To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Taking its cue from Thoreau’s Walden, the Introduction characterizes the book’s subject matter and approach as “environmental philology.” This newly minted method of studying issues related to the natural world springs from the better-established, more familiar labels “environmental philosophy” and “environmental humanities.” By philology is meant simply the methods and materials that comprise the multidisciplinary field of Classics, which is the study of ancient Greek and Roman literature and culture in all its facets.
“Community Rule” considers the reception of Classical ideas about systems and sustainability in Late Antique and early Christian thought with a particular focus on The Rule of St. Benedict. It also probes some of the Rule’s surprising modern legacies, including Scott and Helen Nearing’s homesteading experiments in Vermont and Maine and Pope Francis’s encyclical on climate change and inequality, Laudato Si’.
This chapter traces a history of British Decadent sexualities as elemental, pre-normative attractions and fulfilments, considering how early sexological discourse encouraged conceptions of Decadent sexuality to arise and then likewise feed into more recent, posthumanist notions of eco-sexuality. But recognizing a non-binary Decadence of dissemination, proliferation and contagion requires one to imagine attractions and repulsions that do not merely decentre the human, but operate with a conceptual core that itself is not built in response to human identity, culture or politics in the first place. One possibility lies in Heinrich Kaan’s theory, articulated in his study Psycopathia Sexualis (1844), that a natural excess of imagination fosters realms of ‘chaos’ in plant and animal (including human) sexualities. Early sexological works such as Kaan’s encourage one to understand non-normative sexuality not as one of various deviations characterizing the Decadent movement, in fact not as a deviation at all, but as a natural phenomenon that preceded and gave shape to the cultural paradigms that Victorians and those who followed came to see as Decadent.
Sea ice, which forms in polar and nonpolar areas, transmits light to ice-associated (sympagic) algal communities. To noninvasively study the distribution of sea-ice algae, empirical relations to estimate its biomass from under-ice hyperspectral irradiance have been developed in the Arctic and Antarctica but lack for nonpolar regions. This study examines relationships between normalised difference indices (NDI) calculated from hyperspectral transmittance and sympagic algal biomass in the nonpolar Saroma-ko Lagoon. We analysed physico-biogeochemical properties of snow and land-fast sea ice supporting 27 paired bio-optical measurements along three transects covering an area of over 250 m × 250 m in February 2019. Snow depth (0.08 ± 0.01 m) and ice-bottom brine volume fraction (0.21 ± 0.02) showed low (0.06) and high (0.58) correlations with sea-ice core bottom section chlorophyll a (Chl. a), respectively. Spatial analyses unveiled the patch size of sea-ice Chl. a to be ~65 m, which is in the same range reported from previous studies. A selected NDI (669, 596 nm) explained 63% of algal biomass variability. This reflects the bio-optical properties and environmental conditions of the lagoon that favour the wavelength pair in the orange/red part of the spectrum and suggests the necessity of a specific bio-optical relationship for Saroma-ko Lagoon.
This chapter examines some conceptual problems that arise when we apply new embodied theories of mind in literary analysis. Critics have used affordance theory and models of predictive processing to reflect on narrative and genre, the literary devices and codes that shape our expectations about how a text will unfold. Instead of reinforcing the functionalist assumptions that guide cognitive scientists, including the effort to treat reading literature as just another cognitive task that is directed toward problem solving, this chapter proposes to view it instead as an emotionally engaging or ethically challenging way of reconstructing the ecology in which we think. This approach helps theorists honor the conceptual resources that the 4Es offer by giving more heed to individualized and culturally specific encounters with literary texts. I end by examining a poem that demands that we alter prevailing interpretive practices, thus exposing the way literature reorganizes emotional responses and value schemes.
Following the continual decline of the Cape vulture Gyps coprotheres since the 1960s, captive breeding and rehabilitation programmes have been established to reinforce populations across southern Africa. This study examines the spatial ecology of captive-bred and rehabilitated vultures following release. Our analysis used 253,671 GPS fixes from 20 captive-bred and 13 rehabilitated birds to calculate home range sizes using kernel density estimation. We found that home range size did not differ significantly between captive-bred and rehabilitated birds. The location of home ranges differed: captive-bred birds showed greater site fidelity, remaining close to their release site, whereas rehabilitated birds dispersed more widely across the species' native range. By remaining close to their release site within a protected area, captive-bred birds had a significantly higher per cent of their GPS fixes within protected areas than did rehabilitated birds. Despite fidelity to their release site, captive-bred birds demonstrated innate capabilities for natural foraging behaviours and the same habitat selection strategy as rehabilitated individuals. These findings suggest that captive breeding and reinforcement of populations at declining colonies could provide localized benefits. Future long-term studies should seek to analyse survivorship and identify the breeding behaviour of these captive-bred birds once they reach sexual maturity.
The shape (derived from landmark-based geometric morphometrics), condition (Fulton index) and diet (determined through gut content analysis) were described for the pike icefish Champsocephalus esox (Channichthyidae) from Última Esperanza sound, south-west Patagonia, Chile. Based on the length-weight relationship, females were heavier at length than males. Nevertheless, the Fulton index was similar between males and females. The morphospace of C. esox showed high intraspecific variability in the dorsoventral position of the tip of the snout, anus and the ventral insertion of the pectoral fin, as well as the anteroposterior position of the premaxilla, opercle and anus. This indicates the existence of phenotypic plasticity, leading to specimens with larger jaws and heads but shorter trunks, or specimens with shorter jaws and heads but larger trunks. This phenotypic plasticity was independent of size and sex. The feeding incidence was similar between sexes (34.1% and 47.2% for males and females, respectively). Diets consisted of only fish, small notothenioids of the genus Patagonotothen (P. tessellata, P. cornucola and P. sima), showing similarities between males and females. Finally, C. esox is the second notothenioid species, and the first outside of Antarctica, to display phenotypic plasticity in its body shape.
Drawing on a posthuman lens we walk — with Deborah Bird Rose and her conceptual framing of shimmer. We explore shimmering as incorporating a sensorial richness, as beauty and grandeur, as constantly in flux, moving between past, future and back again. Shimmering has potentiality in a posthuman context in its encompassing of spiritual and ancestral energies and illumination of the human (settler) story of exceptionalism. By theorising shimmer with this posthuman lens, we acknowledge and honour the eco-ethico consciousness raised by Australian ecophilosophers and ecofeminists such as Deborah Bird Rose and Val Plumwood, and the social ecologists who have continued to walk with them. In order to disrupt anthropocentricism and present a moral wake-up call that glows from dull to brilliance in these precarious times, we bring to environmental education the potential of holding the shimmering past tracings of theory along with us on our journeys.
The size of home ranges of common kestrels can vary dramatically among individuals. Within the home range, each individual kestrel defends from intruders a small area around the nest that is referred to as territory. Home ranges are dynamic because their size varies across the year. Also, kestrels do not use all habitat types within their home range homogeneously, but show preferences for certain habitats. The first GPS-tracking study reported in this chapter supports early findings, but opens new avenues to improve data collection on habitat use and home-range size estimate. Finally, this chapter shows that the urban environment might not be a particularly suitable home range for kestrels, because the available evidence suggests that urban kestrels have a poorer reproductive performance than rural kestrels.
Research regarding quality of life among older people has predominantly focused on functional elements experienced at individual or dyadic level despite the complex interplay of factors that contribute to quality of life. Perspectives which explore interdependencies within communities and the intersecting environments in which older people exercise agency have seen less study. They do, however, play an important role in influencing quality of life as experienced by older people across community settings. Qualitative data from a co-produced study of dimensions influencing quality of life in older people was subjected to secondary analysis using a critical human ecological approach. Findings demonstrate the importance of community interdependencies in supporting individual quality of life, the expression of active agency to foster quality of life within and across communities, and the importance of state infrastructures and service provision within these interdependencies. This article argues for a movement beyond functional conceptualisations of quality of life towards the inclusion of perspectives regarding communal wellbeing, alongside the role differing types of community play in influencing quality of life. Through developing conceptions of quality of life in social relations and community cohesion, in particular how quality of life is influenced by perceptions of solidarity and social justice including across generations, assessing quality of life at community level will assist in driving cultural change in policy making and practice.
This chapter reviews the core issues raised in the book, and suggests points for further research. Silvio Waisbord discusses how media scholarship might best engage publics and how it might best intervene in shaping media and public life. Given the scope and scale of current change in the communication landscape, Waisbord calls on media scholars to revisit the analytical scaffolding and normative arguments that form the basis of the field. He calls on scholars to acknowledge and work to better understand the reality of fragmented media ecologies, heterogeneous forms of public engagement, and fractured public knowledge.
In Antarctica, amphipods form a highly diverse group, occupy many different ecological niches and hold an important place in food webs. Here, we aimed to test whether differences in Antarctic amphipod feeding habits were reflected in their mandible morphology, and if mouthpart specialization could be used to describe amphipod trophic ecology. To do so, we compared mandible morphology in nine species spanning seven families and five functional groups (grazers, suspension feeders, generalist predators, specialist predators and scavengers). Mandible morphology adequately depicted some aspects of amphipod trophic ecology, such as the trophic level at which animals feed or their degree of dietary specialization. On the other hand, links between mandible morphology and amphipod diet were seldom unambiguous or straightforward. Similar adaptations were found in distinct functional groups. Conversely, mandible morphology could vary within a single functional group, and phylogenetic effects sometimes complicated the interpretation of form-function relationships. Overall, mandible morphology on its own was generally not sufficient to precisely predict amphipod feeding strategies. However, when combined with other methods (e.g. gut contents, trophic markers), it constitutes a valuable source of information for integrative studies of amphipod ecological diversity in the Southern Ocean.
This introductory chapter sketches the key research questions: How do changing social-ecological relations and an increasing impact of non-local actors impact the savannah landscape of north-western Namibia? The chapter links the contents of the book with three paradigms: new materialism, environmental history, and political ecology. The chapter also introduces the lead-concept environmental infrastructure and discusses its merits for the study of landscape transformations. The introductory chapter also discusses twenty years of research on north-western Namibia and Himba and Herero pastoralists.
Genetic and linguistic evidence suggests that, after living in the Subarctic for thousands of years, Northern Athabascans began migrating to the American Southwest around 1,000 years ago. Anthropologists have proposed that this partial out-migration and several associated in situ behavioral changes were the result of a massive volcanic eruption that decimated regional caribou herds. However, regional populations appear to increase around the time of these changes, a demographic shift that may have led to increased territoriality, resource stress, and specialization. Building on existing syntheses of cultural dynamics in the region, analyses of excavated materials, and landscape data from Alaska and Yukon, this research shows that the Athabascan transition represented a gradual shift toward resource specialization in both salmon and caribou with an overall increase in diet breadth, indicating a behavioral transition that is more consistent with gradual demographic change. Further, this behavioral shift was already in motion at the time of the volcanic eruption circa 1150 cal BP and suggests that the ultimate migration from the area was the result of demographic pressures. In sum, this research elaborates on the complex dynamics of resilience and adaptation in hunter-gatherer groups and provides a testable model for explaining past migrations.
Understorey wildfires harm tropical forests by affecting natural regeneration, but the trajectories of fire-disturbed forests after disturbance are poorly understood. To fill this gap, we conducted experimental burns in a transitional forest between the Amazon forests and the Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado) and investigated their effects on plant community diversity of regeneration. The experiment consisted of three 50-ha plots that between 2004 and 2010 were burned either annually (six times), every three years (thrice) or not at all (Control). To evaluate early post-fire recovery, we recorded grass occurrence and regenerating stems (≤1 cm in diameter at breast height). We noted that high fire-frequency plots had a reduction of species richness (62%) and abundance (84%) and were associated with floristic and structural changes, dominance of few species and increase of grass colonization when compared with low fire-frequency. We observed that resprouts were the main pathway for forest restoration in both burned regimes, particularly in low fire-frequency. However, the forest can recover from fires by means of resprouting, until a threshold in fire frequency is reached, when resprouts and seedlings declined for most of the species, with a few fire-tolerant species becoming dominant.
This chapter introduces the statistical methods commonly applied by ecologists working with community data, by giving a general overview of the available tools. In this way, the chapter places joint species distribution models in general – and Hierarchical Modelling of Species Communities (HMSC) in particular – in the broader context of statistical community ecology. The chapter first introduces the wide variety of ordination methods and the substantial contributions they have made to empirical research in community ecology. The chapter next discusses the approaches of co-occurrence analysis and generalised linear models applied to diversity metrics. The chapter concludes by introducing species distribution modelling, highlighting the differences between single-species and joint species distribution models. Although the statistical methods are explained only verbally in this chapter, they are further discussed elsewhere in the book – namely, Chapters 4–8 give the statistical details on single-species and joint species distribution models, and Chapter 11 illustrates ordinations, co-occurrence analysis and joint species distribution models by applying them to a real data example.
This chapter gives a brief overview of the history of community ecology, starting from the early 20th century debates on how communities should be defined and continuing until the modern conceptual frameworks. The chapter covers the criticism of community ecology, the views and theories that mainstreamed its avenue and the current unifying theoretical frameworks. The chapter discusses how the scale dependency of community processes is one of the main sources of criticism and disagreement among community ecologists. We introduce the early contrasting views and theories, such as the organismic versus individualistic continuum concepts of communities and the niche versus neutral theories. We further discuss the current unifying theoretical frameworks, such as the metacommunity framework, the assembly rules framework and Vellend’s Theory of Ecological Communities. Most importantly, the chapter introduces the concepts and ideas that underlie the ecological assumptions behind species distribution models in general, and Hierarchical Modelling of Species Communities (HMSC) in particular.
This chapter offers an overview of the conceptual framework of queer ecology – which interrogates the relationship between the categories of “queerness” and “nature.” In the first section, Seymour traces this framework’s history and deployment by academics, artists, and activists, and also attends to its oversights. She argues that queer ecology has made foundational, though sometimes underrecognized, contributions to the larger nonhuman turn in the humanities. The second section turns to primary sources, using queer ecology and the related framework of trans ecology to read two works of contemporary US literature, Edward Abbey’s novel The Monkey Wrench Gang (1975) and Oliver Baez Bendorf’s poetry collection The Spectral Wilderness (2015). Seymour shows how Abbey’s novel tries, unsuccessfully, to oppose the transformativity of nature to the transformativity of sex and gender; meanwhile, Bendorf’s poetry offers an alternative to this line of thought by drawing innovative parallels between the category of the vegetal and the transgender human body.
Knowledge of bio-physicochemical variables is essential to better understand the functioning of tropical marine ecosystems, which are rich in biodiversity and provide nutrition and livelihoods to billions of people in the developing countries. This study analysed the spatial and temporal variability of phytoplankton and zooplankton with chlorophyll, primary productivity, temperature, salinity, oxygen and nutrients in the Bay of Bengal (BoB), collecting data from the World Ocean, and COPEPOD and Aqua MODIS records. The results indicated a strong gradient in bio-physicochemical conditions of the BoB, from the coast to the open sea. Specifically, the spatial variability in chlorophyll was negatively correlated (R2 = 0.59) with temperature and zooplankton, while a positive correlation (R2 = 0.70) was noted between chlorophyll and silicate, nitrate, phosphate, dissolved oxygen and salinity. All the variables exhibited a strong vertical gradient at depths up to 500 m. Temperature, nutrients, zooplankton and to a lesser extent salinity and rainfall had an influence on the annual abundance of phytoplankton. Over the long term, a significant positive trend in temperature and a significant negative trend in primary productivity were observed in the BoB. The findings of this study will be useful to draw insights on the state of fisheries habitats and the overall environmental conditions of the BoB in response to future climate changes.
The chief place Norwegian ecologists would meet, train their students, and explore the environment was The High Mountain Ecology Research Station, established at Finse in 1965 and located in one of the most beautiful mountain regions of Norway. When finished in 1972 it was, perhaps, the largest and most expensive ecological research station in Europe. The formative years of ecological research in Norway took place at Finse and were supported by ecologists such as Arne Semb-Johansson, Eilif Dahl, Rolf Vik, Eivind Østbye, and the International Biological Program. The picturesque Research Station at Finse was idyllic in comparison to the ecological destruction described in a growing body of environmental literature. Propelled by the publication of Rachel Carson’s warning against pesticides in Silent Spring (1962), the ecologists at Finse became powerful lobbyists in favor of large-scale national parks in the nation’s periphery. They sought an “eco-politics” founded on science, as our common future depended on the development of a “steady-state” social economy that would mirror the steady-state balance of the zero-growth economy of nature at Finse.