Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Ultra-processed food purchases in Norway: a quantitative study on a representative sample of food retailers

  • Siri Løvsjø Solberg (a1), Laura Terragni (a1) and Sabrina Ionata Granheim (a1)
  • Please note a correction has been issued for this article.
Abstract
Objective

To identify the use of ultra-processed foods – vectors of salt, sugar and fats – in the Norwegian diet through an assessment of food sales.

Design

Sales data from a representative sample of food retailers in Norway, collected in September 2005 (n 150) and September 2013 (n 170), were analysed. Data consisted of barcode scans of individual food item purchases, reporting type of food, price, geographical region and retail concept. Foods were categorized as minimally processed, culinary ingredients, processed products and ultra-processed. Indicators were share of purchases and share of expenditure on food categories.

Setting

Six geographical regions in Norway.

Subjects

The barcode data included 296 121 observations in 2005 and 501 938 observations in 2013.

Results

Ultra-processed products represented 58·8 % of purchases and 48·8 % of expenditure in 2013. Minimally processed foods accounted for 17·2 % of purchases and 33·0 % of expenditure. Every third purchase was a sweet ultra-processed product. Food sales changed marginally in favour of minimally processed foods and in disfavour of processed products between 2005 and 2013 (χ 2 (3)=203 195, P<0·001, Cramer’s V=0·017, P<0·001).

Conclusions

Ultra-processed products accounted for the majority of food sales in Norway, indicating a high consumption of such products. This could be contributing to rising rates of overweight, obesity and non-communicable diseases in the country, as findings from other countries indicate. Policy measures should aim at decreasing consumption of ultra-processed products and facilitating access (including economic) to minimally processed foods.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Ultra-processed food purchases in Norway: a quantitative study on a representative sample of food retailers
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Ultra-processed food purchases in Norway: a quantitative study on a representative sample of food retailers
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Ultra-processed food purchases in Norway: a quantitative study on a representative sample of food retailers
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Email siri.solberg@gmail.com
Footnotes
Hide All

Correspondence address: Department of Health, Nutrition and Management, HiOA, Postboks 4, St. Olavs Plass, 0130 Oslo, Norway.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
1. Monteiro, CA (2009) Nutrition and health. The issue is not food, nor nutrients, so much as processing. Public Health Nutr 12, 729731.
2. Moubarac, JC, Batal, M, Martins, AP et al. (2014) Processed and ultra-processed food products: consumption trends in Canada from 1938 to 2011. Can J Diet Pract Res 75, 1521.
3. Monteiro, CA, Levy, RB, Claro, RM et al. (2011) Increasing consumption of ultra-processed foods and likely impact on human health: evidence from Brazil. Public Health Nutr 14, 513.
4. Martins, AP, Levy, RB, Claro, RM et al. (2013) Increased contribution of ultra-processed food products in the Brazilian diet (1987–2009). Rev Saude Publica 47, 656665.
5. Crovetto, M & Uauy, R (2012) Changes in processed food expenditure in the population of Metropolitan Santiago in the last twenty years. Rev Med Chil 140, 305312.
6. Juul, F & Hemmingsson, E (2015) Trends in consumption of ultra-processed foods and obesity in Sweden between 1960 and 2010. Public Health Nutr 18, 30964107.
7. Monteiro, CA & Cannon, G (2012) The impact of transnational ‘big food’ companies on the South: a view from Brazil. PLoS Med 9, e1001252.
8. Stuckler, D, McKee, M, Ebrahim, S et al. (2012) Manufacturing epidemics: the role of global producers in increased consumption of unhealthy commodities including processed foods, alcohol, and tobacco. PLoS Med 9, e1001235.
9. Monteiro, CA, Moubarac, JC, Cannon, G et al. (2013) Ultra-processed products are becoming dominant in the global food system. Obes Rev 14, 2128.
10. Moubarac, JC, Martins, AP, Claro, R et al. (2013) Consumption of ultra-processed foods and likely impact on human health. Evidence from Canada. Public Health Nutr 16, 22402248.
11. Crovetto, MM, Uauy, R, Martins, AP et al. (2014) Household availability of ready-to-consume food and drink products in Chile: impact on nutritional quality of the diet. Rev Med Chil 142, 850858.
12. Louzada, ML, Bortoletto Martins, AP, Silva Canella, D et al. (2015) Ultra-processed foods and the nutritional dietary profile in Brazil. Rev Saude Publica 49, 38.
13. Canella, DS, Levy, RB, Martins, APB et al. (2014) Ultra-processed food products and obesity in Brazilian households (2008–2009). PLoS One 9, e92752.
14. Louzada, ML, Baraldi, LG, Steele, EM et al. (2015) Consumption of ultra-processed foods and obesity in Brazilian adolescents and adults. Prev Med 81, 915.
15. Tavares, LF, Fonseca, SC, Garcia Rosa, ML et al. (2012) Relationship between ultra-processed foods and metabolic syndrome in adolescents from a Brazilian Family Doctor Program. Public Health Nutr 15, 8287.
16. Swinburn, B, Caterson, I, Seidell, JC et al. (2004) Diet, nutrition and the prevention of excess weight gain and obesity. Public Health Nutr 7, 123146.
17. Baker, P & Friel, S (2014) Processed foods and the nutrition transition: evidence from Asia. Obes Rev 15, 564577.
18. Monteiro, CA, Gomes, FS & Cannon, G (2010) The snack attack. Am J Public Health 100, 975981.
19. Monteiro, CA, Cannon, G, Moubarac, JC et al. (2015) Dietary guidelines to nourish humanity and the planet in the twenty-first century. A blueprint from Brazil. Public Health Nutr 18, 23112322.
20. Ministry of Health and Care Services (2013) Folkehelsemeldingen: God helse – felles ansvar. Meld. St. 34 (2012–2013) (White Paper). Oslo: Regjeringen.
21. Meyer, HE & Tverdal, A (2005) Development of body weight in the Norwegian population. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 73, 37.
22. Folkehelseinstituttet (2014) Folkehelserapporten 2014: Helsetilstanden i Norge. Rapport 2014:4. Oslo: Nasjonalt folkehelseinstitutt.
23. Ministry of Health and Care Services (2003) Resept for et sunnere Norge: Folkehelsepolitikken. St.meld. nr. 16 (2002–2003) (White Paper). Oslo: Regjeringen.
24. Helsedirektoratet (2015) Utviklingen i norsk kosthold 2014. Oslo: Helsedirektoratet.
25. Rodrigues, J & Haraldsen, F (2005) Den nye matvareindeksen: bruk av strekkodedata i konsumprisindeksen. Økonomiske Analyser 2005, issue 4, 4249.
26. Henriksen, K (2006) Utvalgsplan til konsumprisindeksens nye matvareindeks: basert på strekkodedata. In Notater, vol. 2006/47. Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå.
27. Johansen, Ic & Nygaard, R (2010) Skjevheter i prisindeksen for matvarer og alkoholfrie drikkevarer? In Notater, vol. 2010/30. Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå.
28. Johansen, I (2012) Bruk av strekkodedata i matvareindeksen. Økonomiske Analyser 2012, issue 6, 5156.
29. United Nations Statistics Division (2015) Detailed structure and explanatory notes COICOP (Classification of Individual Consumption According to Purpose). http://unstats.un.org/unsd/cr/registry/regcst.asp?Cl=5 (accessed April 2015).
30. Monteiro, CA, Levy, RB, Claro, RM et al. (2010) A new classification of foods based on the extent and purpose of food processing. Cad Saude Publica 26, 20392049.
31. Monteiro, CA, Cannon, G, Levy, RB et al. (2012) The food system. Ultra-processing. The big issue for nutrition, disease, health, well-being (Commentary). World Nutr 3, 527569.
32. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2015) Guidelines on the Collection of Information on Food Processing Through Food Consumption Surveys. Rome: FAO.
33. Opplysningskontoret for Meieriprodukter (2015) Meieristatistikk. http://www.melk.no/melk-og-meierifakta/meieristatistikk/ (accessed April 2015).
34. Ventour, L (2008) The Food We Waste. Banbury: WRAP.
35. Bugge, A & Lavik, R (2007) Å spise ute – hvem, hva, hvor, hvordan, hvorfor og når. Oslo: SIFO.
36. Moubarac, JC, Claro, RM, Baraldi, LG et al. (2013) International differences in cost and consumption of ready-to-consume food and drink products: United Kingdom and Brazil, 2008–2009. Glob Public Health 8, 845856.
37. Pan American Health Organization & World Health Organization (2015) Ultra-Processed Food and Drink Products in Latin America: Trends, Impact on Obesity, Policy Implications. Washington, DC: PAHO/WHO.
38. Moodie, R, Stuckler, D, Monteiro, CA et al. (2013) Profits and pandemics: prevention of harmful effects of tobacco, alcohol, and ultra-processed food and drink industries. Lancet 381, 670679.
39. Kleiman, S, Ng, SW & Popkin, B (2012) Drinking to our health: can beverage companies cut calories while maintaining profits? Obes Rev 13, 258274.
40. Helsedirektoratet (2012) Utviklingen i norsk kosthold 2012. Oslo: Helsedirektoratet.
41. Helsedirektoratet (2013) Utviklingen i norsk kosthold. Matforsyningsstatistikk. Oslo: Helsedirektoratet.
42. Andersen, LF & Øverby, NC (2002) Ungkost -2000: landsomfattende kostholdsundersøkelse blant elever i 4. – og 8. klasse i Norge. Oslo: Sosial- og helsedirektoratet.
43. Bugge, AB (2006) Middag: en sosiologisk analyse av den norske middagspraksis. Trondheim: Tapir Akademiske Forlag.
44. Ambrosini, GL, Oddy, WH, Rae Chi, H et al. (2013) Prospective associations between sugar-sweetened beverage intakes and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 98, 327334.
45. Malik, VS, An, P, Willett, WC et al. (2013) Sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain in children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 98, 10841102.
46. World Health Organization (2003) Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series no. 916. Geneva: WHO.
47. Helsedirektoratet (2014) Anbefalinger om kosthold, ernæring og fysisk aktivitet. Oslo: Helsedirektoratet.
48. Popkin, BM (1993) Nutritional patterns and transitions. Popul Dev Rev 19, 138157.
49. Bugge, A (2012) Spis deg sunn, sterk, slank, skjønn, smart, sexy…: finnes det en diett for alt? Oslo: SIFO.
50. Bugge, AB (2015) Mat, måltid og moral – hvordan spise rett og riktig. Fagrapport nr 3 – 2015. Oslo: SIFO.
51. Euromonitor (2015) Health and Wellness in Norway. http://www.euromonitor.com/health-and-wellness-in-norway/report (accessed October 2015).
52. Bugge, A, Lillebø, K & Lavik, R (2009) Food on the Run – Possibilities and Barriers/Limitations for New And Healthier Eating Concepts in the Fast Food Market. Oslo: SIFO.
53. Mithril, C, Dragsted, LO, Meyer, C et al. (2012) Guidelines for the New Nordic Diet. Public Health Nutr 15, 19411947.
54. Bugge, AB (2015) Hva kjennetegner forbrukernes preferanser, prioriteringer og praksiser knyttet til fisk og grønnsaker. In HealthMeal Hvordan nå de ernæringsmessige målsetningene om økt forbruk av fisk og grønnsaker?, pp. 1328 [AB Bugge, editor]. Oslo: SIFO.
55. Stuckler, D & Nestle, M (2012) Big food, food systems, and global health. PLoS Med 9, e1001242.
56. Gomes, FS & Lobstein, T (2011) Food and beverage transnational corporations and nutrition policy. SCN News 39, 5765.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 57
Total number of PDF views: 512 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 701 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.