Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Diet, nutrition and the prevention of cancer

  • Timothy J Key (a1), Arthur Schatzkin (a2), Walter C Willett (a3), Naomi E Allen (a1), Elizabeth A Spencer (a1) and Ruth C Travis (a1)...
Abstract
AbstractObjective:

To assess the epidemiological evidence on diet and cancer and make public health recommendations.

Design:

Review of published studies, concentrating on recent systematic reviews, meta-analyses and large prospective studies.

Conclusions and recommendations:

Overweight/obesity increases the risk for cancers of the oesophagus (adenocarcinoma), colorectum, breast (postmenopausal), endometrium and kidney; body weight should be maintained in the body mass index range of 18.5–25?kg/m2, and weight gain in adulthood avoided. Alcohol causes cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus and liver, and a small increase in the risk for breast cancer; if consumed, alcohol intake should not exceed 2?units/d. Aflatoxin in foods causes liver cancer, although its importance in the absence of hepatitis virus infections is not clear; exposure to aflatoxin in foods should be minimised. Chinese-style salted fish increases the risk for nasopharyngeal cancer, particularly if eaten during childhood, and should be eaten only in moderation. Fruits and vegetables probably reduce the risk for cancers of the oral cavity, oesophagus, stomach and colorectum, and diets should include at least 400?g/d of total fruits and vegetables. Preserved meat and red meat probably increase the risk for colorectal cancer; if eaten, consumption of these foods should be moderate. Salt preserved foods and high salt intake probably increase the risk for stomach cancer; overall consumption of salt preserved foods and salt should be moderate. Very hot drinks and foods probably increase the risk for cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx and oesophagus; drinks and foods should not be consumed when they are scalding hot. Physical activity, the main determinant of energy expenditure, reduces the risk for colorectal cancer and probably reduces the risk for breast cancer; regular physical activity should be taken.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Diet, nutrition and the prevention of cancer
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Diet, nutrition and the prevention of cancer
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Diet, nutrition and the prevention of cancer
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email tim.key@cancer.org.uk
References
Hide All
1Doll R, Peto R. The causes of cancer: quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the United States today. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1981; 66: 1191–308.
2Miller AB. Diet in cancer prevention. http://www.who.int/ncd/cancer/publications/abstracts/abs9810_05 (accessed 2001).
3World Cancer Research Fund. Food, Nutrition, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington, DC: American Institute for Cancer Research, 1997.
4COMA. Nutritional Aspects of the Development of Cancer (Report of the Working Group on Diet and Cancer of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food and Nutrition Policy). London: The Stationery Office, 1998.
5Armstrong B, Doll R. Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices. International Journal of Cancer 1975; 15: 617–31.
6International Agency for Research on Cancer. Cancer: Causes, Occurrence and Control. IARC Scientific Publications No. 100. Lyon: IARC,1990.
7FerIay J, Bray P, Pisani P, Parkin DM. Globocan 2000: Cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide, Version 1.0. IARC CancerBase No. 5. http://www-dep.iarc.fr/globocan/globocan.html (accessed 11 3, 2001).
8Giovannucci E, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, et al. A comparison of prospective and retrospective assessments of diet in the study of breast cancer. American Journal of Epidemiology 1993; 137: 502–11.
9Willett WC. Nutritional Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
10International Agency for Research on Cancer. Principles of Chemoprevention. IARC Scientific Publications No. 139. Lyon: IARC, 1996.
11Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Estimating the world cancer burden: Globocan 2000. International Journal of Cancer 2001; 94: 153–6.
12International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. vol. 44. Alcohol drinking. Lyon: IARC, 1988.
13Brown LM, Swanson CA, Gridley G, et al. Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus: role of obesity and diet. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1995; 87: 104–9.
14Cheng KK, Sharp L, McKinney PA, et al. A case-control study of oesophageal adenocarcinoma in women: a preventable disease. British Journal of Cancer 2000; 83: 127–32.
15International Agency for Research on Cancer. Overweight and lack of exercise linked to increased cancer risk. IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention. vol. 6. Geneva: World Health Organisation, 2002.
16World Health Organisation: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Cancer: Causes, Occurrence and Control. Lyon: IARC, 1990.
17Steinmetz KA, Potter JD. Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1996; 96: 1027–39.
18Sharp L, Chilvers CE, Cheng KK, et al. Risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus in women: a case-control study. British Journal of Cancer 2001; 85: 1667–70.
19Blot WJ, Li JY, Taylor PR, et al. Nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China: supplementation with specific vitamin/ mineral combinations, cancer incidence, and disease-specific mortality in the general population. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1993; 85: 1483–92.
20Li JY, Taylor PR, Li B, et al. Nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China: multiple vitamin/mineral supplementation, cancer incidence, and disease-specific mortality among adults with esophageal dysplasia. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1993; 85: 1492–8.
21Yu MC. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: epidemiology and dietary factors. In: O'Neill IK, Chen J, Bartsch H, eds. Relevance to Human Cancer of N-nitroso Compounds, Tobacco Smoke and Mycotoxins. IARC Scientific Publications No. 105. Lyon: 1ARC, 1991, 3947.
22International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol 56. Some Naturally Occurring Substances: Food Items and Constituents, Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines and Mycotoxins. Lyon: IARC,1993.
23Doll R, Peto R. Epidemiology of cancer. In: Weatherall DJ, Ledingham JGG, Warrell DA, eds. Oxford Textbook of Medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996, 197221.
24 World Health Organisation. World Health Statistics Annual. http://www.who.int/whosis/ (accessed 11 10, 2001).
25Helicobacter and Cancer Collaborative Group. Gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori: a combined analysis of 12 case control studies nested within prospective cohorts. Gut 2001; 49: 347–53.
26Palli D. Epidemiology of gastric cancer: an evaluation of available evidence. Journal of Gastroenterology 2000; 35(Suppl. 12): 84–9.
27McCullough ML, Robertson AS, Jacobs EJ, Chao A, Calle EE, Thun MJ. A prospective study of diet and stomach cancer mortality in United States men and women. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 2001; 10: 1201–5.
28Botterweck AA, van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA. A prospective cohort study on vegetable and fruit consumption and stomach cancer risk in The Netherlands. American Journal of Epidemiology 1998; 148: 842–53.
29Correa P, Fontham ET, Bravo JC, et al. Chemoprevention of gastric dysplasia: randomized trial of antioxidant supplements and anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2000; 92: 1881–8.
30Cummings JH, Bingham SA. Diet and the prevention of cancer. British Medical Journal 1998; 317: 1636–40.
31Hardman AE. Physical activity and cancer risk. Proceeding of the Nutrition Society 2001; 60: 107–13.
32Gooderham NJ, Murray S, Lynch AM, et al. Assessing human risk to heterocyclic amines. Mutation Research 1997; 376: 5360.
33Kazerouni N, Sinha R, Hsu CH, Greenberg A, Rothman N. Analysis of 200 food items for benzo[a]pyrene and estimation of its intake in an epidemiologic study. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 2001; 39: 423–36.
34Bingham SA, Pignatelli B, Pollock JR, et al. Does increased endogenous formation of N -nitroso compounds in the human colon explain the association between red meat and colon cancer? Carcinogenesis 1996; 17: 515–23.
35Lund EK, Wharf SG, Fairweather-Tait SJ, Johnson IT. Oral ferrous sulfate supplements increase the free radical-generating capacity of feces from healthy volunteers. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999; 69: 250–5.
36Norat T, Lukanova A, Ferrari P, Riboli E. Meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk: a dose–response meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. International Journal of Cancer 2002; 98: 241–56.
37Key TJ, Fraser GE, Thorogood M, et al. Mortality in vegetarians and non-vegetarians: a collaborative analysis of 8300 deaths among 76,000 men and women in five prospective studies. Public Health Nutrition 1998; 1: 3341.
38Howe GR, Aronson KJ, Benito E, et al. The relationship between dietary fat intake and risk of colorectal cancer: evidence from the combined analysis of 13 case-control studies. Cancer Causes & Control 1997; 8: 215–28.
39Burkitt DP. Related disease—related cause? Lancet 1969; 2: 1229–31.
40La Vecchia C. Diet and human cancer: a review. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 2001; 10: 177–81.
41Hague A, Elder DJ, Hicks DJ, Paraskeva C. Apoptosis in colorectal tumour cells: induction by the short chain fatty acids butyrate, propionate and acetate and by the bile salt deoxycholate. International Journal of Cancer 1995; 60: 400–6.
42Nagengast FM, Grubben MJ, van Munster IP. Role of bile acids in colorectal carcinogenesis. European Journal of Cancer 1995; 31A: 1067–70.
43Potter JD, Steinmetz K. Vegetables, fruit and phytoestrogens as preventive agents. In: Stewart BW, McGregor D, eds. Principles of Chemoprevention. IARC Scientific Publication No. 139. Lyon: 1ARC, 1996, 6190.
44Jacobs DRJ, Marquart L, Slavin J, Kushi LH. Whole-grain intake and cancer: an expanded review and meta-analysis. Nutrition and Cancer 1998; 30: 8596.
45Bueno De Mesquita HB, Ferrari P, Riboli E, on behalf of EPIC. Plant?foods and the risk of colorectal cancer in Europe: preliminary findings IARC Scientific Publications Series. 2002; 156: 8995.
46Fuchs CS, Giovannucci EL, Colditz GA, et al. Dietary fiber and the risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma in women. New England Journal of Medicine 1999; 340: 169–76.
47Michels KB, Edward G, Joshipura KJ, et al. Prospective study of fruit and vegetable consumption and incidence of colon and rectal cancers. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2000; 92: 1740–52.
48Schatzkin A, Lanza E, Corle D, et al. Lack of effect of a low-fat, high-fiber diet on the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. Polyp Prevention Trial Study Group. New England Journal of Medicine 2000; 342: 1149–55.
49Alberts DS, Martinez ME, Roe DJ, et al. Lack of effect of a high-fiber cereal supplement on the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. Phoenix Colon Cancer Prevention Physicians' Network. New England Journal of Medicine 2000; 342: 1156–62.
50Bonithon-Kopp C, Kronborg O, Giacosa A, Rath U, Faivre J. Calcium and fibre supplementation in prevention of colorectal adenoma recurrence: a randomised intervention trial. European Cancer Prevention Organisation Study Group. Lancet 2000; 356: 1300–6.
51Terry P, Giovannucci E, Michels KB, et al. Fruit, vegetables, dietary fiber, and risk of colorectal cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2001; 93: 525–33.
52McKeown-Eyssen G. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer revisited: are serum triglycerides and/or plasma glucose associated with risk?. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 1994; 3: 687–95.
53Franceschi S, Dal Maso L, Augustin L, et al. Dietary glycemic load and colorectal cancer risk. Annals of Oncology 2001; 12: 173–8.
54Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Ascherio A, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Alcohol, low-methionine, low-folate diets, and risk of colon cancer in men. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1995; 87: 265–73.
55Glynn SA, Albanes D, Pietinen P, et al. Alcohol consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in a cohort of Finnish men. Cancer Causes & Control 1996; 7: 214–23.
56Giovannucci E, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, et al. Multivitamin use, folate, and colon cancer in women in the Nurses' Health Study. Annals of Internal Medicine 1998; 129: 517–24.
57Choi SW, Mason JB. Folate and carcinogenesis: an integrated scheme. Journal of Nutrition 2000; 130: 129–32.
58Potter JD. Colorectal cancer: molecules and populations. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1999; 91: 916–32.
59Blount BC, Mack MM, Wehr CM, et al. Folate deficiency causes uracil misincorporation into human DNA and chromosome breakage: implications for cancer and neuronal damage. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1997; 94: 3290–5.
60Ma J, Stampfer MJ, Christensen B, et al. A polymorphism of the methionine synthase gene: association with plasma folate, vitamin B12, homocyst(e)ine, and colorectal cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 1999; 8: 825–9.
61Sesink AL, Termont DS, Kleibeuker JH, Van Der Meer R. Red meat and colon cancer: dietary haem-induced colonic cytotoxicity and epithelial hyperproliferation are inhibited by calcium. Carcinogenesis 2001; 22: 1653–9.
62Baron JA, Beach M, Mandel JS, et al. Calcium supplements and colorectal adenomas. Polyp Prevention Study Group. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1999; 889: 138–45.
63International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol 59. Lyon: IARC, 1994.
64Saracco G. Primary liver cancer is of multifactorial origin: importance of hepatitis B virus infection and dietary aflatoxin. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 1995; 10: 604–8.
65Michaud DS, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Fuchs CS. Physical activity, obesity, height, and the risk of pancreatic cancer. Journal of the American Medical Association 2001; 286: 921–9.
66Bjelke E. Dietary vitamin A and human lung cancer. International Journal of Cancer 1975; 15: 561–5.
67Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Manson JE, et al. Lack of effect of long-term supplementation with beta carotene on the incidence of malignant neoplasms and cardiovascular disease. New England Journal of Medicine 1996; 334: 1145–9.
68Omenn GS, Goodman GE, Thornquist MD, et al. Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. New England Journal of Medicine 1996; 334: 1150–5.
69The Alpha-Tocopherol Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. New England Journal of Medicine 1994; 330: 1029–35.
70Feskanich D, Ziegler RG, Michaud DS, et al. Prospective study of fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of lung cancer among men and women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2000; 92: 1812–23.
71Voorrips LE, Goldbohm RA, Verhoeven DT, et al. Vegetable and fruit consumption and lung cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer. Cancer Causes & Control 2000; 11: 101–15.
72Key TJ, Verkasalo PK, Banks E. Epidemiology of breast cancer. Lancet Oncology 2001; 2: 133–40.
73Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Breastfeeding and breast cancer: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50,302 women with breast cancer and 96,973 women without the disease. Lancet 2002; 360: 187–95.
74Collaborative group on hormonal factors in breast cancer. Alcohol, tobacco and breast cancer-collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 58,515 women with breast cancer and 95,067 women without the disease. British Journal of Cancer 2002; 87: 1234–45.
75Dorgan JF, Baer DJ, Albert PS, et al. Serum hormones and the alcohol-breast cancer association in postmenopausal women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2001; 93: 710–5.
76Sellers TA, Kushi LH, Cerhan JR, et al. Dietary folate intake, alcohol, and risk of breast cancer in a prospective study of postmenopausal women. Epidemiology 2001; 12: 420–8.
77Smith-Warner SA, Spiegelman D, Adami HO, et al. Types of dietary fat and breast cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies. International Journal of Cancer 2001; 92: 767–74.
78Wu AH, Pike MC, Stram DO. Meta-analysis: dietary fat intake, serum estrogen levels, and the risk of breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1999; 91: 529–34.
79Holmes MD, Spiegelman D, Willett WC, et al. Dietary fat intake and endogenous sex steroid hormone levels in postmenopausal women. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2000; 18: 3668–76.
80Key TJ, Allen NE. Nutrition and breast cancer. The Breast 2001; 10(Suppl. 3): 913.
81Smith-Warner SA, Spiegelman D, Yaun SS, et al. Intake of fruits and vegetables and risk of breast cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies. Journal of the American Medical Association 2001; 285: 769–76.
82Bergstrom A, Pisani P, Tenet V, Wolk A, Adami HO. Overweight as an avoidable cause of cancer in Europe. International Journal of Cancer 2001; 91: 421–30.
83Key TJ, Pike MC. The dose–effect relationship between ‘unopposed’ oestrogens and endometrial mitotic rate: its central role in explaining and predicting endometrial cancer risk. British Journal of Cancer 1988; 57: 205–12.
84International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol 64. Human Papillomaviruses. Lyon: IARC, 1995.
85Banks E, Beral V, Reeves G. The epidemiology of epithelial ovarian cancer: a review. International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 1997; 425–38.
86Schuurman AG, van den Brandt PA, Dorant E, Goldbohm RA. Animal products, calcium and protein and prostate cancer risk in The Netherlands Cohort Study. British Journal of Cancer 1999; 80: 1107–13.
87Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Ma J, Gann PH, Gaziano JM, Giovannucci EL. Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk in the Physicians' Health Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001; 74: 549–54.
88Michaud DS, Augustsson K, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Giovannucci E. A prospective study on intake of animal products and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Causes & Control 2001; 12: 557–67.
89Heinonen OP, Albanes D, Virtamo J, et al. Prostate cancer and supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene: incidence and mortality in a controlled trial. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1998; 90: 440–6.
90Clark LC, Dalkin B, Krongrad A, et al. Decreased incidence of prostate cancer with selenium supplementation: results of a double-blind cancer prevention trial. British Journal of Urology 1998; 81: 730–4.
91Kristal AR, Cohen JH. Invited commentary: tomatoes, lycopene, and prostate cancer. How strong is the evidence? American Journal of Epidemiology 2000; 151: 124–7.
92Eaton NE, Reeves GK, Appleby PN, Key TJ. Endogenous sex hormones and prostate cancer: a quantitative review of prospective studies. British Journal of Cancer 1999; 80: 930–4.
93Gann PH, Hennekens CH, Ma J, Longcope C, Stampfer MJ. Prospective study of sex hormone levels and risk of prostate cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1996; 88: 1118–26.
94Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci E, et al. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I and prostate cancer risk: a prospective study. Science 1998; 279: 563–6.
95Stattin P, Bylund A, Rinaldi S, et al. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins and prostate cancer risk: a prospective study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2000; 92: 1910–7.
96Allen NE, Appleby PN, Davey GK, Key TJ. Hormones and diet: low insulin-like growth factor-I but normal bioavailable androgens in vegan men. British Journal of Cancer 2000; 83: 95–7.
97Heaney RP, McCarron DA, Dawson-Hughes B, et al. Dietary changes favorably affect bone remodeling in older adults. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1999; 99: 1228–33.
98Zeegers MP, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA. Consumption of vegetables and fruits and urothelial cancer incidence: a prospective study. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 2001; 10: 1121–8.
99Michaud DS, Spiegelman D, Clinton SK, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Giovannucci EL. Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of bladder cancer in a male prospective cohort. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1999; 91: 605–13.
100Bergstrom A, Hsieh CC, Lindblad P, Lu CM, Cook NR, Wolk A. Obesity and renal cell cancer—a quantitative review. British Journal of Cancer 2001; 85: 984–90.
101International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention. Vol 6. Weight Control and Physical Activity. Lyon: IARC, 2002.
102Giovannucci E. Insulin and colon cancer. Cancer Causes & Control 1995; 6: 164–79.
103Willett WC. Is dietary fat a major determinant of body fat? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998; 67: 556S–62S.
104Giovannucci E, Clinton SK. Tomatoes, lycopene, and prostate cancer. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 1998; 218: 129–39.
105International Agency for Research in Cancer. Acrylamide. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans 1994; 60: 389433.
106Tarake E, Rydberg P, Karlsson P, Eriksson S, Törnqvist M. Analysis of acrylamide, a carcinogen formed in heated foodstuffs. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2002; 50: 49985006.
107Mottram DS, Wedzicha BL, Dodson AT. Food chemistry: acrylamide is formed in the Maillard reaction. Nature 2002; 419: 448–9.
108Stadler RH, Blank I, Varga N, et al. Food chemistry: acrylamide from Maillard reaction products. Nature 2002; 419: 449–50.
109Food and Agriculture Organization/ World Health Organization. FAO/WHO Consultation on the Health Implications or Acrylamide in Food: Summary Report. Geneva: WHO, 2002.
110Shaw I, Thomson B. Acrylamide food risk. Lancet 2003; 361: 434.
111Mucci LA, Dickman PW, Steineck G, Adami H-O, Augustsson K. Dietary acrylamide and cancer of the large bowel, kidney, and bladder: absence of an association in a population-based study in Sweden. British Journal of Cancer 2003; 88: 84–9.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 16
Total number of PDF views: 1093 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 2620 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 16th January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.