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Moving media and conflict studies beyond the CNN effect

  • Eytan Gilboa (a1), Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert (a2), Jason Miklian (a3) and Piers Robinson (a4)
Abstract

After the ‘CNN effect’ concept was coined two decades ago, it quickly became a popular shorthand to understand media-conflict interactions. Although the connection has probably always been more complex than what was captured in the concept, research needs to be updated in order to better understand the multifaceted contemporary environments of both media and conflict. There are growing numbers and types of media sources, and multiple interactions between media and conflict actors, policymakers and engaged publics from the local to the global and back. We argue that understanding the impact of media reporting on conflict requires a new framework that captures the multilevel and hybrid media environments of contemporary conflicts. This study provides a roadmap of how to systematically unpack this environment. It describes and explains how different levels, interactions, and forms of news reporting shape conflicts and peacebuilding in local, national and regional contexts, and how international responses interact with multiple media narratives. With these tools, comprehensive understandings of contemporary local to global media interactions can be incorporated into new research on media and conflict.

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Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
*Correspondence to: Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert, PRIO, PO Box 9229 Grønland, NO-0134 Oslo, Norway. Author’s email: margab@prio.no
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The authors are ranked alphabetically reflecting equal contributions to this article.

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References
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1 Livingston, Steven, ‘Clarifying the CNN effect: an examination of media effects according to type of military intervention’, Harvard Research Paper R-18, Joan Shorenstein Barone Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 1997); Robinson, Piers, The CNN Effect: The Myth of News Media, Foreign Policy and Intervention (London and New York: Routledge, 2002); Gilboa, Eytan, ‘The CNN effect: the search for a communication theory of International Relations’, Political Communication, 22:1 (2005a), pp. 2744 ; Bahador, Babak, The CNN Effect in Action: How the News Media Pushed the West Toward War in Kosovo (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007). The term ‘CNN effect’ is almost antiquated now given the proliferation of media outlets and types of media, but it remains an important research pin to bridge the gap between previous and contemporary work.

2 Ginty, Roger Mac, ‘Hybrid peace: the interaction between top down and bottom up peace’, Security Dialogue, 41:4 (2009), pp. 391412 ; Ginty, Roger Mac, International Peacebuilding and Local Resistance: Hybrid Forms of Peace (London: Palgrave, 2011).

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13 Freedman, Lawrence, ‘Victors and victims: Reflections on the Kosovo War’, Review of International Studies, 26:3 (2000), pp. 335338 ; Yarchi, Moran, Wolfsfeld, Gadi, Sheafer, Tamir, and Shenhav, Shaul, ‘Promoting stories about terrorism to the international news media: a study of public diplomacy’, Media, War and Conflict, 6:3 (2013), pp. 263278 .

14 Wolfsfeld, Gadi, The Media and Political Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997); Wolfsfeld, Gadi, Media and the Path to Peace (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004); Gilboa, ‘Media coverage of international negotiation’; Gilboa, ‘Global communication and foreign policy’; Gilboa, Eytan (ed.), Media and Conflict: Framing Issues, Making Policy, Shaping Opinions (Ardsley, NY: Transnational Publishers, 2002b); Gilboa, Eytan, ‘Media and conflict resolution’, in Jacob Bercovitch, V. Kremenyuk, and I. William Zartman (eds), Sage Handbook on Conflict Resolution (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2009b), pp. 457476 ; McLaughlin, Greg and Baker, Stephen, The Propaganda of Peace: The Role of Media and Culture in the Northern Ireland Peace Process (Bristol: Intellect Books, 2010).

15 Meyer, Christoph O., de Franco, Chiara, Brante, John, and Otto, Florian, Heeding Warnings about War? Persuasion and Learning in Conflict Prevention (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015).

16 Jakobsen, Peter Viggo, ‘Counter point: Focus on the CNN effect misses the point: the real media impact on conflict management is invisible and indirect’, Journal of Peace Research, 37:2 (2000), pp. 131143 ; Gilboa, Eytan, ‘Media and international conflict’, in Jennifer Oetzel and S. Ting-Toomey (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Conflict Communication: Integrating Theory, Research, and Practice (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2006), pp. 595626 ; Gilboa, ‘Media and conflict resolution’; Meyer, Christoph and Otto, Florian (eds), ‘Missing the story? Changes in foreign news reporting and their implications for conflict prevention’, Media, War and Conflict, 5:3 (2012), pp. 205221 .

17 Hawkins, Virgil, Stealth Conflicts: How the World’s Worst Violence is Ignored (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008); Livingston, Steven, ‘The CNN effect reconsidered (again): Problematizing ICT and global governance in the CNN effect research agenda’, Media, War and Conflict, 4:1 (2011), pp. 2036 ; Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen, ‘Activist mobilization and the internationalization of the Darfur crisis’, in Barbara Casciarri, Munzoul, A. M. Assal, and Francois Ireton (eds), Multidimensional Change in the Republic of Sudan (1989–2011) (New York, Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2015).

18 Jakobsen, ‘Counter point’; Paris, Roland, At War’s End: Building Peace After Civil Conflict (Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2004); Ginty, Roger Mac, ‘Hybrid peace: the interaction between top down and bottom up peace’, Security Dialogue, 41:4 (2009), pp. 391412 .

19 Robinson, Piers, ‘The CNN effect revisted’, Critical Studies in Communication, 22:4 (2005), pp. 344349 .

20 Rogers, Nathan, Image Warfare in the War in Terror (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013); Ayalon, Amil, Popovich, Elad, and Yarchi, MoranFrom warfare to image warfare: How states should manage asymmetric conflicts with extensive media coverage’, Terrorism and Political Violence (2014), pp. 120 .

21 See, for example, on Twitter: Murthy, Dhiraj, Twitter (London: Polity, 2012); on video/YouTube communication: Smyth, Thomas N., Etherton, John, and Best, Michael, ‘MOSES: Exploring new ground in media and post-conflict reconciliation’, CMI Proceedings of the CIGCHI Conference, available at: {http://mikeb.inta.gatech.edu/uploads/papers/pap0922-smyth.pdf}; on ‘electronic elites’: Livingston, Steven and Asmolov, Gregory, ‘Networks and the future of foreign affairs reporting’, Journalism Studies, 11:5 (2010), pp. 745760 ; on social media as propaganda in the Middle East: Seo, Hyunjin, ‘Visual propaganda in the age of social media: an empirical analysis of Twitter images during the 2012 Israeli-Hamas conflict’, Visual Communication Quarterly, 21:3 (2014); Gilboa, Eytan, ‘Digital diplomacy’, in Costas Constantinou, Paul Sharp, and Pauline Kerr (eds), Sage Handbook of Diplomacy (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, in press).

22 Bimber, Bruce, Information and American Democracy: Technology in the Evolution of Political Power (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003); Livingston, ‘The CNN effect reconsidered (again)’.

23 Hoskins, Andrew and O’Loughlin, Ben, War and Media: The Emergence of Diffused War (Cambridge: Polity, 2010).

24 Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen, The Internationalization of the Sudanese Conflicts from South Sudan to Darfur: Agenda-setting, Mobilization and Qualifications (PhD thesis, SciencesPo, Paris, 2010).

25 Stremlau, Nicole, ‘Towards a diagnostic approach to media in fragile states: Examples from the Somali territories’, Media, War and Conflict, 6:3 (2013), pp. 279293 .

26 Baum, Matthew A. and Groeling, Tim, ‘News media and the polarization of American political discourse’, Political Communication, 25:4 (2008), pp. 345356 .

27 Livingston, Steven and Bennett, W. Lance, ‘Gatekeeping, indexing and live-event news: is technology altering the construction of news?’, Political Communication, 20:4 (2003), pp. 363380 ; Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen and Lanz, David, ‘Globalised rebellion: the Darfur insurgents and the world’, Journal of Modern African Studies, 51:2 (2013), pp. 193217 .

28 Allan, Stuart, Citizen Journalism: Global Perspectives (New York: Peter Lang, 2009). This development has also resulted in efforts by states to censor or shut off their Internet entirely when particularly emotive images are shared, as India has done over one dozen times in 2015. See Miklian, Jason and Rane, Sangeeta, ‘India’s dangerous digital curfews’, Foreign Policy, December (2015), available at: {http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/12/03/india-dangerous-digital-curfews_modi_censorship/}; Miklian, Jason, ‘The political ecology of war in Maoist India’, Conflict, Security and Development, 13:4 (2013), pp. 561576 .

29 Pew, The State of the News Media 2012, Pew Research Centre: Project for Excellence in Journalism, Washington, DC (2012).

30 Cottle, Simon, Mediatized Conflict: Developments in Media and Conflict Studies (Maidenhead: Open University Press, 2006); Castells, Manuel, Communication Power (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009).

31 McChesney, Robert, Rich Media, Poor Democracy: Communication Politics in Dubious Times (New York: The New Press, 2015) and Digital Disconnect (New York: The New Press, 2013).

32 Rogers, Image Warfare; Ayalon, Amil, Popovich, Elad, and Yarchi, Moran, ‘From warfare to image warfare: How states should manage asymmetric conflicts with extensive media coverage’, Terrorism and Political Violence (2014), pp. 120 .

33 These criticisms are well established by current research. See, for example, Gillespie, Marie, ‘Transnational television audiences after September 11’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 32:6 (2006), pp. 97137 ; Mousavi, Sayed Askar, ‘Transnational Afghani audiences after September 11’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 32:6 (2006), pp. 10411061 .

34 Gowing, Nik, ‘Time to move on: New media realities-new vulnerabilities of power’, Media, War and Conflict, 4:1 (2011), pp. 1319 .

35 Hoskins and O’Loughlin, War and Media.

36 A vivid example is the anti-refugee reaction by politicians in both Europe and the United States underpinned in misinformation that circulated immediately following the November 2015 Paris attacks by ISIS.

37 Robinson, Piers, ‘News media, communication technology and humanitarianism’, in Roger Mac Ginty and Jenny Peterson (eds), Routledge Handbook on Humanitarian Action (London and New York: Routledge, 2015).

38 Bar’el, Zvi, ‘Social media only played a supporting role in the Arab Spring’, Haaretz (20 December 2012), available at: {http://www.haaretz.com/news/middle-east/social-media-only-played-a-supporting-role-in-the-arab-spring.premium-1.486132} accessed 8 January 2016.

39 Allan, Stuart, Citizen Journalism: Global Perspectives (New York: Peter Lang, 2009); Howard, Philip, The Digital Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Information Technology and Political Islam (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010).

40 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), A New Deal for Engagement in Fragile States, International Dialogue on Statebuilding and Peacebuilding (Paris, 2011); World Bank, Human Development Report, Conflict Security and Development (Washington, DC, 2011); United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Governance for Peace: Securing the Social Contract, United Nations (New York, 2011).

41 State Department of the United States Government (State Department), Interagency Conflict Assessment Framework, Washington, DC, n.d.; Copeland, Daryl, Guerrilla Diplomacy: Rethinking International Relations (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2009).

42 Freedman, Lawrence, ‘Victors and victims: Reflections on the Kosovo War’, Review of International Studies, 26:3 (2000), pp. 335338 .

43 Wolfsfeld, The Media and Political Conflict, Gilboa, ‘Global communication and foreign policy’; Bennett, W. Lance, Livingston, Steven, and Lawrence, Regina, When the Press Fails (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007); Robinson et al., Pockets of Resistance.

44 Mac Ginty, International Peacebuilding.

45 Wolfsfeld, Gadi, Frosch, Paul, Awabdy, and, ‘Covering death in conflicts: Coverage of the second intifada on Israeli and Palestinian television’, Journal of Peace Research, 45:3 (2008), pp. 401417 .

46 Ginty, Roger Mac, ‘Lessons from the Northern Ireland: Bad students learning the wrong lessons?’, in Nicholas Kitchen (ed.), DEAS reports, special reports SR008, LSE IDEAS (London School of Economics and Political Science: London, 2011b).

47 Scott, James C., Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992).

48 Gabrielsen Jumbert and Lanz, ‘Globalised rebellion’.

49 Sasso, A. S., Bekdache, N., and Hassan, I. S., ‘Beyond compensation: the post-war reconstruction battles of “Aita al-Cha’b”’, in H. Al-Harithy (ed.), Lessons in Post-War Reconstruction: Case Studies From Lebanon in the Aftermath of the 2006 War (London: Routledge, 2010), pp. 158186 .

50 Sylvester, Christine (ed.), Experiencing War (London: Routledge, 2010).

51 Scott, James C., Decoding Subaltern Politics: Ideology, Disguise and Resistance in Agrarian Politics (London: Routledge, 2013).

52 Chabal, Patrick, ‘How can Africa develop? Reflections on theories, concepts, policies and realities’, in Jon Abbink and Mirjam de Brujin (eds), Land, Law and Politics in Africa: Reshaping the State (Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2011).

53 Mac Ginty, International Peacebuilding.

54 Canclini, Nestor Garcia, Hybrid Cultures: Strategies for Entering and Leaving Modernity (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2005).

55 Mac Ginty, International Peacebuilding.

56 Silverstone, Roger and Georgiou, Myria, ‘Editorial Introduction: Media and minorities in multicultural Europe’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 31:3 (2005), pp. 433441 .

57 Adams, Paul and Ghose, Rina, ‘India.com: the construction of a space between’, Progress in Human Geography, 27:4 (2003), pp. 414437 .

58 Miladi, Noureddine, ‘Satellite TV News and the Arab diaspora in Britain: Comparing Al-Jazeera, the BBC and CNN’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 32:6 (2006), pp. 947960 .

59 Gilboa, , ‘Media and conflict resolution: a framework for analysis’ (2009a).

60 Ibid.; Gilboa, , ‘Media and conflict resolution’ (2009b).

61 Roudometof, Victor, ‘The glocal and global studies’, Globalizations, 12:5 (2015), pp. 774787 ; Rojas, Hernando et al., ‘Theorizing and conducting research of glocal phenomena’, International Journal of Communication, 6 (2012), pp. 232240 ; Tonga, Ho Kin and Cheunga, Lin Hong, ‘Cultural identity and language: a proposed framework for cultural globalisation and glocalisation’, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 32:1 (2011), pp. 5569 ; McCabea, Janet, ‘Appreciating Wallander at the BBC: Producing culture and performing the glocal in the UK and Swedish Wallanders for British public service television’, Continuum: Journal of Media and Cultural Studies, 29:5 (2015), pp. 755768 ; Hemer, Oscar and Tufte, Thomas (eds), Media & Glocal Change: Rethinking Communication for Development, Clasco Books/NORDICOM (Buenos Aires and Gothenburg: 2005).

62 Gilboa, , ‘Media and conflict resolution: a framework for analysis’ (2009a); Gilboa, , ‘Media and conflict resolution’ (2009b).

63 Gilboa, , ‘Media and international conflict’ (2006); Gilboa, Eytan, ‘Media and international conflict: a multidisciplinary approach’, Journal of Dispute Resolution, 7:1 (2007), pp. 229237 ; Gilboa, ‘Media and conflict resolution: a framework for analysis (2009a)’; Gilboa, ‘Media and conflict resolution’ (2009b).

64 Ginty, Mac, International Peacebuilding, p. 3 .

65 Krippendorff, Klaus, Content Analysis: An Introduction to its Methodology (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2013).

66 Entman, Robert M., ‘Framing US coverage of international news: Contrasts in narratives of the KAL and Iran Air incidents’, Journal of Communication, 41:4 (1991), pp. 627 ; D’Angelo, Paul, ‘News framing as a multiparadigmatic research program: a response to Entman’, Journal of Communication, 52:4 (2002), pp. 870888 .

67 Matthes, Jorg and Kohring, Matthias, ‘The content analysis of media frames: Toward improving reliability and framing’, Journal of Communication, 58:2 (June 2008), pp. 258279 ; Van Atteveldt, Wouter and Kleinnijenhuis, Jan, ‘Parsing, semantic networks, and political authority: Using syntactic analysis to extract semantic relations from Dutch newspaper articles’, Political Analysis, 16:4 (2008), pp. 428446 .

68 See, for example, Chouliaraki, Lilie, The Spectatorship of Suffering (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2006).

69 See, for example, Entman, Projections of Power; Robinson, The CNN Effect; Wolfsfeld, The Media and Political Conflict.

70 Bourdieu, Pierre, On Television and Journalism, translated (London: Pluto Press, 1998).

71 Boczkowski, Pablo J. and de Santos, Martin, ‘When more media equals less news: Patterns of content homogenization in Argentina’s leading print and online newspapers’, Political Communication, 24 (2007), pp. 167190 ; Lab, Red Hen, ‘Distributed laboratory for research on multimodal communication’, directed jointly by Francis Steen and Mark Turner (2013), available at: {https://sites.google.com/site/distributedlittleredhen/}.

72 Herring, Eric and Robinson, Piers, ‘Report X marks the spot: the British government’s deceptive dossier on Iraq and WMD’, Political Science Quarterly, 129:4 (2014), pp. 551583 ; Mearsheimer, John J., Why Leaders Lie (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011).

73 Cameron, Hazel, Britain’s Hidden Role in the Rwandan Genocide: the Cat’s Paw (Oxon: Routledge, 2013).

74 Philo, Greg and Berry, Mike, Bad News from Israel (London, Sterling Virginia: Pluto Press, 2004); Gutmann, Stephanie, The Other War: Israelis, Palestinians and the Struggle for Media Supremacy (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2005).

75 Bakir, Vian, Herring, Eric, Miller, David, and Robinson, Piers, ‘Organised persuasive communication: a conceptual framework for identifying, situating and challenging propaganda’, Working Paper (2016).

76 Erdal, Marta Bivand and Stokke, Kristian, ‘Contributing to development? Transnational activities among Tamils in Norway’, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 18:3 (2009), pp. 397418 ; Carling, Jørgen, Erdal, Marta Bivand, and Horst, Cindy, ‘How does conflict in migrants’ country of origin affect remittance-sending? Financial priorities and transnational obligations among Somalis and Pakistanis in Norway’, International Migration Review, 46:2 (2012), pp. 283309 ; Martin, Michelle, ‘Ethnonationalist conflict-generated diaspora use of social media in transnational political engagement in homeland conflict: the case of Rwanda’ (PhD thesis, University of Bradford, 2014).

77 Gabrielsen, Maria, ‘Mobilisations pour le Sud-Soudan et le Darfour: Émergence d’un mouvement transnational’ [‘Mobilizations for South Sudan and Darfur: emergence of a transnational movement’], Outre Terre, 3:20 (2008), pp. 391403 .

The authors are ranked alphabetically reflecting equal contributions to this article.

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