Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-846f6c7c4f-qmls6 Total loading time: 0.269 Render date: 2022-07-07T14:46:02.175Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Nutritional methods in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer in Norfolk

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 January 2007

Sheila A Bingham*
Affiliation:
EPIC, Institute of Public Health and Strangeways Research Laboratories, Worts Causeway, Cambridge CB1 4RN, UK Medical Research Council, Dunn Human Nutrition Unit, Welcome Trust MRC Building, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2XY, UK
Ailsa A Welch
Affiliation:
EPIC, Institute of Public Health and Strangeways Research Laboratories, Worts Causeway, Cambridge CB1 4RN, UK
Alison McTaggart
Affiliation:
EPIC, Institute of Public Health and Strangeways Research Laboratories, Worts Causeway, Cambridge CB1 4RN, UK
Angela A Mulligan
Affiliation:
EPIC, Institute of Public Health and Strangeways Research Laboratories, Worts Causeway, Cambridge CB1 4RN, UK
Shirley A Runswick
Affiliation:
Medical Research Council, Dunn Human Nutrition Unit, Welcome Trust MRC Building, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2XY, UK
Robert Luben
Affiliation:
EPIC, Institute of Public Health and Strangeways Research Laboratories, Worts Causeway, Cambridge CB1 4RN, UK
Suzy Oakes
Affiliation:
EPIC, Institute of Public Health and Strangeways Research Laboratories, Worts Causeway, Cambridge CB1 4RN, UK
Kay Tee Khaw
Affiliation:
EPIC, Institute of Public Health and Strangeways Research Laboratories, Worts Causeway, Cambridge CB1 4RN, UK Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 2SR, UK
Nicholas Wareham
Affiliation:
EPIC, Institute of Public Health and Strangeways Research Laboratories, Worts Causeway, Cambridge CB1 4RN, UK Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 2SR, UK
Nicholas E Day
Affiliation:
EPIC, Institute of Public Health and Strangeways Research Laboratories, Worts Causeway, Cambridge CB1 4RN, UK
*
*Corresponding author: Email Sheila.Bingham@mrc-dunn.cam.ac.uk
Rights & Permissions[Opens in a new window]

Abstract

HTML view is not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.
Objective:

To describe methods and dietary habits of a large population cohort.

Design:

Prospective assessment of diet using diet diaries and food-frequency questionnaires, and biomarkers of diet in 24-h urine collections and blood samples.

Setting:

Free living individuals aged 45 to 75 years living in Norfolk, UK.

Subjects:

Food and nutrient intake from a food-frequency questionnaire on 23 003 men and women, and from a 7-day diet diary from 2117 men and women. Nitrogen, sodium and potassium excretion was obtained from single 24-h urine samples from 300 individuals in the EPIC cohort. Plasma vitamin C was measured for 20 846 men and women.

Results:

The food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the food diary were able to determine differences in foods and nutrients between the sexes and were reliable as judged by repeated administrations of each method. Plasma vitamin C was significantly higher in women than men. There were significant (P<0.001) differences in mean intake of all nutrients measured by the two different methods in women but less so in men. The questionnaire overestimated dairy products and vegetables in both men and women when compared with intakes derived from the diary, but underestimated cereal and meat intake in men. There were some consistent trends with age in food and nutrient intakes assessed by both methods, particularly in men. Correlation coefficients between dietary intake assessed from the diary and excretion of nitrogen and potassium in a single 24-h urine sample ranged from 0.36 to 0.47. Those comparing urine excretion and intake assessed from the FFQ were 0.09 to 0.26. The correlations between plasma vitamin C and dietary intake from the first FFQ, 24-h recall or diary were 0.28, 0.35 and 0.40.

Conclusions:

EPIC Norfolk is one of the largest epidemiological studies of nutrition in the UK and the largest on which plasma vitamin C has been obtained. Methods for obtaining food and nutrient intake are described in detail. The results shown here for food and nutrient intakes can be compared with results from other population studies utilising different methods of assessing dietary intake. The utility of different methods used in different settings within the main EPIC cohort is described. The FFQ is to be used particularly in pooled analyses of risk from diet in relation to cancer incidence within the larger European EPIC study, where measurement error is more likely to be overcome by large dietary heterogeneity on an international basis. Findings in the UK, where dietary variation between individuals is smaller and hence the need to use a more accurate individual method greater, will be derived from the 7-day diary information on a nested case–control basis. 24-h recalls can be used in the event that diary information should not be forthcoming from some eventual cases. Combinations of results utilising all dietary methods and biomarkers may also be possible.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © CABI Publishing 2001

References

1Doll, R, Peto, R. Quantitative estimates of avoidable risks ofcancer in the United States today. J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 1981; 66: 1191–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
2Willett, W. Diet, nutrition and avoidable cancer. Environ.Health Perspectives 1995; 103(Suppl. 8): 165–70.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
3World Cancer Research Fund. Food, Nutrition and thePrevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington, DC: AICR, 1997.Google Scholar
4Department of Health, COMA. Nutritional Aspects of theDevelopment of Cancer. Committee on Medical Aspects ofFood and Nutrition Policy, Report on Health and SocialSubjects No. 48. London: HMSO, 1998Google Scholar
5Riboli, E. Nutrition and cancer: background and rationale ofthe European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Ann. Oncol. 1992; 3: 783–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
6Kaaks, R, Slimani, N, Riboli, E. Pilot phase studies on theaccuracy of dietary intake measurements in the EPIC project:overall evaluation of results. Int. J. Epidemiol. 1997; 26(Suppl. 8): S26–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
7Bingham, SA, Cummings, JH. The use of urine nitrogen as anindependent validatory measure of protein intake: a study ofnitrogen balance in individuals consuming their normal diet. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1985; 42: 1276–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
8Bingham, SA, Cassidy, A, Cole, TJ, Key, T, Welch, A, Runswick, S, Black, AE, Thurnham, D, Bates, C, Khaw, KT, Day, NE. Validation of weighed records and other methods of dietaryassessment using the 24: h urine nitrogen technique andother biological markers. Br. J. Nutr. 1995; 73: 531–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
9Bingham, S, Gill, C, Welch, A, Cassidy, A, Runswick, S, Sneyd, M, Thurnham, D, Key, TJA, Roe, L, Khaw, KT, Day, NE. Validationof dietary assessment methods in the UK arm of EPIC. Int. J.Epidemiol. 1997; 26: S137–51.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
10Bingham, SA, Gill, C, Welch, A, Day, K, Cassidy, A, Khaw, KT, Sneyd, MJ, Key, MJ, Roe, L, Day, NE. Comparison of dietaryassessment methods in nutritional epidemiology. Br. J. Nutr. 1994; 72: 619–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
11Royal Society of Chemistry. McCance and Widdowson's TheComposition of Foods, Third Supplement on Cereals andCereal Products. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry andMAFF, 1988.Google Scholar
12Royal Society of Chemistry. McCance and Widdowson's TheComposition of Foods, Fourth Supplement on Milk Productsand Eggs. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry and MAFF, 1989.Google Scholar
13Royal Society of Chemistry. McCance and Widdowson's TheComposition of Foods, 5th edn. Cambridge: Royal Society ofChemistry and MAFF, 1991.Google Scholar
14Royal Society of Chemistry. McCance and Widdowson's TheComposition of Foods, Fifth Supplement on Vegetables, Herbsand Spices. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry and MAFF, 1991.Google Scholar
15Royal Society of Chemistry. McCance and Widdowson's FirstSupplement to The Composition of Foods, Fifth Edition onFruit and Nuts. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry and MAFF, 1992.Google Scholar
16Royal Society of Chemistry. McCance and Widdowson'sSecond Supplement to The Composition of Foods, FifthEdition on Vegetable Dishes. Cambridge: Royal Society ofChemistry and MAFF, 1992.Google Scholar
17Royal Society of Chemistry. McCance and Widdowson'sThird Supplement to The Composition of Foods, Fifth Editionon Fish and Fish Products. Cambridge: Royal Society ofChemistry and MAFF, 1993.Google Scholar
18Royal Society of Chemistry. McCance and Widdowson'.sFourth Supplement to The Composition of Foods, Fifth Editionon Miscellaneous Foods. Cambridge: Royal Society ofChemistry and MAFF, 1994.Google Scholar
19Royal Society of Chemistry. McCance and Widdowson's FifthSupplement to The Composition of Foods, Fifth Edition onMeat, Poultry and Game. Cambridge: Royal Society ofChemistry and MAFF, 1995.Google Scholar
20Royal Society of Chemistry. McCance and Widdowson's SixthSupplement to The Composition of Foods, Fifth Edition onMeat and Meat Products. Cambridge: Royal Society ofChemistry and MAFF, 1996.Google Scholar
21Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF). FoodPortion Sizes, 2nd edn. London: HMSO, 1993.Google Scholar
22Nelson, M, Atkinson, M, Meyer, J. Food Portion Sizes, APhotographic Atlas. London: Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheriesand Food, 1997.Google Scholar
23Day, NE, Oakes, S, Luben, R, Khaw, KT, Bingham, S, Welch, A, Wareham, N. EPIC in Norfolk: study design and characteristicsof the cohort. Br. J. Cancer 1999; 80(Suppl. 8): 95103.Google Scholar
24Schofield, WN, Schofield, C, James, WPT. Basal metabolic rate- review and prediction. Suppl. Human Nutr.: Clin. Nutr. 1985; 39 C: 196.Google Scholar
25Vuilleumier, JP, Keck, E. Fluorometric assay of vitamin C inbiological materials using a centrifugal analyser withfluorescent attachment. J. Micronutrient Anal. 1989; 5: 2534.Google Scholar
26Key, T, Oakes, S, Davey, G, Moore, J, Edmond, L, McLoone, U, Thurnham, DI. Whole blood stability at 4C. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 1996; 5: 811–4.Google Scholar
27Black, AE, Prentice, AM, Goldberg, GR, Jebb, SA, Bingham, SA, Livingstone, MBE, Coward, WA. Measurements of energyexpenditure provide insights into the validity of dietarymeasurements of energy intake. J. Am. Dietetic Assoc. 1993; 93: 572–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
28Finch, S, Doyle, W, Lowe, C, Bates, CJ, Prentice, A, Smithers, G, Clarke, PC. National Diet and Nutrition Survey: People aged 65: years and over. London: HMSO, 1998.Google Scholar
29Gregory, J, Foster, K, Tyler, H, Wiseman, M. The Dietary andNutritional Survey of British Adults. London: OPCS, 1990.Google Scholar
30Ministry of Ariculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF). HouseholdFood Consumption and Expenditure. Reports 19951998. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
31Bingham, SA, McNeil, NI, Cummings, JH. The diet ofindividuals. Br. J. Nutr. 1981; 45: 2335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
32Bingham, SA. Food consumption and nutrient intake. In: Margetts, B, Nelson, M, eds. Design Concepts in NutritionalEpidemiology, 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997; 147.Google Scholar
You have Access
266
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Nutritional methods in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer in Norfolk
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Nutritional methods in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer in Norfolk
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Nutritional methods in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer in Norfolk
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *