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This chapter considers rules applicable in the UK to shareholders exercising power in their own interests, rather than the interests of the company, and asks whether these create any problems for private equity investors, in theory and in practice. It also looks at other ways in which shareholders and directors can be held liable for the actions of their companies, including Bribery Act rules, health and safety laws, competition law rules and tortious liability.
This chapter reviews the use of chess in business, health, and education. In business, chess has been used with educational purposes, and as a model to evaluate game-theory aspects of the game. In health, there are applications of chess to address problems such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), neurodegenerative disorders, or schizophrenia. In education, chess has become widely used as a pedagogical method thought to entail education al benefits for languages, mathematics, concentration, self-control, or the development of socio-affective competences. Some recent studies suggest significant higher levels of academic performance for schoolchildren and adolescents into chess-based teaching or who practice chess on a regular basis, when compared with students uninvolved in chess playing or chess instruction. Another set of studies, however, question the purported benefits of chess training for formal education. According with this latter point of view, there are both conceptual and methodological concerns that hinder in a great extent the available evidence about the association of chess training with academic achievement. Two of these issues relate with the transfer of abilities across domains, and with the concept of statistical power, which are addressed in greater depth within this chapter.
Inefficient health service utilisation puts pressure on health systems and may cause such negative individual consequences as over-medicalisation or exacerbation of health problems. While previous research has considered the key relevance of health literacy (HL) for efficient use of health services, the results of that research have been somewhat inconclusive. Possible reasons for diverging results of prior research may be grounded in different measurement concepts of HL and the disregarding of age-specific effects. This paper analyses the association between individuals’ HL typology based on a two-dimensional concept and indicators of health service utilisation measured by registered data covering the number of doctor visits and medication costs. Our results confirm a significant interaction effect between age and HL typology. The age-related increase in health service utilisation is strongest for individuals with the combination of high subjective HL but low health-related knowledge, while the smallest increase is for individuals with the constellation of high subjective HL combined with high health-related knowledge. Individuals with specific constellations of HL (that is, individuals with high subjective HL but low health-related knowledge) are associated with reduced service utilisation in younger ages but higher service utilisation in later stages of life, compared to other groups. These results are likely to be attributed to a higher external health-related locus of control and more traditional paternalistic role expectations in such groups.
The coronavirus disease pandemic was initiated in Wuhan province of mainland China in December 2019 and has spread over the world.
This study analyses the effects of COVID 19 based on Likely Positive Cases and fatality in India during and after the lockdown period from 24 March 2020 to 24 May 2020.
Python has been used as the main programming language for data analysis and forecasting using the Prophet Model, a time series analysis model. The dataset has been preprocessed by grouping together the days for total numbers of cases and deaths on few selected dates and removed missing values present in some states.
The Prophet model performs better in terms of precision on the real data. Prediction depicts that during the lockdown, the total cases were rising but in a controlled manner with an accuracy of 87%. After the relaxation of lockdown rules, the predictions have shown an obstreperous situation with an accuracy of 60%.
The resilience could have been better if the lockdown with strict norms was continued without much relaxation. The situation after lockdown has been found to be uncertain as observed by the experimental study conducted in this work.
Because of the economic power of incumbent firms and the political power of multiple veto players, changes to the developmental state were usually incremental. This contributed to the protagonism of the civil service as a change agent. Drawing on three case studies, the chapter illustrates how epistemic communities within the bureaucracy guided a variety of innovations across unconnected policy arenas: fiscal, health, and anti-corruption. Although policy innovation by the bureaucracy was incremental, slow, and often restricted to particular “islands of excellence” within the archipelago of state agencies, it was nonetheless essential to the most important accomplishments of the past generation. Civil service incrementalism, however, may have made change away from the overarching systemic equilibrium of the developmental state less likely, by exacerbating the fiscal quandary, sustaining the coalitional presidential system, and suppressing demands for more radical reform.
In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, modern states began to provide many of the public services we now take for granted. Inward Conquest presents the first comprehensive analysis of the political origins of modern public services during this period. Ansell and Lindvall show how struggles among political parties and religious groups shaped the structure of diverse yet crucially important public services, including policing, schooling, and public health. Liberals, Catholics, conservatives, socialists, and fascists all fought bitterly over both the provision and political control of public services, with profound consequences for contemporary political developments. Integrating data on the historical development of public order, education, and public health with novel measures on the ideological orientation of governments, the authors provide a wealth of new evidence on a missing link in the history of the modern state.
Governments should provide value for money from public spending. They do so when they perform well on core tasks and ensure efficiency by spending wisely. Core tasks on which we measure performance and efficiency include the quality of public administration, education, health and infrastructure, as well as economic stability, prosperity and income distribution. The picture for performance and efficiency is very mixed across countries. The three ‘small’ governments of Switzerland, Australia and Ireland perform best overall, with a 50% higher score than the worst performers. Efficiency differences are even greater. ‘Small’ governments as a group tend to do best as regards public administration, the economy and overall. ‘Medium’-sized governments perform least well on the whole but show a wide divergence: some of them are very efficient in providing education, health and infrastructure. ‘Big’ government countries show more equal income distribution but at the ‘price’ of higher taxes and unemployment. Needless to say, this analysis is illustrative and needs to be taken with a grain of salt.
Comorbid physical conditions may be more common in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than other people.
To identify what is and what is not known about comorbid physical conditions in people with ASD.
We undertook an umbrella systematic review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses on comorbid physical conditions in people with ASD. Five databases were searched. There were strict inclusion/exclusion criteria. We undertook double reviewing for eligibility, systematic data extraction and quality assessment. Prospective PROSPERO registration: CRD42015020896.
In total, 24 of 5552 retrieved articles were included, 15 on children, 1 on adults, and 8 both on children and adults. Although the quality of included reviews was good, most reported several limitations in the studies they included and considerable heterogeneity. Comorbid physical conditions are common, and some are more prevalent than in the general population: sleep problems, epilepsy, sensory impairments, atopy, autoimmune disorders and obesity. Asthma is not. However, there are substantial gaps in the evidence base. Fewer studies have been undertaken on other conditions and some findings are inconsistent.
Comorbid physical conditions occur more commonly in people with ASD, but the evidence base is slim and more research is needed. Some comorbidities compound care if clinicians are unaware, for example sensory impairments, given the communication needs of people with ASD. Others, such as obesity, can lead to an array of other conditions, disadvantages and early mortality. It is essential that potentially modifiable physical conditions are identified to ensure people with ASD achieve their best outcomes. Heightening clinicians’ awareness is important to aid in assessments and differential diagnoses, and to improve healthcare.
Adolescent diet, physical activity and nutritional status are generally known to be sub-optimal. This is an introduction to a special issue of papers devoted to exploring factors affecting diet and physical activity in adolescents, including food insecure and vulnerable groups.
Eight settings including urban, peri-urban and rural across sites from five different low- and middle-income countries.
Focus groups with adolescents and caregivers carried out by trained researchers.
Our results show that adolescents, even in poor settings, know about healthy diet and lifestyles. They want to have energy, feel happy, look good and live longer, but their desire for autonomy, a need to ‘belong’ in their peer group, plus vulnerability to marketing exploiting their aspirations, leads them to make unhealthy choices. They describe significant gender, culture and context-specific barriers. For example, urban adolescents had easy access to energy dense, unhealthy foods bought outside the home, whereas junk foods were only beginning to permeate rural sites. Among adolescents in Indian sites, pressure to excel in exams meant that academic studies were squeezing out physical activity time.
Interventions to improve adolescents’ diets and physical activity levels must therefore address structural and environmental issues and influences in their homes and schools, since it is clear that their food and activity choices are the product of an interacting complex of factors. In the next phase of work, the Transforming Adolescent Lives through Nutrition consortium will employ groups of adolescents, caregivers and local stakeholders in each site to develop interventions to improve adolescent nutritional status.
We assessed the relation between social pension benefits and health among poor older individuals in Colombia based on a qualitative case study (N = 51) using in-depth semi-structured interviews. Participants were beneficiaries of the Colombia Mayor social pension programme, recruited through snowball sampling in one rural and one urban area. Participants reported using cash benefits mainly for purchasing essential foods and medicines, as well as for paying for household utilities and satisfying personal needs. Beneficiaries of the programme view the latter as being positively associated with their health as it not only satisfies material needs but also increases their sense of autonomy, emotional wellbeing and also promotes a positive and cheerful attitude. Despite most beneficiaries perceiving the programme as positively associated with their health and wellbeing, results also highlight the importance of the various individual- as well as contextual-level factors in determining the relation between social pensions and health.
Retirement timing can have important health implications. Little is known, however, about older adults’ views on this issue and whether they consider it better to retire later, earlier, on time or anytime. This knowledge gap about older adults’ views is particularly true outside North America and Europe. This qualitative study aims to examine older Chileans’ ideas about the relationship between retirement timing and health and to explore gender and class patterns in qualitative themes identified, knowledge which may strengthen quantitative population-based approaches. Framework analysis was conducted on qualitative accounts from a purposive, non-random sample of 40 older Chileans in six focus groups, stratified by gender and class as marked by lifetime occupation. Transcriptions were coded by two independent reviewers (inter-coder reliability = 81%) according to four deductive categories of retirement timing as well as inductive coding of emergent themes. The content and sequence of codes were visually represented in MAXQDA's document portraits and illustrated with descriptive quotes. Results indicate that participants’ views about when to retire in order to maximise health did not highlight retirement age or timing (later, earlier, on time, anytime). Instead, these older Chileans emphasised that the optimal retirement age depends on other conditions, such as employment quality, retirement income and gender. These views were patterned: lower occupational-class participants emphasised income and job hazards, higher-class males emphasised job satisfaction and higher-class females emphasised gendered patterns. Women and lower-class participants were relatively more favourable to earlier retirements than men and higher-class participants. Overall, qualitative analyses of lay perspectives from understudied country contexts complement and extend population-based models focused on timing or retirement age, suggest specific characteristics of retirement transitions that may moderate health consequences, and highlight class and gender differences in views of retirement timing. More research is needed using mixed-methods approaches and leveraging both purposive and random samples.
Many books that aspire to go beyond descriptions of motivational processes to address the question of how to motivate self and others adopt a tactical approach that is overly mechanical and often limited to a narrow range of change pathways and targets of intervention. To avoid these pitfalls, this chapter focuses on broad principles for enhancing optimal human functioning rather than offering simplistic “prescriptions” for motivating self and others. In doing so, we also explain why the uniqueness of individual motivational patterns – psychologically, developmentally, and contextually – makes it impossible to offer formulaic advice for motivating self and others. To engage the reader’s interest, we use a novel Q&A format after the initial presentation of overarching principles to illustrate how a “principled” approach to motivating self and others can be used to diagnosis motivational problems, identify multiple targets of intervention, and envision a variety of pathways to more optimal functioning.
A growing number of older men are living alone. They are often referred to as an at-risk group in health-care systems. The purpose of this article is to establish an overview of these men's health and health-care utilisation. We do so by drawing on three sources: an online survey with health-care professionals, data from a national self-report health study and register-based data on health-care utilisation. The results show that older men living alone generally have lower health scores than older men co-habiting and that, among older men living alone, lower educational level is associated with lower health scores but also a greater use of free-of-charge health-care services. Health-care professionals conducting preventive home visits consider older men's social needs the most pronounced problem for the men's wellbeing and call for new services to be custom made for them. In this article, we discuss differences between older men living in rural and urban areas and between those who are single, divorced or widowed. We conclude that health and social care systems must differentiate between sub-groups of older men living alone when developing new services and that free-of-charge services, such as general practitioners and home care, should be considered as vehicles for addressing health inequities.
To explore perceptions of how context shapes adolescent diet and physical activity in eight low- and middle-income (LMIC) sites at different stages of societal and economic transition.
Novel qualitative secondary analysis of eight data sets generated as part of the international Transforming Adolescent Lives through Nutrition (TALENT) collaboration.
Diverse sites in India and Sub-Saharan Africa.
Fifty-two focus group discussions with 491 participants (303 adolescents aged 10–17 years; 188 caregivers).
Analysis of pooled qualitative data identified three themes: (1) transitions in generational nutrition education and knowledge; (2) transition in caregiver–adolescent power balance and (3) the implications of societal and economic transition for diet and physical activity. Adolescents in urban and peri-urban areas could readily access ‘junk’ food. Diets in rural settings were determined by tradition, seasonality and affordability. Physical activity was inhibited by site-specific factors including lack of space and crime in urban settings, and the prioritisation of academic performance. Gender influenced physical activity across all sites, with girls afforded fewer opportunities.
Interventions to improve adolescent diet and physical activity in LMIC need to be complex, context-specific and responsive to transitions at the individual, economic and societal levels. Moreover, solutions need to acknowledge gender inequalities in different contexts, as well as structural and cultural influences on diet and physical activity in resource-limited settings. Programmes need to be effective in engaging and reconciling adolescents’ and caregivers’ perspectives. Consequently, there is a need for action at both the community-household level and also through policy.
To investigate dietary health understandings, healthy foods access perceptions and the main sources of nutritional knowledge of residents in three urban communities of varying socio-economic make-up.
An ethnographic approach to primary qualitative data collection, involving frequent visits to study areas over 4 months and in-depth interviews. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed through an iterative approach.
A purposive sample of 45 participants divided equally among the 3 communities. Participants were mostly female (93 %), aged between 27 and 75 years (mean 47·7) and largely identified as the person responsible for household food-related decisions (93 %).
Three overarching themes emerged: (i) dietary health understandings; (ii) healthy foods access perceptions and (iii) sources of nutritional knowledge. Participants employed multifaceted conceptualisation of dietary health. Most identified healthy foods with traditional plant-based foods, inexpensive and locally available from multiple sources. Thus, all participants perceived healthy foods as highly available in the local environment and most (80 %) as affordable. Reported affordability issues referred to specific foods (particularly animal source products) and were independent of income levels. Participants acquired nutritional knowledge from multiple sources, including many community-based initiatives. These were overall perceived as useful, but also as presenting some limitations.
The variety in dietary health understandings reported by study participants, and their high perceptions of healthy foods availability in the local environment reinforce the idea that individual- and food environment-level determinants of nutritional behaviours are highly contextual.
The aim of the present study was to describe Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence within a population of adolescents and to analyse the association of multiple factors with adherence. This included a consideration of diverse physical and mental health indicators. The present study was conducted with a representative sample of 761 adolescents (14·51 (sd 1·63) years) from twenty-five educational centres in a northern region of Spain. MD adherence was evaluated, alongside their health-related quality of life, self-esteem, body image satisfaction, BMI, physical activity (PA) level, maximum oxygen consumption, hours of nightly sleep, socio-demographic factors and academic performance. Of the adolescent population, 49 % reported high MD adherence. Being female and having higher levels of PA were found to be predictive factors of adherence to the MD. In addition, maximum oxygen consumption, the presence of environments favourable towards PA engagement and higher self-esteem were also predictive in females, whilst better academic performance and more nightly sleep were additional predictors in males. The associations found between the MD and other health indicators and habits highlight the need to develop promotion strategies from an inter-disciplinary and transversal standpoint.
Smartphones and associated wearable devices have gained a greater prominence directly within health psychology. Not only can such devices track health and answer a variety of research questions in relation to physical and mental health, but real-time feedback can also be augmented to support subsequent behaviour change interventions. There are literally 1000s of smartphone health apps that aim to change behaviour. Hence, health psychologists have been heavily involved with the design and testing of interventions (Ellis and Piwek, 2018). In addition, there are increasing numbers of interdisciplinary groups who focus on such interventions. However, while the research landscape is now littered with many well-publicised successes and failures, very little is known when it comes to understanding why such results are occurring even for users who engage with a long-term smartphone/wearable intervention. Despite having plenty of scope for development, progress has stalled because existing adaptations continue to be poorly designed from both a theoretical and patient perspective.
With these issues in mind, this chapter points towards where psychological research is using smartphone sensing methods that can quantify health related behaviours on a larger scale. It also considers how psychology can make a key contribution in the future. For example, while the process of behaviour change remains complex, additional research is urgently needed to understand how individuals, devices, and related technologies can be designed and implemented if interventions are to become widespread across healthcare systems in the future (Piwek et al., 2016; Ellis and Piwek, 2018)
Monastic culture often represents children as problems, as barriers to the ascetic endeavor. We might be tempted to conclude that early Egyptian monks had no “family values” – that they were anti-family. Yet the literature of family (and child) renunciation exists alongside numerous literary accounts of monks healing sick children. This chapter argues that such accounts constitute a thread in Egyptian monasticism that construed children as symbolizing the future, as representatives of familial and cultural legacies. Early Egyptian monasticism shared this understanding of children and family with the larger Roman world. Monasteries, in their care for sick or demonically possessed children, acted as agents in the support and continuation of traditional families as well as the health of children. Thus, monasteries – communities of celibate ascetics – guaranteed the regeneration of Christian families.
Service integration is a global trend aiming to create partnerships, cost-effectiveness and joined-up working across public and third sector services to support an ageing population. However, social policy research suggests that the policy making process behind integration and implementation is complex, contradictory and full of tension. This paper explores social policy integration at the ground-level of services in the health and housing sector within a new integrated model for housing for older people. The paper applies a critical Lipskian approach to show that housing can promote integration for both users and wider stakeholders. Front-line workers were central to service integration, often working to integration principles despite policy changes and uncertainty. Challenges of social policy integration include the gaps between policy and practice and the developing nature of interaction at the ground-level – most notably, the role of technology. Technology and digital health platforms could enhance service user and practitioner interactions at the ground-level. The paper calls for renewed focus on policy processes in relation to service integration and consideration of new forms of service user, practitioner and policy maker interaction.
To explain the occurrence of this form of high-risk collective action, this chapter shows that shipboard grievances were the principal cause of mutiny. However, not all grievances are equal in this respect. We distinguish between structural grievances that flow from incumbency in a subordinate social position and incidental grievances that incumbents have no expectation of suffering. Based on a case-control analysis of incidents of mutiny compared with controls drawn from a unique database of Royal Navy voyages from 1740 to 1820, in addition to a wealth of qualitative evidence, we find that mutiny was most likely to occur when structural grievances were combined with incidental ones.