Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Small changes in snacking behaviour: the potential impact on CVD mortality

  • Ffion Lloyd-Williams (a1), Modi Mwatsama (a2), Robin Ireland (a2) and Simon Capewell (a1)

Abstract

Objective

To examine the potential public health impact on CHD and stroke mortality of replacing one ‘unhealthy’ snack with one ‘healthy’ snack per person, per day, across the UK population.

Methods

Nutritional information was obtained for different ‘unhealthy’ (such as crisps, chocolate bars, cakes and pastries) and ‘healthy’ snack products (such as fresh fruit, dried fruit, unsalted nuts or seeds). Expected changes in dietary intake were calculated. The mean change in total blood cholesterol levels was estimated using the Keys equation. The effect of changing cholesterol and salt levels on CHD deaths and on stroke deaths was calculated using the appropriate equations from the Law and He meta-analyses. The estimated reductions in cardiovascular deaths were then tested in a sensitivity analysis.

Results

Substituting one ‘healthy’ snack would reduce saturated fat intake by approximately 4·4 g per person per day, resulting in approximately 2400 fewer CHD deaths and 425 fewer stroke deaths per year. The associated 500 mg decrease in salt intake would result in approximately 1790 fewer CHD deaths and 1330 fewer stroke deaths.

Conclusions

Simply replacing one unhealthy snack with one healthy snack per day might prevent approximately 6000 cardiovascular deaths every year in the UK.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Small changes in snacking behaviour: the potential impact on CVD mortality
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Small changes in snacking behaviour: the potential impact on CVD mortality
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Small changes in snacking behaviour: the potential impact on CVD mortality
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Email ffionlw@liv.ac.uk

References

Hide All
1.British Heart Foundation (2006) Coronary Heart Disease Statistics Book 2006. London: BHF.
2.Developing Patient Partnerships (2004) Working Lunches. London: Developing Patient Partnerships.
3.TNS Worldpanel (2006) Continuous panel based research, 52 weeks to November 2005. http://www.tns-global.com
4.Food Standards Agency (2004) National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2004. London: The Stationery Office.
5.Hu, FB, Manson, JE & Willett, WC (2001) Types of dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: a critical review. J Am Coll Nutr 20, 519.
6.Lawton, CL, Delargy, HJ, Smith, FC, Hamilton, V & Blundell, JE (1998) A medium-term intervention study on the impact of high- and low-fat snacks varying in sweetness and fat content: large shifts in daily fat intake but good compensation for daily energy intake. Br J Nutr 80, 149161.
7.Davee, AM, Blum, JE, Devore, RL, Beaudoin, CM, Kaley, LA, Leiter, JL & Wigand, DA (2005) The vending and à la carte policy intervention in Maine public high schools. Prev Chronic Dis 2, Spec no: A14.
8.Food Standards Agency (2002) McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods, sixth summary ed. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.
9.Keys, A, Anderson, JT & Grande, F (1957) Prediction of serum cholesterol responses of man to changes in fat in the diet. Lancet ii, 959966.
10.Law, M, Wald, N & Thompson, S (1994) By how much and how quickly does reduction in serum cholesterol concentration lower risk of ischaemic heart disease? BMJ 308, 367372.
11.He, FJ & MacGregor, GA (2003) How far should salt intake be reduced? Hypertension 42, 10931099.
12.Law, M, Wald, N & Rudnicka, A (2003) Quantifying effect of statins on low density lipoprotein cholesterol, ischemic heart disease, and stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 326, 14231429.
13.Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration (2003) Cholesterol, coronary heart disease and stroke in the Asia-Pacific region. Int J Epidemiol 32, 563572.
14.Briggs, A, Sculpher, M & Buxton, M (1994) Uncertainty in the economic evaluation of health care technologies: the role of sensitivity analysis. Health Econ 3, 95104.
15.Department of Health (2003) Health Survey for England 2003. London: The Stationery Office.
16.Tucker, KL, Hallfrisch, J, Qiao, N, Muller, D, Andres, R & Fleg, JL (2005) The combination of high fruit and vegetable and low saturated fat intakes is more protective against mortality in aging men than is either alone: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. J Nutr 135, 556561.
17.Laatikainen, T, Critchley, J, Vartiainen, E, Salomaa, V, Ketonen, M & Capewell, S (2005) Explaining the decline in coronary heart disease mortality in Finland between 1982 and 1997. Am J Epidemiol 162, 764773.
18.OFCOM (2006) Child Obesity – Food Advertising in Context: Children’s Food Choices, Parents’ Understanding and Influence, and The Role of Food Promotions. London: Ofcom.
19.National Heart Forum (2006) A 9.00 pm watershed for junk food adverts? Heart to Heart issue 3 (Summer), 2.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed