Skip to main content
×
Home

Vitamin D, sun, sunbeds and health

  • Johan Moan (a1) (a2), Zivile Baturaite (a1), Asta Juzeniene (a1) and Alina Carmen Porojnicu (a1)
Abstract
AbstractObjective

To review the health effects of solar radiation, sunbeds and vitamin D.

Design

The literature was searched in the electronic database MEDLINE to indentify published data between 1981 and 2011. Studies were included if they reported relative risk for cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) associated with sunbed use, vitamin D and UV effects on human health.

Setting

Data from different time periods for populations at different latitudes.

Subjects

Persons of different ages and ethnic groups.

Results

UV from sun and sunbeds is the main vitamin D source. Young people with white or pigmented skin in northern Europe have a low vitamin D status. A number of health benefits from sufficient levels of vitamin D have been identified. However, UV exposure has been suspected of causing skin cancer, notably CMM, and authorities warn against it.

Conclusions

The overall health benefit of an improved vitamin D status may be more important than the possibly increased CMM risk resulting from carefully increasing UV exposure. Important scientific facts behind this judgement are given.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Vitamin D, sun, sunbeds and health
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Vitamin D, sun, sunbeds and health
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Vitamin D, sun, sunbeds and health
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email Zivile.Baturaite@rr-research.no
References
Hide All
1.Holick MF (1994) Vitamin D: photobiology, metabolism and clinical application. In The Liver: Biology and Photobiology, pp. 543562 [IM Arias, JL Boyer, N Fausto et al., editors]. New York: Raven Press.
2.Holick MF (2006) Resurrection of vitamin D deficiency and rickets. J Clin Invest 116, 20622072.
3.Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA et al. (2011) Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96, 19111930.
4.Holick MF & Chen TC (2008) Vitamin D deficiency: a worldwide problem with health consequences. Am J Clin Nutr 87, issue 4, 1080S1086S.
5.Moan J & Dahlback A (1993) Epidemiologic data from Scandinavia. In Environmental UV Photobiology, pp. 255293 [LO Bjørn, J Moan, W Nultsch et al., editors]. New York: Plenum Press.
6.Moan J, Porojnicu AC & Dahlback A (2006) Epidemiology of cutaneous malignant melanoma. In Skin Cancer Prevention, pp. 179201 [U Ringborg, Y Brandberg, EW Breitbart et al., editors]. New York: Informa Healthcare.
7.Moan J, Porojnicu AC & Dahlback A (2008) Ultraviolet radiation and malignant melanoma. Adv Exp Med Biol 624, 104116.
8.Von Thaler AK, Kamenisch Y & Berneburg M (2010) The role of ultraviolet radiation in melanomagenesis. Exp Dermatol 19, 8188.
9.Marks R (2000) Epidemiology of melanoma. Clin Exp Dermatol 25, 459463.
10.Cicarma E, Porojnicu AC, Lagunova Z et al. (2009) Sun and sunbeds: inducers of vitamin D and skin cancer. Anticancer Res 29, 34953500.
11.Moan J, Lagunova Z, Cicarma E et al. (2009) Sunbeds as vitamin D sources. Photochem Photobiol 85, 14741479.
12.Porojnicu AC, Bruland OS, Aksnes L et al. (2008) Sun beds and cod liver oil as vitamin D sources. J Photochem Photobiol B 91, 125131.
13.Thieden E, Jorgensen HL, Jorgensen NR et al. (2008) Sunbed radiation provokes cutaneous vitamin D synthesis in humans – a randomized controlled trial. Photochem Photobiol 84, 14871492.
14.Shuster S (2008) Is sun exposure a major cause of melanoma? No. BMJ 337, a764.
15.Leiter U & Garbe C (2008) Epidemiology of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer – the role of sunlight. Adv Exp Med Biol 624, 89103.
16.Newton-Bishop JA, Chang YM, Elliott F et al. (2011) Relationship between sun exposure and melanoma risk for tumours in different body sites in a large case–control study in a temperate climate. Eur J Cancer 47, 732741.
17.Pukkala E, Martinsen JI, Lynge E et al. (2009) Occupation and cancer – follow-up of 15 million people in five Nordic countries. Acta Oncol 48, 646790.
18.Cicarma E, Juzeniene A, Porojnicu AC et al. (2010) Latitude gradient for melanoma incidence by anatomic site and gender in Norway 1966–2007. J Photochem Photobiol B 101, 174178.
19.Moan J, Cicarma E, Setlow R et al. (2010) Time trends and latitude dependence of uveal and cutaneous malignant melanoma induced by solar radiation. Dermatoendocrinology 2, 38.
20.Berwick M, Armstrong BK, Ben-Porat L et al. (2005) Sun exposure and mortality from melanoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 97, 195199.
21.Yang L, Veierod MB, Lof M et al. (2011) Prospective study of UV exposure and cancer incidence among Swedish women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 20, 13581367.
22.Newton-Bishop JA, Beswick S, Randerson-Moor J et al. (2009) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels are associated with Breslow thickness at presentation and survival from melanoma. J Clin Oncol 27, 54395444.
23.International Agency for Research on Cancer (2007) The association of use of sunbeds with cutaneous malignant melanoma and other skin cancers: a systematic review. Int J Cancer 120, 11161122.
24.Adam SA, Sheaves JK, Wright NH et al. (1981) A case–control study of the possible association between oral contraceptives and malignant melanoma. Br J Cancer 44, 4550.
25.Cust AE, Armstrong BK, Goumas C et al. (2011) Sunbed use during adolescence and early adulthood is associated with increased risk of early-onset melanoma. Int J Cancer 128, 24252435.
26.Dunn-Lane J, Herity B, Moriarty MJ et al. (1993) A case control study of malignant melanoma. Ir Med J 86, 5759.
27.Holly EA, Kelly JW, Shpall SN et al. (1987) Number of melanocytic nevi as a major risk factor for malignant melanoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 17, 459468.
28.Veierod MB, Weiderpass E, Thorn M et al. (2003) A prospective study of pigmentation, sun exposure, and risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma in women. J Natl Cancer Inst 95, 15301538.
29.Walter SD, King WD & Marrett LD (1999) Association of cutaneous malignant melanoma with intermittent exposure to ultraviolet radiation: results of a case–control study in Ontario, Canada. Int J Epidemiol 28, 418427.
30.Bataille V, Boniol M, De VE et al. (2005) A multicentre epidemiological study on sunbed use and cutaneous melanoma in Europe. Eur J Cancer 41, 21412149.
31.Elliott F, Suppa M, Chan M et al. (2011) Relationship between sunbed use and melanoma risk in a large case–control study in the United Kingdom. Int J Cancer (Epublication ahead of print version).
32.Naldi L, Gallus S, Imberti GL et al. (2000) Sunlamps and sunbeds and the risk of cutaneous melanoma. Italian Group for Epidemiological Research in Dermatology. Eur J Cancer Prev 9, 133134.
33.Osterlind A, Tucker MA, Stone BJ et al. (1988) The Danish case–control study of cutaneous malignant melanoma. II. Importance of UV-light exposure. Int J Cancer 42, 319324.
34.Zanetti R, Rosso S, Faggiano F et al. (1988) A case–control study of melanoma of the skin in the province of Torino, Italy. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique 36, 309317.
35.Moan J, Baturaite Z, Porojnicu AC et al. (2012) UVA, UVB and incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma in Norway and Sweden. Photochem Photobiol Sci (Epublication ahead of print version).
36.Moan J, Porojnicu AC, Dahlback A et al. (2008) Addressing the health benefits and risks, involving vitamin D or skin cancer, of increased sun exposure. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105, 668673.
37.Fears TR, Sagebiel RW, Halpern A et al. (2011) Sunbeds and sunlamps: who used them and their risk for melanoma. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 24, 574581.
38.Lazovich D, Vogel RI, Berwick M et al. (2010) Indoor tanning and risk of melanoma: a case–control study in a highly exposed population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19, 15571568.
39.Veierod MB, Adami HO, Lund E et al. (2010) Sun and solarium exposure and melanoma risk: effects of age, pigmentary characteristics, and nevi. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19, 111120.
40.Westerdahl J, Ingvar C, Masback A et al. (2000) Risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma in relation to use of sunbeds: further evidence for UV-A carcinogenicity. Br J Cancer 82, 15931599.
41.Setlow RB, Grist E, Thompson K et al. (1993) Wavelengths effective in induction of malignant melanoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90, 66666670.
42.Robinson ES, Hill RH Jr, Kripke ML et al. (2000) The Monodelphis melanoma model: initial report on large ultraviolet A exposures of suckling young. Photochem Photobiol 71, 743746.
43.Noonan FP, Dudek J, Merlino G et al. (2003) Animal models of melanoma: an HGF/SF transgenic mouse model may facilitate experimental access to UV initiating events. Pigment Cell Res 16, 1625.
44.Mitchell DL, Fernandez AA, Nairn RS et al. (2010) Ultraviolet A does not induce melanomas in a Xiphophorus hybrid fish model. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107, 93299334.
45.Gorham ED, Mohr SB, Garland CF et al. (2007) Do sunscreens increase risk of melanoma in populations residing at higher latitudes? Ann Epidemiol 17, 956963.
46.Nilsen LT, Aalerud TN, Hannevik M et al. (2011) UVB and UVA irradiances from indoor tanning devices. Photochem Photobiol Sci 10, 11291136.
47.Green AC, Williams GM, Logan V et al. (2011) Reduced melanoma after regular sunscreen use: randomized trial follow-up. J Clin Oncol 29, 257263.
48.Moan J, Dahlback A & Setlow RB (1999) Epidemiological support for an hypothesis for melanoma induction indicating a role for UVA radiation. Photochem Photobiol 70, 243247.
49.de Gruijl FR & Forbes PD (1995) UV-induced skin cancer in a hairless mouse model. Bioessays 17, 651660.
50.Moan J, Porojnicu AC, Robsahm TE et al. (2005) Solar radiation, vitamin D and survival rate of colon cancer in Norway. J Photochem Photobiol B 78, 189193.
51.Hypponen E & Power C (2007) Hypovitaminosis D in British adults at age 45 y: nationwide cohort study of dietary and lifestyle predictors. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 860868.
52.Chapuy MC, Preziosi P, Maamer M et al. (1997) Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in an adult normal population. Osteoporos Int 7, 439443.
53.Lai JK, Lucas RM, Banks E et al. (2011) Variability in vitamin D assays impairs clinical assessment of vitamin D status. Intern Med J (Epublication ahead of print version).
54.Johansson L & Solvoll K (1999) Norwegian National Dietary Survey 1997, p. 45. Oslo: Statens råd for ernæring of fysisk aktivitet.
55.Lagunova Z, Porojnicu AC, Lindberg FA et al. (2011) Vitamin D status in Norwegian children and adolescents with excess body weight. Pediatr Diabetes 12, 120126.
56.Statistics Norway (2007) Tid brukt til TV, video/DVD, hjemme-PC og TV-spill sammenlagt på fritida en gjennomsnittsdag, etter kjønn og alder. 1994, 1998, 1999, 2003 og 2006. http://www.ssb.no/samfunnsspeilet/utg/200704/03/tab-2007-09-20-02.html (accessed October 2011).
57.Giovannucci E, Liu Y, Rimm EB et al. (2006) Prospective study of predictors of vitamin D status and cancer incidence and mortality in men. J Natl Cancer Inst 98, 451459.
58.Moan J, Lagunova Z & Porojnicu AC (2006) Helse effekter av sol og solarium. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 126, 19451946.
59.Reichrath J & Nurnberg B (2009) Cutaneous vitamin D synthesis versus skin cancer development: the Janus faces of solar UV-radiation. Dermatoendocrinology 1, 253261.
60.Juzeniene A, Brekke P, Dahlback A et al. (2011) Solar radiation and human health. Rep Prog Phys 74, 6, 066701.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 126
Total number of PDF views: 281 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 786 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 25th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.