This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1.E Nahmias , S Morris , T Nadelhoffer (2005) Surveying freedom: folk intuitions about free will and moral responsibility. Philos Psychol 18, 561–584.
3.B Caballero (2007) The global epidemic of obesity: an overview. Epidemiol Rev 29, 1–5.
5.MT Hamilton , DG Hamilton & TW Zderic (2007) Role of low energy expenditure and sitting in obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Diabetes 56, 2655–2667.
6.GW Heath (2009) Physical activity transitions and chronic disease. Am J Lifestyle Med 3, issue 1, 27S–31S.
7.JA Levine & JM Miller (2007) The energy expenditure of using a ‘walk-and-work’ desk for office workers with obesity. Br J Sports Med 41, 558–561.
8.DJ Millward (2010) Energy expenditure and the obesity epidemic. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 1801–1802.
9.MI Goran & MS Treuth (2001) Energy expenditure, physical activity, and obesity in children. Pediatr Clin North Am 48, 931–953.
10.E Ravussin , S Lillioja , WC Knowler (1988) Reduced rate of energy expenditure as a risk factor for body-weight gain. N Engl J Med 318, 467–472.
11.KR Westerterp & JR Speakman (2008) Physical activity energy expenditure has not declined since the 1980s and matches energy expenditures of wild mammals. Int J Obes (Lond) 32, 1256–1263.
13.MJ Bruce & PT Katzmarzyk (2002) Canadian population trends in leisure-time physical activity levels, 1981–1998. Can J Appl Physiol 27, 681–690.
14.CB Petersen , LC Thygesen , JW Helge (2010) Time trends in physical activity in leisure time in the Danish population from 1987 to 2005. Scand J Public Health 38, 121–128.
15.LM Steffen , DK Arnett , H Blackburn (2006) Population trends in leisure-time physical activity: Minnesota Heart Survey, 1980–2000. Med Sci Sports Exerc 38, 1716–1723.
16.LA Talbot , JL Fleg & EJ Metter (2003) Secular trends in leisure-time physical activity in men and women across four decades. Prev Med 37, 52–60.
17.KD Hall , J Guo , M Dore (2009) The progressive increase of food waste in America and its environmental impact. PLoS One 4, e7940.
18.KM Flegal , BI Graubard , DF Williamson (2005) Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity. JAMA 293, 1861–1867.
19.M Potier , N Darcel & D Tome (2009) Protein, amino acids and the control of food intake. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 12, 54–58.
20.P Strazzullo , L D'Elia , G Cairella (2010) Excess body weight and incidence of stroke: meta-analysis of prospective studies with 2 million participants. Stroke 41, e418–e426.
21.G Fantuzzi & T Mazzone (2007) Adipose tissue and atherosclerosis: exploring the connection. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 27, 996–1003.
22.V Kotsis , S Stabouli , M Bouldin (2005) Impact of obesity on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and hypertension. Hypertension 45, 602–607.
23.SE Kahn , RL Hull & KM Utzschneider (2006) Mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Nature 444, 840–846.
24.SG Leveille , CC Wee & LI Iezzoni (2005) Trends in obesity and arthritis among baby boomers and their predecessors, 1971–2002. Am J Public Health 95, 1607–1613.
27.DT Levy , PL Mabry , YC Wang (2011) Simulation models of obesity: a review of the literature and implications for research and policy. Obes Rev 12, 378–394.
28.JO Hill (2009) Can a small-changes approach help address the obesity epidemic? A report of the Joint Task Force of the American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 477–484.
29.WB Werner , AH Feonstein & CE Hardigree (2007) The risk to the American fast-food industry of obesity litigation. Cornell Hotel Restaurant Admin Q 48, 201–214.
31.CL Bish , HM Blanck , MK Serdula (2005) Diet and physical activity behaviors among Americans trying to lose weight: 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Obes Res 13, 596–607.
32.G Zhao , ES Ford , C Li (2009) Weight control behaviors in overweight/obese US adults with diagnosed hypertension and diabetes. Cardiovasc Diabetol 8, 13.
33.T Andreyeva , MW Long , KE Henderson (2010) Trying to lose weight: diet strategies among Americans with overweight or obesity in 1996 and 2003. J Am Diet Assoc 110, 535–542.
35.EM Inelmen , ED Toffanello , G Enzi (2005) Predictors of drop-out in overweight and obese outpatients. Int J Obes (Lond) 29, 122–128.
36.CE Finley , CE Barlow , FL Greenway (2007) Retention rates and weight loss in a commercial weight loss program. Int J Obes (Lond) 31, 292–298.
37.L Sjostrom , AK Lindroos , M Peltonen (2004) Lifestyle, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors 10 years after bariatric surgery. N Engl J Med 351, 2683–2693.
38.MA Maggard , LR Shugarman , M Suttorp (2005) Meta-analysis: surgical treatment of obesity. Ann Intern Med 142, 547–559.
39.C Poitou Bernert , C Ciangura , M Coupaye (2007) Nutritional deficiency after gastric bypass: diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Diabetes Metab 33, 13–24.
40.I Imaz , C Martinez-Cervell , EE Garcia-Alvarez (2008) Safety and effectiveness of the intragastric balloon for obesity. A meta-analysis. Obes Surg 18, 841–846.
42.SB Heymsfield , CA van Mierlo , HC van der Knaap (2003) Weight management using a meal replacement strategy: meta and pooling analysis from six studies. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27, 537–549.
43.LM Davis , C Coleman , J Kiel (2010) Efficacy of a meal replacement diet plan compared to a food-based diet plan after a period of weight loss and weight maintenance: a randomized controlled trial. Nutr J 9, 11.
44.RA Annunziato , CA Timko , CE Crerand (2009) A randomized trial examining differential meal replacement adherence in a weight loss maintenance program after one-year follow-up. Eat Behav 10, 176–183.
47.K Lee , J Lee , WK Bae (2009) Efficacy of low-calorie, partial meal replacement diet plans on weight and abdominal fat in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial of two diet plans – one high in protein and one nutritionally balanced. Int J Clin Pract 63, 195–201.
48.D Heber , JM Ashley , HJ Wang (1994) Clinical evaluation of a minimal intervention meal replacement regimen for weight reduction. J Am Coll Nutr 13, 608–614.
50.M Flechtner-Mors , HH Ditschuneit , TD Johnson (2000) Metabolic and weight loss effects of long-term dietary intervention in obese patients: four-year results. Obes Res 8, 399–402.
51.RD Mattes (2002) Ready-to-eat cereal used as a meal replacement promotes weight loss in humans. J Am Coll Nutr 21, 570–577.
52.JS Vander Wal , MI McBurney , S Cho (2007) Ready-to-eat cereal products as meal replacements for weight loss. Int J Food Sci Nutr 58, 331–340.
54.DA McCarron & ME Reusser (2001) Reducing cardiovascular disease risk with diet. Obes Res 9, Suppl. 4, 335S–340S.
55.JA Metz , JS Stern , P Kris-Etherton (2000) A randomized trial of improved weight loss with a prepared meal plan in overweight and obese patients: impact on cardiovascular risk reduction. Arch Intern Med 160, 2150–2158.
56.AA Gorin , HA Raynor , HM Niemeier (2007) Home grocery delivery improves the household food environments of behavioral weight loss participants: results of an 8-week pilot study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 4, 58.
57.SM Hannum , L Carson , EM Evans (2004) Use of portion-controlled entrees enhances weight loss in women. Obes Res 12, 538–546.
58.E Gucciardi , M Demelo , RN Lee (2007) Assessment of two culturally competent diabetes education methods: individual versus individual plus group education in Canadian Portuguese adults with type 2 diabetes. Ethn Health 12, 163–187.
59.DA Renjilian , MG Perri , AM Nezu (2001) Individual versus group therapy for obesity: effects of matching participants to their treatment preferences. J Consult Clin Psychol 69, 717–721.
60.JM Ashley , ST St Jeor , JP Schrage (2001) Weight control in the physician's office. Arch Intern Med 161, 1599–1604.
61.CK Martin , L Talamini , A Johnson (2010) Weight loss and retention in a commercial weight-loss program and the effect of corporate partnership. Int J Obes (Lond) 34, 742–750.
62.DE Smith , CM Heckemeyer , PP Kratt (1997) Motivational interviewing to improve adherence to a behavioral weight-control program for older obese women with NIDDM. A pilot study. Diabetes Care 20, 52–54.
63.DS West , V DiLillo , Z Bursac (2007) Motivational interviewing improves weight loss in women with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 30, 1081–1087.
64.MR Lowe , K Miller-Kovach & S Phelan (2001) Weight-loss maintenance in overweight individuals one to five years following successful completion of a commercial weight loss program. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25, 325–331.
66.National Task Force on the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity (2000) Dieting and the development of eating disorders in overweight and obese adults. Arch Intern Med 160, 2581–2589.
67.TA Lutz (2009) Control of food intake and energy expenditure by amylin – therapeutic implications. Int J Obes (Lond) 33, Suppl. 1, S24–S27.
68.TH Moran (2009) Gut peptides in the control of food intake. Int J Obes (Lond) 33, Suppl. 1, S7–S10.
69.S Beckers , D Zegers , LF Van Gaal (2009) The role of the leptin–melanocortin signalling pathway in the control of food intake. Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr 19, 267–287.
70.SC Woods (2009) The control of food intake: behavioral versus molecular perspectives. Cell Metab 9, 489–498.
71.MS Goel , EP McCarthy , RS Phillips (2004) Obesity among US immigrant subgroups by duration of residence. JAMA 292, 2860–2867.
72.MS Kaplan , N Huguet , JT Newsom (2004) The association between length of residence and obesity among Hispanic immigrants. Am J Prev Med 27, 323–326.
75.DA Levitsky & L DeRosimo (2010) One day of food restriction does not result in an increase in subsequent daily food intake in humans. Physiol Behav 99, 495–499.
79.BJ Rolls , LS Roe , TV Kral (2004) Increasing the portion size of a packaged snack increases energy intake in men and women. Appetite 42, 63–69.
81.R Mattes (1990) Hunger ratings are not a valid proxy measure of reported food intake in humans. Appetite 15, 103–113.
82.N Diliberti , PL Bordi , MT Conklin (2004) Increased portion size leads to increased energy intake in a restaurant meal. Obes Res 12, 562–568.
84.RW Jeffery , S Rydell , CL Dunn (2007) Effects of portion size on chronic energy intake. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 4, 27.
86.DA Levitsky , E Obarzanek , G Mrdjenovic (2005) Imprecise control of energy intake: absence of a reduction in food intake following overfeeding in young adults. Physiol Behav 84, 669–675.
87.BJ Rolls , LS Roe & JS Meengs (2006) Larger portion sizes lead to a sustained increase in energy intake over 2 days. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 543–549.
89.BJ Rolls , LS Roe & JS Meengs (2007) The effect of large portion sizes on energy intake is sustained for 11 days. Obesity (Silver Spring) 15, 1535–1543.
90.HA Raynor , EL Van Walleghen , H Niemeier (2009) Do food provisions packaged in single-servings reduce energy intake at breakfast during a brief behavioral weight-loss intervention? J Am Diet Assoc 109, 1922–1925.
91.HA Raynor & RR Wing (2007) Package unit size and amount of food: do both influence intake? Obesity (Silver Spring) 15, 2311–2319.
92.B Wansink (1996) Can package size accelerate usage volume? J Mark 60, 1–14.
93.P Pliner & N Mann (2004) Influence of social norms and palatability on amount consumed and food choice. Appetite 42, 227–237.
94.DA Roth , CP Herman , J Polivy (2001) Self-presentational conflict in social eating situations: a normative perspective. Appetite 36, 165–171.
95.LR Young & M Nestle (2002) The contribution of expanding portion sizes to the US obesity epidemic. Am J Public Health 92, 246–249.
96.SJ Nielsen & BM Popkin (2003) Patterns and trends in food portion sizes, 1977–1998. JAMA 289, 450–453.
97.B Wansink (2004) Environmental factors that increase the food intake and consumption volume of unknowing consumers. Annu Rev Nutr 24, 455–479.
98.CP Herman , DA Roth & J Polivy (2003) Effects of the presence of others on food intake: a normative interpretation. Psychol Bull 129, 873–886.
99.LR Vartanian , CP Herman & B Wansink (2008) Are we aware of the external factors that influence our food intake? Health Psychol 27, 533–538.
100.P Rozin , K Kabnick , E Pete (2003) The ecology of eating: smaller portion sizes in France than in the United States help explain the French paradox. Psychol Sci 14, 450–454.
101.BJ Rolls , EA Rowe , ET Rolls (1981) Variety in a meal enhances food intake in man. Physiol Behav 26, 215–221.
102.BE Kahn & B Wansink (2004) The influence of assortment structure on perceived variety and consumption quantities. J Consum Res 30, 519–533.
103.L Brondel , M Romer , V Van Wymelbeke (2009) Variety enhances food intake in humans: role of sensory-specific satiety. Physiol Behav 97, 44–51.
106.DA Levitsky (2005) The non-regulation of food intake in humans: hope for reversing the epidemic of obesity. Physiol Behav 86, 623–632.
110.DA Levitsky (2008) The control of food intake and the regulation of body weight in humans. In Appetite and Food Intake: Behavioral and Physiological Considerations, pp. 21–42 [RBS Harris and RD Mattes, editors]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
111.JM de Castro & EM Brewer (1992) The amount eaten in meals by humans is a power function of the number of people present. Physiol Behav 51, 121–125.
112.WH Dietz (2001) The obesity epidemic in young children – reduce television viewing and promote playing. BMJ 322, 313–314.
113.JL Harris , JA Bargh & KD Brownell (2009) Priming effects of television food advertising on eating behavior. Health Psychol 28, 404–413.
114.JC Halford , J Gillespie , V Brown (2004) Effect of television advertisements for foods on food consumption in children. Appetite 42, 221–225.
115.JC Halford , EJ Boyland , G Hughes (2007) Beyond-brand effect of television (TV) food advertisements/commercials on caloric intake and food choice of 5–7-year-old children. Appetite 49, 263–267.
117.JA Bargh , PM Gollwitzer , A Lee-Chai (2001) The automated will: nonconscious activation and pursuit of behavioral goals. J Pers Soc Psychol 81, 1014–1027.
118.JA Bargh & MJ Ferguson (2000) Beyond behaviorism: on the automaticity of higher mental processes. Psychol Bull 126, 925–945.
119.MJ Ferguson & JA Bargh (2004) How social perception can automatically influence behavior. Trends Cogn Sci 8, 33–39.
121.DA Cohen (2008) Neurophysiological pathways to obesity: below awareness and beyond individual control. Diabetes 57, 1768–1773.
122.DA Cohen (2008) Obesity and the built environment: changes in environmental cues cause energy imbalances. Int J Obes (Lond) 32, Suppl. 7, S137–S142.
123.KM Flegal & RP Troiano (2000) Changes in the distribution of body mass index of adults and children in the US population. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24, 807–818.
124.S Schachter (1968) Obesity and eating. Internal and external cues differentially affect the eating behavior of obese and normal subjects. Science 161, 751–756.
125.J Rodin (1981) Current status of the internal–external hypothesis for obesity: what went wrong? Am Psychol 36, 361–372.
126.SJ Olshansky , DJ Passaro , RC Hershow (2005) A potential decline in life expectancy in the United States in the 21st century. N Engl J Med 352, 1138–1145.
127.DA Levitsky , CA Halbmaier & G Mrdjenovic (2004) The freshman weight gain: a model for the study of the epidemic of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28, 1435–1442.
128.RA Vella-Zarb & FJ Elgar (2009) The ‘freshman 5’: a meta-analysis of weight gain in the freshman year of college. J Am Coll Health 58, 161–166.
129.DA Levitsky , J Garay , M Nausbaum (2006) Monitoring weight daily blocks the freshman weight gain: a model for combating the epidemic of obesity. Int J Obes (Lond) 30, 1003–1010.
130.J Polivy (1996) Psychological consequences of food restriction. J Am Diet Assoc 96, 589–592.
132.E Stice , K Presnell , L Groesz (2005) Effects of a weight maintenance diet on bulimic symptoms in adolescent girls: an experimental test of the dietary restraint theory. Health Psychol 24, 402–412.
133.K Presnell , E Stice & J Tristan (2008) Experimental investigation of the effects of naturalistic dieting on bulimic symptoms: moderating effects of depressive symptoms. Appetite 50, 91–101.
134.N Vogels & MS Westerterp-Plantenga (2007) Successful long-term weight maintenance: a 2-year follow-up. Obesity (Silver Spring) 15, 1258–1266.
136.SB Racette , EP Weiss , KB Schechtman (2008) Influence of weekend lifestyle patterns on body weight. Obesity (Silver Spring) 16, 1826–1830.
137.JA Linde , RW Jeffery , SA French (2005) Self-weighing in weight gain prevention and weight loss trials. Ann Behav Med 30, 210–216.
138.H Sarkissian , A Chatterlee , F de Brigard (2010) Is belief in free will a cultural universal? Mind Lang 25, 346–358.
139.OS Dalgard & L Lund Haheim (1998) Psychosocial risk factors and mortality: a prospective study with special focus on social support, social participation, and locus of control in Norway. J Epidemiol Community Health 52, 476–481.
140.T Sturmer , P Hasselbach & M Amelang (2006) Personality, lifestyle, and risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer: follow-up of population based cohort. BMJ 332, 1359.
141.A Rosengren , S Hawken , S Ounpuu (2004) Association of psychosocial risk factors with risk of acute myocardial infarction in 11 119 cases and 13 648 controls from 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case–control study. Lancet 364, 953–962.
142.JM Burger (1984) Desire for control, locus of control, and proneness to depression. J Pers 52, 71–89.
143.GD Nunn (1988) Concurrent validity between the Nowicki–Strickland locus of control scale and the state-trait anxiety inventory for children. Educ Psychol Meas 48, 435–438.
144.JP Mackenbach , JG Simon , CW Looman (2002) Self-assessed health and mortality: could psychosocial factors explain the association? Int J Epidemiol 31, 1162–1168.
145.LM Redman & E Ravussin (2011) Caloric restriction in humans: impact on physiological, psychological and behavioral outcomes. Antioxid Redox Signal 14, 275–285.
146.C Canto & J Auwerx (2009) Caloric restriction, SIRT1 and longevity. Trends Endocrinol Metab 20, 325–331.
147.RM Anderson & R Weindruch (2010) Metabolic reprogramming, caloric restriction and aging. Trends Endocrinol Metab 21, 134–141.
148.KD Brownell , R Kersh , DS Ludwig (2010) Personal responsibility and obesity: a constructive approach to a controversial issue. Health Aff (Millwood) 29, 379–387.