1McGinnis, JM, Foege, WH. Actual causes of death in the United States. JAMA 1993; 270(18): 2207–12.
2Willett, WC. Diet and health: what should we eat? Science 1994; 264: 532–7.
3Russel, MAH, Wilson, C, Taylor, C, Baker, CD. Effect of general practitioners'advice against smoking. BMJ 1979; 2: 231–5.
4Kelly, RB. Controlled trial of a time-efficient method of health promotion. Am. J. Prev. Med. 1988; 4: 200–7.
5Glanz, K, Gilboy, MB. Physicians, preventive, and applied nutrition: selected literature. Acad. Med. 1992; 67: 776–81.
6Kottke, TE, Foels, JK, Hill, C, Choi, T, Fenderson, DA. Nutrition counseling in private practice: Attitudes and activities of family physicians. Prev. Med. 1984; 13: 219–25.
7Conner, SL, Gustafson, JR, Sexton, G, Becker, N, Artaud-Wild, S, Conner, WE. The diet habit survey: a new method of dietary assessment that relates to plasma cholesterol changes. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 1992; 92: 41–7.
8Knapp, JA, Hazuda, HP, Haffner, SM, Young, EA, Stern, MP. A saturated fat/cholesterol avoidance scale: sex and ethnic differences in a biethnic population. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 1988; 88: 172–7.
9Heller, RF, Pedoe, HDT, Rose, G.A simple method of assessing the effect of dietary advice to reduce plasma cholesterol. Prev. Med. 1981; 10: 364–70.
10Peters, JR, Quiter, ES, Brekke, ML, et al. The Eating Pattern Assessment Tool: a simple instrument for assessing dietary fat and cholesterol intake. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 1994; 94(9): 1008–13.
11Ammerman, AS, Haines, PS, DeVellis, RF, et al. A brief dietary assessment to guide cholesterol reduction in low-income individuals: design and validation. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 1991; 91: 1385–90.
12Lefebvre, RC, Linnan, L, Sundaram, S, Ronan, A.Counseling strategies for blood cholesterol screening programs: recommendations for practice. Patient Educ. Counsel. 1990; 16: 97–108.
13Block, G, Clifford, C, Naughton, MD, Henderson, M, McAdams, M.A brief dietary screen for high fat intake. J. Nutr. Educ. 1989; 21: 199–207.
14Serdula, M, Coates, R, Byers, T, et al. Evaluation of a brief telephone questionnaire to estimate fruit and vegetable consumption in diverse study populations. Epidemiology 1993; 4: 455–63.
15Byers, T, Marshall, J, Fiedler, R, Zielezny, M, Graham, S.Assessing nutrient intake with an abbreviated dietary interview. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1985; 122: 41–50.
16Shannon, J, Kristal, AR, Curry, SJ, Beresford, SA. Application of a behavioral approach to measuring dietary change: the fat- and fiber-related diet behavior questionnaire. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 1997; 6(5): 355–61.
17Cummings, SR, Block, G, McHenry, K, Baron, RB. Evaluation of two food frequency methods of measuring dietary calcium intake. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1987; 126: 796–802.
18Angus, RM, Sambrook, PN, Pocock, NA, Eisman, JA. A simple method for assessing calcium intake in Caucasian women. J. Am. Dietet. Assoc. 1989; 89(2): 209–14.
19Pietinen, P, Hartman, AM, Haapa, E, et al. Reproducibility and validity of dietary assessment instruments. II. A qualitative food-frequency questionnaire. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1988; 128: 667–76.
20Colditz, GA. The Nurses Health Study: a cohort of US women followed since 1976. J. Am. Med. Wom. Assoc. 1995; 50: 40–4.
21Ascherio, A, Rimm, EB, Giovannucci, EL, et al. A prospective study of nutritional factors and hypertension among US men. Circulation 1992; 86: 1475–84.
22Rimm, EB, Giovannucci, EL, Stampfer, MJ, Colditz, GA, Litin, LB, Willett, WC. Reproducibility and validity of an expanded self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire among male health professionals. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1992; 135: 1114–26.
23Bieri, JG, Brown, ED, Smith, JC Jr. Determination of individual carotenoids in human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography. J. Liquid Chromatogr. 1985; 8: 473–84.
24Motchnik, PA, Frei, B, Ames, BN. Measurement of antioxidants in human blood plasma. Methods Enzymol. 1994; 234: 269–79.
25Kushi, LH, Lew, RA, Stare, FJ, et al. Diet and 20-year mortality from coronary heart disease: The Ireland–Boston diet heart study. New Engl. J. Med. 1985; 312: 811–18.
26Willett, WC, Stampfer, MJ, Underwood, BA, Speizer, FE, Rosner, B, Hennekens, CH. Validation of a dietary questionnaire with plasma carotenoid and α-tocopherol levels. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1983; 38: 631–9.
27Ascherio, A, Stampfer, MJ, Colditz, GA, Rimm, EB, Litin, L, Willett, WC. Correlations of vitamin A and E intakes with the plasma concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols among American men and women. J. Nutr. 1992; 122(9): 1792–801.