–8.
65 DS Michaud , E Giovannucci , WC Willett , GA Colditz , MJ Stampfer , CS Fuchs . Physical activity, obesity, height, and the risk of pancreatic cancer. Journal of the American Medical Association 2001; 286: 921–9.
66 E Bjelke . Dietary vitamin A and human lung cancer. International Journal of Cancer 1975; 15: 561–5.
67 CH Hennekens , JE Buring , JE Manson , Lack of effect of long-term supplementation with beta carotene on the incidence of malignant neoplasms and cardiovascular disease. New England Journal of Medicine 1996; 334: 1145–9.
68 GS Omenn , GE Goodman , MD Thornquist , Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. New England Journal of Medicine 1996; 334: 1150–5.
69The Alpha-Tocopherol Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. New England Journal of Medicine 1994; 330: 1029–35.
70 D Feskanich , RG Ziegler , DS Michaud , Prospective study of fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of lung cancer among men and women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2000; 92: 1812–23.
71 LE Voorrips , RA Goldbohm , DT Verhoeven , Vegetable and fruit consumption and lung cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer. Cancer Causes & Control 2000; 11: 101–15.
72 TJ Key , PK Verkasalo , E Banks . Epidemiology of breast cancer. Lancet Oncology 2001; 2: 133–40.
73Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Breastfeeding and breast cancer: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50,302 women with breast cancer and 96,973 women without the disease. Lancet 2002; 360: 187–95.
74Collaborative group on hormonal factors in breast cancer. Alcohol, tobacco and breast cancer-collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 58,515 women with breast cancer and 95,067 women without the disease. British Journal of Cancer 2002; 87: 1234–45.
75 JF Dorgan , DJ Baer , PS Albert , Serum hormones and the alcohol-breast cancer association in postmenopausal women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2001; 93: 710–5.
76 TA Sellers , LH Kushi , JR Cerhan , Dietary folate intake, alcohol, and risk of breast cancer in a prospective study of postmenopausal women. Epidemiology 2001; 12: 420–8.
77 SA Smith-Warner , D Spiegelman , HO Adami , Types of dietary fat and breast cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies. International Journal of Cancer 2001; 92: 767–74.
78 AH Wu , MC Pike , DO Stram . Meta-analysis: dietary fat intake, serum estrogen levels, and the risk of breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1999; 91: 529–34.
80 TJ Key , NE Allen . Nutrition and breast cancer. The Breast 2001; 10(Suppl. 3): 9–13.
81 SA Smith-Warner , D Spiegelman , SS Yaun , Intake of fruits and vegetables and risk of breast cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies. Journal of the American Medical Association 2001; 285: 769–76.
82 A Bergstrom , P Pisani , V Tenet , A Wolk , HO Adami . Overweight as an avoidable cause of cancer in Europe. International Journal of Cancer 2001; 91: 421–30.
83 TJ Key , MC Pike . The dose–effect relationship between ‘unopposed’ oestrogens and endometrial mitotic rate: its central role in explaining and predicting endometrial cancer risk. British Journal of Cancer 1988; 57: 205–12.
85 E Banks , V Beral , G Reeves . The epidemiology of epithelial ovarian cancer: a review. International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 1997; 425–38.
86 AG Schuurman , PA van den Brandt , E Dorant , RA Goldbohm . Animal products, calcium and protein and prostate cancer risk in The Netherlands Cohort Study. British Journal of Cancer 1999; 80: 1107–13.
88 DS Michaud , K Augustsson , EB Rimm , MJ Stampfer , WC Willett , E Giovannucci . A prospective study on intake of animal products and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Causes & Control 2001; 12: 557–67.
89 OP Heinonen , D Albanes , J Virtamo , Prostate cancer and supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene: incidence and mortality in a controlled trial. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1998; 90: 440–6.
90 LC Clark , B Dalkin , A Krongrad , Decreased incidence of prostate cancer with selenium supplementation: results of a double-blind cancer prevention trial. British Journal of Urology 1998; 81: 730–4.
91 AR Kristal , JH Cohen . Invited commentary: tomatoes, lycopene, and prostate cancer. How strong is the evidence? American Journal of Epidemiology 2000; 151: 124–7.
92 NE Eaton , GK Reeves , PN Appleby , TJ Key . Endogenous sex hormones and prostate cancer: a quantitative review of prospective studies. British Journal of Cancer 1999; 80: 930–4.
93 PH Gann , CH Hennekens , J Ma , C Longcope , MJ Stampfer . Prospective study of sex hormone levels and risk of prostate cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1996; 88: 1118–26.
94 JM Chan , MJ Stampfer , E Giovannucci , Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I and prostate cancer risk: a prospective study. Science 1998; 279: 563–6.
95 P Stattin , A Bylund , S Rinaldi , Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins and prostate cancer risk: a prospective study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2000; 92: 1910–7.
96 NE Allen , PN Appleby , GK Davey , TJ Key . Hormones and diet: low insulin-like growth factor-I but normal bioavailable androgens in vegan men. British Journal of Cancer 2000; 83: 95–7.
97 RP Heaney , DA McCarron , B Dawson-Hughes , Dietary changes favorably affect bone remodeling in older adults. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1999; 99: 1228–33.
99 DS Michaud , D Spiegelman , SK Clinton , EB Rimm , WC Willett , EL Giovannucci . Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of bladder cancer in a male prospective cohort. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1999; 91: 605–13.
100 A Bergstrom , CC Hsieh , P Lindblad , CM Lu , NR Cook , A Wolk . Obesity and renal cell cancer—a quantitative review. British Journal of Cancer 2001; 85: 984–90.
102 E Giovannucci . Insulin and colon cancer. Cancer Causes & Control 1995; 6: 164–79.
104 E Giovannucci , SK Clinton . Tomatoes, lycopene, and prostate cancer. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 1998; 218: 129–39.
106 E Tarake , P Rydberg , P Karlsson , S Eriksson , M Törnqvist . Analysis of acrylamide, a carcinogen formed in heated foodstuffs. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2002; 50: 4998–5006.
107 DS Mottram , BL Wedzicha , AT Dodson . Food chemistry: acrylamide is formed in the Maillard reaction. Nature 2002; 419: 448–9.
108 RH Stadler , I Blank , N Varga , Food chemistry: acrylamide from Maillard reaction products. Nature 2002; 419: 449–50.
110 I Shaw , B Thomson . Acrylamide food risk. Lancet 2003; 361: 434.
111 LA Mucci , PW Dickman , G Steineck , H-O Adami , K Augustsson . Dietary acrylamide and cancer of the large bowel, kidney, and bladder: absence of an association in a population-based study in Sweden. British Journal of Cancer 2003; 88: 84–9.