Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-66d7dfc8f5-4x9sz Total loading time: 0.631 Render date: 2023-02-08T05:08:29.799Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue false

Patch-burn grazing (PBG) as a livestock management alternative for fire-prone ecosystems of North America

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 October 2015

J.D. Scasta*
Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, University of Wyoming, Agriculture C 2004, Laramie, Wyoming 82071, USA.
E.T. Thacker
Wildland Resources Department, Utah State University, 5230 Old Main Hill, Logan, Utah 84322, USA.
T.J. Hovick
School of Natural Resource Sciences, North Dakota State University, 202 Hultz Hall, Fargo, North Dakota 58108, USA.
D.M. Engle
Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Oklahoma State University, 008C Agricultural Hall, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078, USA.
B.W. Allred
College of Forestry and Conservation, University of Montana, 32 Campus Drive, Missoula, Montana 59812, USA.
S.D. Fuhlendorf
Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Oklahoma State University, 008C Agricultural Hall, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078, USA.
J.R. Weir
Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Oklahoma State University, 008C Agricultural Hall, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078, USA.
*Corresponding author:


Many rangelands of the world are fire dependent and display a strong interaction between fire and grazing on animal behavior, productivity and ecosystem processes. The application of this fire–grazing interaction as patch-burn grazing (PBG) has recently been promoted in North America to conserve biodiversity and as an alternative for livestock management in fire-prone ecosystems to enhance forage quality and other production benefits. PBG is functionally applied by burning spatially and temporally discrete patches to allow livestock to choose where and when to graze. However, considering that the primary intent of PBG in fire-dependent ecosystems has been for the conservation of biodiversity, we synthesized the peer-reviewed literature to assess PBG as an alternative strategy for livestock management in fire-prone ecosystems. We reviewed the literature to assess PBG as an alternative livestock management approach to optimize animal production and conserve biodiversity in fire-prone ecosystems. We reviewed the results of 83 studies that focused on two main areas: (1) livestock production and inputs and (2) maintaining or improving ecosystem functioning and biodiversity to support sustainable livestock production. PBG can optimize cattle production by offsetting input costs such as supplemental feed, insecticides, herbicides, mechanical brush control, veterinary costs and cross-fencing. PBG can also maintain native herbaceous plant communities that are the resource base for cattle grazing enterprises by reducing woody plant encroachment, stimulating above- and below-ground biomass of native perennial grasses, enhancing nutrient cycling and optimizing plant diversity. PBG creates a habitat mosaic critical for many trophic levels of wildlife, particularly grassland birds, which are currently in decline. Further research is needed to clarify the potential environmental gradients defining applicability of PBG, economic outcomes of PBG, potential gastro-intestinal parasite control with PBG and other metrics of animal production. Overall, PBG is a viable management approach to improve productivity and biodiversity in fire-regulated grassland ecosystems in a manner supported by both fire and grazing disturbances. This is especially true when these communities have other organisms that depend on periodic disturbance and interaction with large animal grazing and is supported by ample empirical research.

Review Article
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


1 Bond, W.J. and Keeley, J.E. 2005. Fire as a global ‘herbivore’: The ecology and evolution of flammable ecosystems. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20(7):387394.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
2 Yadava, P.S. 1990. Savannas of North-east India. Journal of Biogeography 17:385394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
3 Vinton, M.A., Hartnett, D.C., Finck, E.J., and Briggs, J.M. 1993. Interactive effects of fire, bison (Bison bison) grazing and plant community composition in tallgrass prairie. American Midland Naturalist 129(1):1018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
4 Kramer, K., Groen, T.A., and van Wieren, S.V. 2003. The interacting effects of ungulates and fire on forest dynamics: An analysis using the model FORSPACE. Forest Ecology and Management 181(1):205222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
5 Archibald, A.S., Bond, W.J., Stock, W.D., and Fairbanks, D.H.K. 2005. Shaping the landscape: Fire-grazer interactions in an African savanna. Ecological Applications 15:96109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
6 Anderson, R.C. 2006. Evolution and origin of the Central Grassland of North America: Climate, fire, and mammalian grazers. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 133(4):626647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
7 Murphy, B.P. and Bowman, D.M. 2007. The interdependence of fire, grass, kangaroos and Australian Aborigines: A case study from central Arnhem Land, northern Australia. Journal of Biogeography 34(2):237250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
8 Fuhlendorf, S.D., Engle, D.M., Kerby, J., and Hamilton, R. 2009. Pyric herbivory: Rewilding landscapes through the recoupling of fire and grazing. Conservation Biology 23(3):588598.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
9 Fuhlendorf, S.D., Harrell, W.C., Engle, D.M., Hamilton, R.G., Davis, C.A., and Leslie, D.M. 2006. Should heterogeneity be the basis for conservation? Grassland bird response to fire and grazing. Ecological Applications 16(5):17061716.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
10 Biondini, M.E., Steuter, A.A., and Hamilton, R.G. 1999. Bison use of fire-managed remnant prairies. Journal of Range Management 52:454461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
11 Fuhlendorf, S.D. and Engle, D.M. 2001. Restoring heterogeneity on rangelands: Ecosystem management based on evolutionary grazing patterns. Bioscience 51(8):625632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
12 Hamilton, R.G. 2007. Restoring heterogeneity on the tallgrass prairie preserve: Applying the fire-grazing interaction model. In Masters, R.E. and Galley, K.E.M. (eds). 23rd Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference: Fire in Grassland and Shrubland Ecosystems. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL. p. 163169.Google Scholar
13 Pyne, S.J. 1997. America's Fires. Forest History Society, Durham, NC.Google Scholar
14 Vermeire, L.T., Mitchell, R.B., Fuhlendorf, S.D., and Gillen, R.L. 2004. Patch burning effects on grazing distribution. Rangeland Ecology and Management 57(3):248252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
15 Fuhlendorf, S.D. and Engle, D.M. 2004. Application of the fire-grazing interaction to restore a shifting mosaic on tallgrass prairie. Journal of Applied Ecology 41(4):604614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
16 Wiens, J.A. 2000. Ecological heterogeneity: An ontogeny of concepts and approaches. In Hutchings, M.J., Juhn, E.A., and Stewart, A.J.A. (eds). The Ecological Consequences of Environmental Heterogeneity. Blackwell Science, Hoboken, NJ. p. 452.Google Scholar
17 Gurevitch, J. and Hedges, L.V. 1993. Meta-analysis: Combining the results of independent experiments. In Scheiner, S.M. and Gurevitch, J. (eds). Design and Analysis of Ecological Experiments. Chapman & Hall, New York, USA. p. 378398.Google Scholar
18 Osenberg, C.W., Sarnelle, O., and Cooper, S.D. 1997. Effect size in ecological experiments: The application of biological models in meta-analysis. American Naturalist 150:798812.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
19 Rosenberg, M.S., Adams, D.C. and Gurevitch, J. 1999. MetaWin: Statistical Software for Meta-analysis. Version 2.0. Sinauer, Sunderland, MA, USA. p. 133.Google Scholar
20 Short, S.D. 2001. Characteristics and production costs of US cow-calf operations. United States Department of Agriculture. Economic Research Service. Statistical Bulletin Number 974-3.Google Scholar
21 Waterman, R.C., Geary, T.W., Paterson, J.A., and Lipsey, R.J. 2012. Early weaning in Northern Great Plains beef cattle production systems: I. Performance and reproductive response in range beef cows. Livestock Science 148(1):2635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
22 Duvall, V.L. and Whitaker, L.B. 1964. Rotation burning: A forage management system for longleaf pine-bluestem ranges. Journal of Range Management 17:322326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
23 Hilmon, J.B. and Hughes, R.H. 1965. Fire and forage in the wiregrass type. Journal of Range Management 18(5):251254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
24 Angell, R.F., Stuth, J.W., and Drawe, D.L. 1986. Diets and liveweight changes of cattle grazing fall burned gulf cordgrass. Journal of Range Management 39(3):233236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
25 Allred, B.W., Fuhlendorf, S.D., Engle, D.M., and Elmore, R.D. 2011. Ungulate preference for burned patches reveals strength of fire-grazing interaction. Ecology and Evolution 1(2):132144.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
26 McGranahan, D.A., Henderson, C.B., Hill, J.S., Raicovich, G.M., Wilson, W.N., and Smith, C.K. 2014. Patch-burning improves forage quality, creates grass-bank in old-field pasture: Results of a demonstration trial. Southeastern Naturalist 13(2):200207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
27 Augustine, D.J., Derner, J.D., and Milchunas, D.G. 2010. Prescribed fire, grazing, and herbaceous plant production in shortgrass steppe. Rangeland Ecology and Management 63(3):317323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
28 Vermeire, L.T., Crowder, J.L., and Wester, D.B. 2014. Semiarid rangeland is resilient to summer fire and postfire grazing utilization. Rangeland Ecology and Management 67:5260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
29 Limb, R.F., Fuhlendorf, S.D., Engle, D.M., and Kerby, J.D. 2011a. Growing-season disturbance in tallgrass prairie: Evaluating fire and grazing on Schizachyrium scoparium . Rangeland Ecology and Management 64(1):2836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
30 Jamison, B. and Underwood, M. 2008. Evaluation of a grazing system for maintaining grassland integrity and improving upland bird habitat. Missouri Department of Conservation Final Project Report. Available at Web site (verified 5 December 2013).Google Scholar
31 Limb, R.F., Fuhlendorf, S.D., Engle, D.M., Weir, J.R., Elmore, R.D., and Bidwell, T.G. 2011b. Pyric–herbivory and cattle performance in grassland ecosystems. Rangeland Ecology and Management 64:659663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
32 Baumann, P. 2013. Prescribed fire can yield positive results, but may not be for everyone. Grassroots, South Dakota Grassland Coalition. 15, 1–2. Available at Web site (verified 8 December 2013).Google Scholar
33 Winter, S.L., Fuhlendorf, S.D., and Goes, M. 2014. Patch-burn grazing effects on cattle performance: Research conducted in a working landscape. Rangelands 36(3):27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
34 Weir, J.R., Fuhlendorf, S.D., Engle, D.M., Bidwell, T.G., Chad Cummings, D., Elmore, D., Limb, R.F., Allred, B.W., Scasta, J.D., and Winter, S.L. 2013. Patch Burning: Integrating Fire and Grazing to Promote Heterogeneity. E-998. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK. p. 36.Google Scholar
35 Allred, B.W., Scasta, J.D., Hovick, T.J., Fuhlendorf, S.D., and Hamilton, R.G. 2014. Spatial heterogeneity stabilizes livestock productivity in a changing climate. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 193:3741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
36 Polito, V.J., Baum, K.A., Payton, M.E., Little, S.E., Fuhlendorf, S.D., and Reichard, M.V. 2013. Tick abundance and levels of infestation on cattle in response to patch burning. Rangeland Ecology and Management 66(5):545552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
37 Scasta, J.D., Engle, D.M., Talley, J.L., Weir, J.R., Stansberry, J.C., Fuhlendorf, S.D., and Harr, R.N. 2012. Pyric-herbivory to manage horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on cattle. Southwestern Entomologist 37(3):325334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
38 Scasta, J.D., Weir, J.R., Engle, D.M., and Carlson, J.D. 2014. Combustion of cattle fecal pats ignited by prescribed fire. Rangeland Ecology and Management 67(2):229233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
39 Scasta, J.D. 2014. Implications of pyric-herbivory on central North American grassland ecology, management and production. Oklahoma State University Dissertation, Stillwater, OK.Google Scholar
40 Seip, D.R. and Bunnell, F.L. 1985. Nutrition of Stone's sheep on burned and unburned ranges. Journal of Wildlife Management 49:397405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
41 Birkett, M.A., Agelopoulos, N., Jensen, K., Jespersen, J.B., Pickett, J.A., Prijs, H.J., Thomas, G., Trapman, J.J., Wadhams, L.J., and Woodcock, C.M. 2004. The role of volatile semiochemicals in mediating host location and selection by nuisance and disease-transmitting cattle flies. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 18(4):313322.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
42 de la Fuente, J., Almazan, C., Canales, M., Perez de la Lastra, J.M., Kocan, K.M., and Willadsen, P. 2007. A ten-year review of commercial vaccine performance for control of tick infestations on cattle. Animal Health Research Reviews 8:2328.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
43 Jongejan, F. and Uilenberg, G. 2004. The global importance of ticks. Parasitology 129:S3S14.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
44 Oyarzún, M.P., Quiroz, A., and Birkett, M.A. 2008. Insecticide resistance in the horn fly: Alternative control strategies. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 22:188202.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
45 Buxton, B.A., Hinkle, N.C., and Schultz, R.D. 1985. Role of insects in the transmission of bovine leukosis virus: Potential for transmission by stable flies, horn flies, and tabanids. American Journal of Veterinary Research 46(1):123126.Google ScholarPubMed
46 O'Brien, V.A. and Reiskind, M.H. 2013. Host-seeking mosquito distribution in habitat mosaics of southern Great Plains cross-timbers. Journal of Medical Entomology 50(6):12311239.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
47 dos Reis, V.M. 2010. Dermatosis due to plants (phytodermatosis). Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia 85(4):479489.Google Scholar
48 Migaki, G., Hinson, L.E., Imes, G.D. Jr, and Garner, F.M. 1969. Cactus spines in tongues of slaughtered cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medicine Association 155(9):14891492.Google ScholarPubMed
49 McMillan, Z., Scott, C.B., Taylor, C.A. Jr, and Huston, J.E. 2002. Nutritional value and intake of prickly pear by goats. Journal of Range Management 55(2):139143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
50 Augustine, D.J. and Derner, J.D. 2015. Patch burn grazing management in semiarid grassland: Consequences for pronghorn, Plains prickly pear and wind erosion. Rangeland Ecology and Management 68(1):4047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
51 Provenza, F.D., Villalba, J.J., Haskell, J., MacAdam, J.W., Griggs, T.C., and Wiedmeier, R.D. 2007. The value to herbivores of plant physical and chemical diversity in time and space. Crop Science 47:382398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
52 Coppedge, B.R., Engle, D.M., Toepfer, C.S., and Shaw, J.H. 1998. Effects of seasonal fire, bison grazing and climatic variation on tallgrass prairie vegetation. Plant Ecology 139(2):235246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
53 Helzer, C.J. and Steuter, A.A. 2005. Preliminary effects of patch-burn grazing on a high-diversity prairie restoration. Ecological Restoration 23(3):167171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
54 Cummings, D.C., Engle, D.M., and Fuhlendorf, S.D. 2007. Is altering grazing selectivity of invasive forage species with patch burning more effective than herbicide treatments? Rangeland Ecology and Management 60:253260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
55 Price, C.A. and Weltzin, J.F. 2003. Managing non-native plant populations through intensive community restoration in Cades Cove, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. Restoration Ecology 11(3):351358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
56 Palmer, B. 1999. Greedy grass ravaging the range experts say tenacious plant threatening areas. The Oklahoman. Available at Web site (verified 5 December 2013).Google Scholar
57 Cook, V.K. and Hickman, K.R. 2012. Integrating the fire-grazing interaction with herbicide treatments: A novel approach to controlling Lespedeza cuneata in the tallgrass prairie. In Proceedings of 97th Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting. 8 August 2012. Portland, OR.Google Scholar
58 Allred, B.W., Fuhlendorf, S.D., Monaco, T.A., and Will, R.E. 2010. Morphological and physiological traits in the success of the invasive plant Lespedeza cuneata . Biological Invasions 12(4):739749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
59 McDaniel, K.C., Hart, C.R., and Carroll, D.B. 1997. Broom snakeweed control with fire on New Mexico blue grama rangeland. Journal of Range Management 50:652659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
60 Augustine, D.J. and Milchunas, D.G. 2009. Vegetation responses to prescribed burning of grazed shortgrass steppe. Rangeland Ecology and Management 62(1):8997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
61 Strong, D.J., Ganguli, A.C., and Vermeire, L.T. 2013. Fire effects on basal area, tiller production, and mortality of the C4 bunchgrass, purple threeawn. Fire Ecology 9(3):8999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
62 Ansley, R.J., Boutton, T.W., Mirik, M., Castellano, M.J., and Kramp, B.A. 2010. Restoration of C4 grasses with seasonal fire in a C3/C4 grassland invaded by Prosopis glandulosa, a fire-resistant shrub. Applied Vegetation Science 13(4):520530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
63 Briggs, J.M., Hoch, G.A., and Johnson, L.C. 2002. Assessing the rate, mechanisms, and consequences of the conversion of tallgrass prairie to Juniperus virginiana forest. Ecosystems 5:578586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
64 Engle, D.M., Stritzke, J.F., and Claypool, P.L. 1987. Herbage standing crop around eastern redcedar trees. Rangeland Ecology and Management 40:237239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
65 Limb, R.F., Engle, D.M., Alford, A.L., and Hellgren, E.C. 2010. Tallgrass prairie plant community dynamics along a canopy cover gradient of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.). Rangeland Ecology and Management 63:638644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
66 Ansley, R.J. and Rasmussen, G.A. 2005. Managing native invasive juniper species using fire. Weed Technology 19(3):517522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
67 Teague, R., Borchardt, R., Ansley, J., Pinchak, B., Cox, J., Foy, J.K., and McGrann, J. 1997. Sustainable management strategies for mesquite rangeland: The Waggoner Kite Project. Rangelands 19(5):48.Google Scholar
68 Bidwell, T.G., Weir, J.R., and Engle, D.M. 2002. Eastern Redcedar Control and Management: Best Management Practices to Restore Oklahoma's Ecosystems F-2876. Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service. Stillwater, OK.Google Scholar
69 Kerby, J.D., Fuhlendorf, S.D., and Engle, D.M. 2007. Landscape heterogeneity and fire behavior: Scale-dependent feedback between fire and grazing processes. Landscape Ecology 22:507516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
70 Ansley, R.J., Pinchak, W.E., Teague, W.R., Kramp, B.A., Jones, D.L., and Barnett, K. 2010. Integrating grazing and prescribed fire restoration strategies in a mesquite savannah: II. Fire behavior and mesquite landscape cover responses. Rangeland Ecology and Management 63(3):286297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
71 Heisler, J.L., Briggs, J.M., Knapp, A.K., Blair, J.M., and Seery, A. 2004. Direct and indirect effects of fire on shrub density and aboveground productivity in a mesic grassland. Ecology 85:22452257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
72 Teague, W.R., Duke, S.E., Waggoner, J.A., Dowhower, S.L., and Gerrard, S.A. 2008. Rangeland vegetation and soil response to summer patch fires under continuous grazing. Arid Land Research and Management 22(3):228241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
73 LeBauer, D. and Treseder, K. 2008. Nitrogen limitation of net primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems is globally distributed. Ecology 89:371379.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
74 Belasco, I.J. 1954. Comparison of urea and protein meals as nitrogen sources for rumen micro-organisms: Urea utilization and cellulose digestion. Journal of Animal Science 13:739747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
75 Anderson, R.H., Fuhlendorf, S.D., and Engle, D.M. 2006. Soil nitrogen availability in tallgrass prairie under the fire-grazing interaction. Rangeland Ecology and Management 59:625631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
76 Knapp, A.K. and Seastedt, T.R. 1986. Detritus accumulation limits productivity of tallgrass prairie. BioScience 36(10):662668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
77 Blair, J.M. 1997. Fire, N availability, and plant response in grasslands: A test of the transient maxima hypothesis. Ecology 78(8):23592368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
78 Holechek, J.L., Pieper, R.D., and Herbel, C.H. 1995. Range Management: Principles and Practices. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.Google Scholar
79 Bailey, D.W. 2004. Management strategies for optimal grazing distribution and use of arid rangelands. Journal of Animal Science 82(13):147153.Google ScholarPubMed
80 Knight, K.B., Toombs, T.P., and Derner, J.D. 2011. Cross-fencing on private US rangelands: Financial costs and producer risks. Rangelands 33:4144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
81 Clark, P.E., Jaechoul, L., Kyungduk, K., Nielson, R.M., Johnson, D.E., Ganskopp, D.C., Chigbrow, J., Pierson, F.B., and Hardegree, S.P. 2014. Prescribed fire effects on resource selection by cattle in mesic sagebrush steppe. Part 1: Spring grazing. Journal of Arid Environments 100–101:7888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
82 Clark, P.E., Jaechoul, L., Kyungduk, K., Nielson, R.M., Johnson, D.E., Ganskopp, D.C., Pierson, F.B., and Hardegree, S.P. 2015. Prescribed fire effects on resource selection by cattle in mesic sagebrush steppe. Part 2: Mid-summer grazing. Journal of Arid Environments, in press. doi: 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2015.03.005.Google Scholar
83 Davit, C. and Alleger, M. 2008. Patch-burn grazing benefits grassland birds and cattle producers. Missouri Prairie Journal 29(1):1219.Google Scholar
84 McDonnell, M.J. 1986. Old field vegetation height and the dispersal pattern of bird-disseminated woody plants. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 113:611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
85 Coppedge, B.R., Engle, D.M., Fuhlendorf, S.D., Masters, R.E., and Gregory, M.S. 2001. Landscape cover type and pattern dynamics in fragmented southern Great Plains grasslands, USA. Landscape Ecology 16(8):677690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
86 Stevens, B.S., Reese, K.P., Connelly, J.W., and Musil, D.D. 2012. Greater sage-grouse and fences: Does marking reduce collisions? Wildlife Society Bulletin 36(2):297303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
87 Scott, M.D. 1992. Buck-and-pole fence crossings by 4 ungulate species. Wildlife Society Bulletin 20(2):204210.Google Scholar
88 Johnson, L.C. and Matchett, J.R. 2001. Fire and grazing regulate belowground processes in tallgrass prairie. Ecology 82(12):33773389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
89 Wiens, J.A. 1974. Habitat heterogeneity and avian community structure in North American grasslands. American Midland Naturalist 91(1):195213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
90 Winter, S.L., Fuhlendorf, S.D., Goad, C.L., Davis, C.A., Hickman, K.R., and Leslie, D.M. Jr. 2012. Restoration of the fire-grazing interaction in Artemisia filifolia shrubland. Journal of Applied Ecology 49(1):242250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
91 Leis, S.A., Morrison, L.W., and Debacker, M.D. 2013. Spatiotemporal variation in vegetation structure resulting from pyric-herbivory. Prairie Naturalist 45:1320.Google Scholar
92 McGranahan, D.A., Raicovich, G.M., Wilson, W.N., and Smith, C.K. 2013. Preliminary evidence that patch burn-grazing creates spatially heterogeneous habitat structure in old-field grassland. Southeastern Naturalist 12(3):655660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
93 McGranahan, D.A., Engle, D.M., Fuhlendorf, S.D., Winter, S.J., Miller, J.R., and Debinski, D.M. 2012. Spatial heterogeneity across five rangelands managed with pyric-herbivory. Journal of Applied Ecology 49(4):903910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
94 Collins, S.L., and Smith, M.D. 2006. Scale-dependent interaction of fire and grazing on community heterogeneity in tallgrass prairie. Ecology 87(8):20582067.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
95 Augustine, D.J. and Derner, J.D. 2012. Disturbance regimes and mountain plover habitat in shortgrass steppe: Large herbivore grazing does not substitute for prairie dog grazing or fire. Journal of Wildlife Management 76(4):721728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
96 Drewa, P.B. and Havstad, K.M. 2001. Effects of fire, grazing and the presence of shrubs on Chihuahuan desert grasslands. Journal of Arid Environments 48(4):429443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
97 Milchunas, D.G., Sala, O.E., and Lauenroth, W.K. 1988. A generalized model of the effects of grazing by large herbivores on grassland community structure. American Naturalist 132(1):87106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
98 Hiatt, E.L.I. 2014. Patch-burning in mixed grass prairie: Animal use of riparian areas and effects on plant species richness. Oklahoma State University Thesis, Stillwater, OK.Google Scholar
99 Allred, B.W., Fuhlendorf, S.D., Hovick, T.J., Elmore, R.D., Engle, D.M., and Joern, A. 2013. Conservation implications of native and introduced ungulates in a changing climate. Global Change Biology 19:18751883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
100 Vermeire, L.T., Wester, D.B., Mitchell, R.B., and Fuhlendorf, S.D. 2005. Fire and grazing effects on wind erosion, soil water content, and soil temperature. Journal of Environmental Quality 34(5):15591565.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
101 Ozaslan, P.A., Parlak, M., Blanco-Canqui, H., Schacht, W.H., Guretzky, J.A., and Mamo, M. 2015. Patch burning: Implications on water erosion and soil properties. Journal of Environmental Quality 44(3):903909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
102 Engle, D.M., Fuhlendorf, S.D., Roper, A., and Leslie, D.M. Jr. 2008. Invertebrate community response to a shifting mosaic of habitat. Rangeland Ecology and Management 61(1):5562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
103 Doxon, E.D., Winter, S.L., Davis, C.A., and Fuhlendorf, S.D. 2011. Aboveground macroinvertebrate diversity and abundance in sand sagebrush prairie managed with the use of pyric herbivory. Rangeland Ecology and Management 64:394403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
104 Baum, K.A. and Sharber, W.V. 2012. Fire creates host plant patches for monarch butterflies. Biology Letters 8(6):968971.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
105 Moranz, R.A. 2010. The effects of ecological management on tallgrass prairie butterflies and their nectar sources. Oklahoma State University Dissertation, Stillwater, OK.Google Scholar
106 Moranz, R.A., Debinski, D.M., McGranahan, D.A., Engle, D.M., and Miller, J.R. 2012. Untangling the effects of fire, grazing, and land-use legacies on grassland butterfly communities. Biodiversity and Conservation 21(11):27192746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
107 Debinski, D.M., Vogel, J.A., Koford, R.R., and Miller, J.R. 2007. Butterfly responses to prairie restoration through fire and grazing. Biological Conservation 140:7890.Google Scholar
108 Vogel, J.A., Debinski, D.M., Koford, R.R., and Miller, J.R. 2007. Butterfly responses to prairie restoration through fire and grazing. Biological Conservation 140(1):7890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
109 Walker, T.L. and Hoback, W.W. 2007. Effects of invasive eastern redcedar on capture rates of Nicrophorus americanus and other Silphidae. Environmental Entomology 36(2):297307.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
110 Powell, A.F.L.A. 2006. Effects of prescribed burns and bison (Bos bison) grazing on breeding bird abundances in tallgrass prairie. Auk 123(1):183197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
111 Pillsbury, F.C., Miller, J.R., Debinski, D.M., and Engle, D.M. 2011. Another tool in the toolbox? Using fire and grazing to promote bird diversity in highly fragmented landscapes. Ecosphere 2(3):art28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
112 Coppedge, B.R., Fuhlendorf, S.D., Harrell, W.C., and Engle, D.M. 2008. Avian community response to vegetation and structural features in grasslands managed with fire and grazing. Biological Conservation 141(5):11961203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
113 Churchwell, R.T., Davis, C.A., Fuhlendorf, S.D., and Engle, D.M. 2008. Effects of patch-burn management on Dickcissel nest success in a tallgrass prairie. Journal of Wildlife Management 72(7):15961604.Google Scholar
114 Hovick, T.J., Miller, J.R., Dinsmore, S.J., Engle, D.M., Debinski, D.M., and Fuhlendorf, S.D. 2012. Effects of fire and grazing on grasshopper sparrow nest survival. Journal of Wildlife Management 76(1):1927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
115 Hovick, T.J., Elmore, R.D., Fuhlendorf, S.D., Engle, D.M., and Hamilton, R.G. 2014. Spatial heterogeneity increases diversity and stability in grassland bird communities. Ecological Applications 25:662672.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
116 Hovick, T.J., Elmore, R.D., and Fuhlendorf, S.D. 2014. Structural heterogeneity increases diversity of non-breeding grassland birds. Ecosphere 5(5):art62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
117 Hernández, F. and Guthery, F.S. 2012. Beef, Brush, and Bobwhites: Quail Management in Cattle Country. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, TX.Google Scholar
118 Bidwell, T.G., Masters, R.E., Sams, M., and Tully, S. 2004. Bobwhite Quail Habitat Evaluation and Management Guide E-904. Oklahoma State University, Division of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service, Stillwater, OK.Google Scholar
119 Robbins, M.B., Peterson, A.T., and Ortega-Huerta, M.A. 2002. Major negative impacts of early intensive cattle stocking on tallgrass prairies: The case of the greater prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus cupido). North American Birds 56:239244.Google Scholar
120 McNew, L.B., Preby, T.J., and Sandercock, B.K. 2012. Effects of rangeland management on the site occupancy dynamics of prairie-chickens in a protected prairie preserve. Journal of Wildlife Management 76:3847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
121 Griebel, R., Winter, S.L., and Steuter, A. 1998. Grassland birds and habitat structure in sandhills prairie managed using cattle or bison plus fire. Great Plains Research 8:255268.Google Scholar
122 Fuhlendorf, S.D., Townsend, D.E., Elmore, R.D., and Engle, D.M. 2010. Pyric-herbivory to promote rangeland heterogeneity: Evidence from small mammal communities. Rangeland Ecology and Management 63(6):670678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
123 Augustine, D.J., Cully, J.F. Jr, and Johnson, T.L. 2007. Influence of fire on black-tailed prairie dog colony expansion in shortgrass steppe. Rangeland Ecology and Management 60(5):538542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
124 Breland, A. 2010. Black-tailed prairie dog and large ungulate response to fire on mixed-grass prairie. Oklahoma State University Thesis, Stillwater, OK.Google Scholar
125 Meek, M.G., Cooper, S.M., Owens, M.K., Cooper, R.M., and Wappel, A.L. 2008. White-tailed deer distribution in response to patch burning on rangeland. Journal of Arid Environments 72(11):20262033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
126 Dyke, F. and Darragh, J.A. 2007. Response of elk to changes in plant production and nutrition following prescribed burning. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(1):2329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
127 Hobbs, N.T. and Spowart, R.A. 1984. Effects of prescribed fire on nutrition of mountain sheep and mule deer during winter and spring. Journal of Wildlife Management 48(2):551560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
128 Pearson, S.M., Turner, M.G., Wallace, L.L., and Romme, W.H. 1995. Winter habitat use by large ungulates following fire in northern Yellowstone National Park. Ecological Applications 5(3):744755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
129 Bleich, V.C., Johnson, H.E., Holl, S.A., Konde, L., Torres, S.G., and Krausman, P.R. 2008. Fire history in a chaparral ecosystem: Implications for conservation of a native ungulate. Rangeland Ecology and Management 61(6):571579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
130 Holl, S.A., Bleich, V.C., Callenberger, B.W., and Bahro, B. 2012. Simulated effects of two fire regimes on bighorn sheep: The San Gabriel Mountains, California, USA. Fire Ecology 8(3):88103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
131 Augustine, D.J. and Derner, J.D. 2014. Controls over the strength and timing of fire–grazer interactions in a semi-arid rangeland. Journal of Applied Ecology 51:242250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
132 Hovick, T.J., Elmore, R.D., Fuhlendorf, S.D., and Dahlgren, D.K. 2015. Weather constrains the influence of fire and grazing on nesting greater prairie-chickens. Rangeland Ecology and Management 68(2):186193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
133 Hudak, A.T., Fairbanks, D.H., and Brockett, B.H. 2004. Trends in fire patterns in a southern African savanna under alternative land use practices. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 101:307325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
134 Yassir, I., Van der Kamp, J., and Buurman, P. 2010. Secondary succession after fire in Imperata grasslands of East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 137:172182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
135 Nayak, R.R., Vaidyanathan, S., and Krishnaswamy, J. 2014. Fire and grazing modify grass community response to environmental determinants in savannas: Implications for sustainable use. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 185:197207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
136 Beck, J.L., Klein, J.G., Wright, J., and Wolfley, K.P. 2011. Potential and pitfalls of prescribed burning big sagebrush habitat to enhance nesting and early brood-rearing habitats for greater sage-grouse. Natural Resources and Environmental Issues 16(1):5.Google Scholar
137 Shindler, B., Gordon, R., Brunson, M.W., and Olsen, C. 2011. Public perceptions of sagebrush ecosystem management in the Great Basin. Rangeland Ecology and Management 64(4):335343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
138 Franzluebbers, A.J., Stuedemann, J.A., and Seman, D.H. 2013. Stocker performance and production in mixed tall fescue–bermudagrass pastures of the Southern Piedmont USA. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 28(2):160172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
139 Wiltshire, K., Delate, K., Wiedenhoeft, M., and Flora, J. 2011. Incorporating native plants into multifunctional prairie pastures for organic cow–calf operations. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 26(2):114126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
140 Duru, M., Jouany, C., Le Roux, X., Navas, M.L., and Cruz, P. 2013. From a conceptual framework to an operational approach for managing grassland functional diversity to obtain targeted ecosystem services: Case studies from French mountains. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 29(3):116.Google Scholar
141 Asbjornsen, H., Hernandez-Santana, V., Liebman, M., Bayala, J., Chen, J., Helmers, M., Ong, C.K., and Schulte, L.A. 2014. Targeting perennial vegetation in agricultural landscapes for enhancing ecosystem services. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 29(2):101125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
142 Derner, J.D., Lauenroth, W.K., Stapp, P., and Augustine, D.J. 2009. Livestock as ecosystem engineers for grassland bird habitat in the Western Great Plains of North America. Rangeland Ecology and Management 62(2):111118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
143 Scasta, J.D., Engle, D.M., Talley, J.L., Weir, J.R., Fuhlendorf, S.D., and Debinski, D.M. 2015. Drought influences control of parasitic flies of cattle on pastures managed with patch-burn grazing. Rangeland Ecology and Management 68(3):290297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
144 Holling, C.S. and Meffe, G.K. 1996. Command and control and the pathology of natural resource management. Conservation Biology 10(2):328337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
145 Teague, W.R., Dowhower, S.L., Baker, S.A., Ansley, R.J., Kreuter, U.P., Conover, D.M., and Waggoner, J.A. 2010. Soil and herbaceous plant responses to summer patch burns under continuous and rotational grazing. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 137(1):113123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
146 Briske, D.D., Derner, J.D., Brown, J.R., Fuhlendorf, S.D., Teague, W.R., Havstad, K.M., Gillen, R.L., Ash, A.J., and Willms, W.D. 2008. Rotational grazing on rangelands: Reconciliation of perception and experimental evidence. Rangeland Ecology and Management 61(1):317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
147 Fuhlendorf, S.D., Engle, D.M., Elmore, R.D., Limb, R.F., and Bidwell, T.G. 2012. Conservation of pattern and process: Developing an alternative paradigm of rangeland management. Rangeland Ecology and Management 65(6):579589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Patch-burn grazing (PBG) as a livestock management alternative for fire-prone ecosystems of North America
Available formats

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Patch-burn grazing (PBG) as a livestock management alternative for fire-prone ecosystems of North America
Available formats

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Patch-burn grazing (PBG) as a livestock management alternative for fire-prone ecosystems of North America
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *