World Health Organization (2002) The World Health Report 2002: Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life. Geneva: WHO.
National Center for Health Statistics (2010) Health, United States, 2009: With Special Feature on Medical Technology. Hyattsville, MD: NCHS.
Schoenborn CA & Heyman KM (2009) Health characteristics of adults aged 55 years and over: United States, 2004–2007. Natl Health Stat Report issue 16, 1–31.
Terry DF, Pencina MJ, Vasan RS
et al. (2005) Cardiovascular risk factors predictive for survival and morbidity-free survival in the oldest-old Framingham Heart Study participants. J Am Geriatr Soc
Suter PM, Sierro C & Vetter W (2002) Nutritional factors in the control of blood pressure and hypertension. Nutr Clin Care
Berkow SE & Barnard ND (2005) Blood pressure regulation and vegetarian diets. Nutr Rev
Nowson CA, Wattanapenpaiboon N & Pachett A (2009) Low-sodium Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-type diet including lean red meat lowers blood pressure in postmenopausal women. Nutr Res
Hodgson JM, Burke V, Beilin LJ
et al. (2006) Partial substitution of carbohydrate intake with protein intake from lean red meat lowers blood pressure in hypertensive persons. Am J Clin Nutr
Sacks FM, Donner A, Castelli WP
et al. (1981) Effect of ingestion of meat on plasma cholesterol of vegetarians. JAMA
Iacono JM, Judd JT, Marshall MW
et al. (1981) The role of dietary essential fatty acids and prostaglandins in reducing blood pressure. Prog Lipid Res
Iacono JM, Puska P, Dougherty RM
et al. (1983) Effect of dietary fat on blood pressure in a rural Finnish population. Am J Clin Nutr
Margetts BM, Beilin LJ, Armstrong BK
et al. (1984) Dietary fats and blood pressure. Aust N Z J Med
Margetts BM, Beilin LJ, Armstrong BK
et al. (1988) Vegetarian diet in mild hypertension: effects of fat and fiber. Am J Clin Nutr
Puska P, Iacono JM, Nissinen A
et al. (1985) Dietary fat and blood pressure: an intervention study on the effects of a low-fat diet with two levels of polyunsaturated fat. Prev Med
Sacks FM, Marais GE, Handysides G
et al. (1984) Lack of an effect of dietary saturated fat and cholesterol on blood pressure in normotensives. Hypertension
Streppel MT, Arends LR, van ‘t Veer P
et al. (2005) Dietary fiber and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Arch Intern Med
Whelton SP, Hyre AD, Pedersen B
et al. (2005) Effect of dietary fiber intake on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials. J Hypertens
Rouse IL, Beilin LJ, Mahoney DP
et al. (1983) Vegetarian diet and blood pressure. Lancet
Sciarrone SE, Strahan MT, Beilin LJ
et al. (1993) Biochemical and neurohormonal responses to the introduction of a lacto-ovovegetarian diet. J Hypertens
Margetts BM, Beilin LJ, Vandongen R
et al. (1986) Vegetarian diet in mild hypertension: a randomised controlled trial. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed)
Rouse IL, Armstrong BK & Beilin LJ (1983) The relationship of blood pressure to diet and lifestyle in two religious populations. J Hypertens
Armstrong B, Clarke H, Martin C
et al. (1979) Urinary sodium and blood pressure in vegetarians. Am J Clin Nutr
Ophir O, Peer G, Gilad J
et al. (1983) Low blood pressure in vegetarians: the possible role of potassium. Am J Clin Nutr
Burr ML, Bates CJ, Fehily AM
et al. (1981) Plasma cholesterol and blood pressure in vegetarians. J Hum Nutr
Melby CL, Goldflies DG & Toohey ML (1993) Blood pressure differences in older black and white long-term vegetarians and nonvegetarians. J Am Coll Nutr
Melby CL, Toohey ML & Cebrick J (1994) Blood pressure and blood lipids among vegetarian, semivegetarian, and nonvegetarian African Americans. Am J Clin Nutr
Appleby PN, Davey GK & Key TJ (2002) Hypertension and blood pressure among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans in EPIC–Oxford. Public Health Nutr
Butler TL, Fraser GE, Beeson WL
et al. (2008) Cohort profile: The Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2). Int J Epidemiol
Chan J, Knutsen SF, Sabate J
et al. (2007) Feasibility of running clinics to collect biological specimens in a nationwide cohort study – Adventist Health Study-2. Ann Epidemiol
O'Brien E, Mee F, Atkins N
et al. (1996) Evaluation of three devices for self-measurement of blood pressure according to the revised British Hypertension Society Protocol: the Omron HEM-705CP, Philips HP5332, and Nissei DS-175. Blood Press Monit
Jaceldo-Siegl K, Knutsen SF, Sabate J
et al. (2010) Validation of nutrient intake using an FFQ and repeated 24 h recalls in black and white subjects of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2). Public Health Nutr
Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fan J, Sabate J
et al. (2011) Race-specific validation of food intake obtained from a comprehensive FFQ: the Adventist Health Study-2. Public Health Nutr
Fraser G & Yan R (2007) Guided multiple imputation of missing data: using a subsample to strengthen the missing-at-random assumption. Epidemiology
R DCT (2010) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, Version 2.11.1 (2010-05-31). Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
Sallis JF, Haskell WL, Wood PD
et al. (1985) Physical activity assessment methodology in the Five-City Project. Am J Epidemiol
Tonstad S, Butler T, Yan R
et al. (2009) Type of vegetarian diet, body weight, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care
Haddad EH & Tanzman JS (2003) What do vegetarians in the United States eat?
Am J Clin Nutr
78, 3 Suppl., 626S–632S.
Larsson CL & Johansson GK (2002) Dietary intake and nutritional status of young vegans and omnivores in Sweden. Am J Clin Nutr
Janelle KC & Barr SI (1995) Nutrient intakes and eating behavior scores of vegetarian and nonvegetarian women. J Am Diet Assoc
Ruidavets JB, Bongard V, Simon C
et al. (2006) Independent contribution of dairy products and calcium intake to blood pressure variations at a population level. J Hypertens
McCarron DA & Reusser ME (1999) Finding consensus in the dietary calcium–blood pressure debate. J Am Coll Nutr
18, 5 Suppl., 398S–405S.
McCarron DA & Reusser ME (2001) Are low intakes of calcium and potassium important causes of cardiovascular disease?
Am J Hypertens
14, 6 Pt 2, 206S–212S.
Ernst E, Pietsch L, Matrai A
et al. (1986) Blood rheology in vegetarians. Br J Nutr
Ostchega Y, Yoon SS, Hughes J
et al. (2008) Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control – continued disparities in adults: United States, 2005–2006. NCHS Data Brief issue 3, 1–8.